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Algebra: Diophantus, said to be the inventor, Fresh revolts, 1849; subdued...

1850 wrote upon it probably between the third and fifth cen

An insurrection of the Kabyles subdued by the French, after several sharp engagements.

1851 turies. It was cultivated in the ninth century by the Another insurrection suppressed. ..

1857 Arabs, who brought it into Spain; and in Italy by Leo- The government intrusted (for a short time) to prince nardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. In 1494 Luca Paciolo

Napoleon ......

1858

The Arab tribes attack the French; defeated, published the first printed book on Algebra in Europe.

31 Oct, and 6 Nov. 1859 Serret. Some of the algebraic signs were introduced Algiers visited by Napoleon III..

..Sept. 1860 either by Christophe Rudolph (1522-6) or Michael Marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhoff, appointed governor.

.Nov. Stifelius of Nuremberg, 1544, and others by Francis The emperor promises a constitution securing the rights Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into general use. of the Arabs, saying, "I am as much emperor of the Moréri. Jerome Cardan published his “ Ars Magna," Arabs as of the French."

.....Feb, 1863 containing his rule, 1545. Thos. Harriot's important Death of marshal Pelissier, 22 May;

M•Mahon, duke of

Insurrection of the Arabs, May; submission. .June, 1864 discoveries appeared in his “ Artis Analyticæ Praxis," Magenta, succeeds him... 1631. Descartes applied algebra to geometry about Fresh revolts; insurgents defeated by Jolivet..... 2 Oct. 1637. The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of The emperor well received during his visit..3 May-June, 1865 the doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. The emperor publishes his letter on the

policy of France

More rights and privileges promised to the natives..July, Dean Peacock's “ Algebra" is a first-class work.

in Algeria (20 July)......

..Nov. 4000 Arabs defeated by col. Sounis.

.2 Feb. 1869 Algeria, see Algiers.

Algeria proclaimed in a state of siege.

15 Aug. 1870 Algesiras, or OLD GIBRALTAR (S. Spain). Here State of siego raised...

.24 June, 1871 the Moors entered Spain in 711, and held it till taken Gen. Chanzy accused of governing despotically;

his res

ignation not accepted by marshal M Mahon, July; reby Alfonso XI., March, 1344.—Two engagements took placed by Albert Grévy...

1878 place here between the English fleet under sir James An insurrection soon quelled..

...June, 1879 Saumarez and the United French and Spanish fleets, 6 Dispute with Tunis; outrages of the savage tribes, Krou and 12 July, 1801. In the first the enemy was victori- Arab insurrection, headed by Bou Ameema, June; he is

.. April, 1881 ous; but the British honor was redeemed in the latter said to be defeated, and a fugitive.....

.13 July, conflict, the San Antonio, 74 guns, being captured. Two Spanish ships fired on each other by mistake, and took Granada, S. Spain, founded by Mohammed I. of Granada

Alhambra, a Moorish palace and fortress near fire; of 2000 men on board, 250 were saved by the Eng, about 1253. It was surrendered to the Christians about lish.-Alison.

Nov. 1491. The remains have been described in a nagAlgiers, now ALGERIA, N. W. Africa; part of the nificent work by Owen Jones and Jules Goury, publishancient Mauritania, which was conquered by the Ro- ed 1842-5. Washington Irving made the palace and its mans, 46 B.C.; by the Vandals, A.D. 439 ; recovered for the surroundings the subject of an exquisitely graceful and empire by Belisarius, 534; and subdued by the Arabs pleasing work, entitled The Alhambra, published 1832. about 690. Population of Algeria in 1866, 2,921,146; A fac-simile of a part of this palace in the Crystal Palace 1872, 2,146,225; 1875, 2,448,691.

at Sydenham was destroyed by the fire, 30 Dec. 1866.The town Algiers founded by the Arabs near the site of

The Panopticon (which see) was opened as a circus, etc., Icosium

. about 935 under the name of Alhambra, in March, 1858. The AlBecoming the seat of the Barbary pirates, captured by hambra Palace Company, incorporated in July, 1863, ap

Ferdinand of Spain, 1509; retaken by Horuc and Hay. dreddin Barbarossa, and made the capital of a state;

plied for dissolution in Jan. 1865. governed by a dey, nominally subject to Turkey..... 1516-20 Ali, SECT OF (Shiites, or Fatimites). Ali married The emperor Charles V. loses à fine fleet and army in an

Mahomet's daughter Fatima, about 632, and became expedition against Algiers..

1541 Algiers terrified into pacific measures by Blake, 1656; by

vizier, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was called by the Du Quesne..

.1683–4 prophet "the lion of God, always victorious;" and the For continued piracy, the city successfully bombarded by

Persians follow the interpretation of the Koran accordthe British fleet, under lord Exmouth 27 Aug. 1816 A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery was abol.

ing to Ali, while other Mahometans adhere to that of ished

Abubeker and Omar. Ali was assassinated 23 Jan. 661.f Algiers surrendered to a French armament under Bourmont and Duperré, after severe conflicts; the dey de

Alien and Sedition Laws. In 1798, when posed, and the barbarian government wholly over- war between France and the United States was threatthrown...

....5 July, 1830 ened, there were in the United States, by estimate, The Arab chief Abd-el-Kader preaches a holy war, be

30,000 Frenchmen organized in clubs, and 50,000 symcomes powerful, and attacks the French, at first successfully..

1833 pathizers with France, who had been British subjects. He is recognized as emir of Mascara by treaty with the In apprehension of danger from these men, Congress French

1834 The French ministry announce their intention to retain

passed an act June 25 authorizing the president to banAlgiers permanently..

...20 May,

ish alien enemies at his discretion during the ensuing War renewed.

.1835-6 two years. Another act authorizing the president to The French take Mascara..

.5 Dec. 1835 | apprehend and remove alien enemies was passed 6 July. Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two battles, and en

These alien laws were never actively enforced. Ou 14 ters Mascara

..8 Dec. 1836 Gen. Damremont killed in taking Constantina....13 Oct. 1837 July, 1798, the sedition act became a law. This statute Abd-el - Kader, thoroughly defeated, recognizes the defined sedition and affixed severe penalties to offences French supremacy.

.30 May, War renewed; French defeated..

of that nature. These alien and sedition laws were very

.Dec. 1839 Algeria annexed to France, and the emir declared a unpopular, and the fall of the Federal party from power rebel ..

..Feb. 1842 was due in part to the ill-feeling aroused by them. He is defeated by Bugoaud at Isly..

..14 Aug. 1844 500 Arabs in a cave at Karthani refuse to surrender; suflo- Aliens, or FOREIGNERS, were banished in 1155, be

cated by smoke; said to have been ordered by gen. ing thought too numerous. In 1343 they were excluded Pelissier.

18 June, 1845 from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices. By 2 Rich. II. After a long struggle Abd-el-Kader surrenders to La moricière....

.... 23 Dec. 1847* st. 1, 1378, they were much relieved. When they were

to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half foreign* He, with his suite, embarked at Oran, and landed at Touers, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from lon on 28 Dec. following. He was removed to the castle of Amboise, near Tours, 2 Nov. 1848, and released from his con- French, and Sardinian sovereigns. He visited Paris and Lon. finement by Louis Napoleon, 16 Oct. 1852, after swearing on don in Aug. 1865. He offered to serve in the French army in the Koran never to disturb Africa again. He was to reside July, 1870. henceforward at Broussa, in Asia Minor; but in consequence The first four successors of Mahomet-Abubeker, Omar, of the earthquake at that place, 28 Feb. 1855, he removed to Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in establishing his religion Constantinople. In July, 1860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on tbt account he of Damascus, and there protected many of the Christians styled tho cutting swords of God”-all died violent deaths; whom he had rescued from the massacres then in perpetra- and his family was wholly extirpated within thirty years after tion by the Turks. He received honors from the English, I his own decease.

exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483, a pro

of muriatic acid gas” (or lydrochloric acid) was passed, 28 hibition which was relaxed in 1663.

July, 1863. It came into operation 1 Jan. 1864, proved suc

cessful, was re-enacted 1868, and amended 1874; see Chem. Alien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign persons)

ical Worles. suppressed in England, 1414.

Alkmaer, see Bergen.
The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.
Act to register aliens, 1795.

Allahabad (N.W. Hindostan), the “holy city" of Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, or the Indian Mahometans, situated at the junction of the

dered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalization by the holding of stock in the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabanks of Scotland, June, 1820.

bad was successively subject to the sovereigns of Delhi New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was re- and Oude, but in 1801 was partially and in 1803 wholly

pealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836. The rigor of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed in incorporated with the British possessions. By treaty 1844 and 1847.

here, Bengal, etc., was ceded to the English in 1765."Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, During the Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments

fished our seas, and built our bridges and harbors.”_ Smiles, 1861.

rose and massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857; col. Neil Their status defined by the Naturalization Act, passed 12 May, marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the in1870.

surrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city By act of Congress passed 1798, alien enemies might be the capital of the N.W. provinces. Visit of the prince restrained, secured, or removed from the territories of the of Wales, 7 March, 1874. United States. An act of Congress relieving the chil- Allatoona Pass (Ga.), BATTLE OF, fought 6 Oct. dren born abroad of United States fathers from alienage 1864. After his evacuation of Atlanta, Hood covered was passed 1854. In 1857, the United States attorney- the road to Macon. Soon, however, he shifted southgeneral officially asserted that a United States citizen ward to the West Point road, and then boldly pushed may renounce his citizenship. Aliens may readily nat- northward against Sherman's communicatious. Sheruralize themselves in the United States; see Naturali- man followed him with the bulk of his army, but on 6 zation. In the United States aliens may sue and be sued, Oct. had only reached Kenesaw. Hood, farther north, but cannot serve a process, vote, or hold office. With that day attacked Allatoona Pass, the most important respect to the power of aliens to hold real estate, the laws station on the road, and stored with one and a half of the several States are not alike. Some impose restric- million of rations. Gen. Corse conducted the defence, tions, while others do not. The question of the inheri- and all day long held out against the assailing force, tance of the property of aliens has been the subject of retaining his position until relief approached and several treaties between the United States and foreign Hood was compelled to withdraw. Corse was severely nations.

wounded. Aliwal, a village of N.W. India, the site of a battle, Allegiance, see Oaths. 28 Jan. 1846, between the Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor

Allegory abounds in the Bible and in Homer: see Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Gen. xlix. (1689 B.C.), of cannon, and the British under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 Psa. lxxx., and all the prophets. Spenser's Faerie men with 32 guns. The contest was obstinate, but ended Queene (1590) and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678) in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or

are allegories throughout. The Spectator (1711), by drowned.

Addison, Steele, and others, abounds in allegories. The Alizarine, a crystalline body, the coloring principle allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures is said to of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in have begun with Origen in the third century; but see 1831. Schunck showed that all the finest madder colors Gal, iv. 24. contained only alizarine combined with alkalies and fatty

Alleyn, see Almshouses and Dulwich. acids. Graebe and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869. Allia (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal where Brennus and the Gauls defeated the Romans, 16 oils by Dumas, and Laurent in 1832; see Madder.

July, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed

so much injury that the day was thereafter held to be Aljubarrota, Portugal. Here John I. of Portugal unlucky (nefas), and no public business was permitted defeated John I. of Castile, and secured his country's in- to be done thereon. dependence, 14 Aug. 1385; see Batalha.

Alliance, TREATIES OF, between the high EuroAlkahest, see Alchemy.

pean powers. The following are the principal (see Alkalies (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdom, etc.) : from which an alkaline substance was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the Of Leipsic...

9 April, 1631

Of Vienna.. nature of the difference between caustic and mild alka

27 May, 1657 The Triple..

..28 Jan. 1668 lies in 1736.

Of Warsaw..

.31 March, 1683

The Grand. The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the met- The Hague...

.12 May, 1689

. 4 Jan. 1717 als potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry Davy at the The Quadruple.

..2 Aug. 1718 Royal Institution, London, 1807.

of Vienna

.16 March, 1731 Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816.

or Versailles.

.1 May, 1756 The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lancashire and Germanic,

23 July, 1785 Cheshire, is based on the decomposition of common salt Of Paris,

..16 May, 1795 (chloride of sodium) by a process invented by a Frenchman or St. Petersburg.

..8 April, 1805 named Le Blanc, about 1792.

Austrian..

14 March, 1812 Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814. Va of Sweden...

.24 March, rious modifications of these processes are now in use. Of Töplitz.

.9 Sept. 1813 " Alkali works" are defined as works for the manufacture of Holy Alliance...

26 Sept. 1815 alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in which of England, France, and Turkey (at Constantinople), muriatic gas is evolved.

12 March, 1854 Mr. William Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid of England and France ratified....

..3 April, gas patented in 1836.

Of Sardinia with the Western Powers (at Turin)... 26 Jan. 1855 The "ammonia process" of making soda invented by Dyer of Sweden with the Western Powers.... .. 19 Dec. and Hemming in 1838; patents respecting it taken out by of Prussia and Italy..

..June, 1866 Solvay, 1863, 1867, 1872; Gossage, 1854; Schloesing, 1854,

1858; Young, 1871, 1872; Weldon, 1872, 1873; and by others. All-night Sittings, see Parliament, 1877 and 1881. Mr. Walter Weldon received the French Lavoisier medal for

his most important improvements in the alkali manufact- All-saints' Day (Nov.1), or ALL-HALLOws, a fesure, July, 1877.

tival said to have been begun by pope Boniface IV. about In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by the

alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the Alkali Works 607, celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established Act “for the more effectual condensation for 95 per cent.] | by pope Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration

ALLIANCE.

1828 1832

1849 .1862-63

1869 1878

of all those saints and martyrs in whose honor no par- | British Almanac and Companion..
ticular day is assigned. The reformers of the English Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd.
church, 1549, struck out of their calendar a great num- Chambers's Book of Days.
ber of anniversaries, leaving only those which at their Whitaker's Almanack..
time were connected with popular feeling or tradition.

Spofford's American Almanac...
All-souls College, Oxford, see Oxford.

Most of the great daily journals in New York and other

American cities publish almanacs containing elaborate and All-souls' Day (2 Nov.), a festival of the Roman detailed political and industrial statistics. Catholic church to commemorate the souls of the faith- publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I.,

The Stationers' Company claimed the exclusive right of ful, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000.

granting the privilege to them and the two universities; but All the Talents" Administration, see Gren- then monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of

A bill to renew the privilege was ville Administrations.

lost in 1779. Allobroges, Gauls, defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus,

The Stamp Duty on English almanacs first imposed in 1710,

was abolished in Aug. 1834; since when almanacs have benear the contluence of the Rhone and Saone, 121 B.C. come innumerable, being issued by tradesmen with their

goods. Allotments, see Land, note.

of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the Alma, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought able computer of the "Nautical Ephemeris ") at one time upa great battle on 20 Sept. 1854; see Russo-Turkish Wur wards of 430,000 copies were annually sold. He died in 1820.

of Foreign Almanacs, the principal are the “Almanach de and Crimea. The English, French, and Turkish army France,” ürst published in 1699, and the “ Almanach de (about 57,000 men) moved out of their first encampment Gotha,'' 1764. in the Crimea on 19 Sept., and bivouacked for the night Almanza (S.E. Spain). Here on 25 April (0. s. 14), on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (com- 1707, the English, Dutch, and Portuguese forces under manded by prince Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 in the earl of Galway were totally defeated by the French fantry, had 180 field - pieces on the heights, and on the and Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of morning of 20 Sept. were joined by 6000 cavalry from Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). Most of the Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under lord English were killed or made prisoners, having been abanRaglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the French of 24,000, doned by the Portuguese at the first charge. under marshal St.-Arnaud. At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made; the river Alma was crossed, while

Almeida (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by prince Napoleon took possession of the village under the Massena, 27 Aug. 1810. The French entered Spain, leavtire of the Russian batteries; and at 4, after a sanguinary ing a garrison at Almeida; blockaded by the English 6 tight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, April

, 1811. Almeida was retaken by Wellington (11 utterly routed, threw away their arms and knapsacks in May), and Massena retired from Portugal. their fight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900 Almenara, a village N.E. Spain, where, on 28 July, were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the 1710, an English and German army defeated the SpanBritish was 26 officers and 327 men killed, and 73 officers ish army supporting Philip V., the grandson of Louis and 1539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23d, 7th, and XIV. of France. Stanhope, the English general, killed 33d regiments) ; that of the French, 3 officers and 233 the Spanish general, Amezaga, in single conflict; an act men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men wounded. almost unexampled in modern warfare. Total loss of the allies about 3400.

Almohades, Mahometan partisans, followers of MoAlmack's Assembly-rooms, King street, St. hammed ben Abdalla, surnamed El-Mehedi, in Africa, James's, London, at first very exclusive, were erected by about 1120. They subdued Morocco, 1145; entered a Scotchman named Almack, and opened 12 Feb. 1765. Spain and took Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 1146–56; They are now termed Willis's Rooms, from the name of and founded a dynasty and ruled Spain till 1232, and the present proprietors.

Africa till 1278. Almanacs (from the Arabic al manah, to count).

Almoner, an office anciently allotted to a dignified The Egyptians computed time by instruments; the Al- clergyman who gave the first dish from the royal table exandrians had almanacs, and log calendars are ancient to the poor, or an alms in money. By an ancient canon In the British Museum and universities are specimens all bishops were required to keep almoners. The grandof early almanacs. Michael Nostradamus, the astrologer, almoner of France was the highest ecclesiastical dignity wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556.---Dufres- in that kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen noy. Prof. Augustus De Morgan's valuable “ Book of Victoria's almoner (Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, Almanacs, with an index of reference, by which the al- appointed 28 May, 1870), or the sub-almoner, distributes manac may be found for every year,” was published in the queen's gifts on Maundy-Thursday (which see). March, 1851.* Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were

Almoravides, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose

about 1050; entered Spain by invitation, 1086; were John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford.

1380 One in Lambeth Palace, written in...

1460

overcome by the Almohades in 1147. First printed one, published at Buda

1472 “Shepheard's Kalendar” (first printed in England) by

Almshouses for aged and infirm persons have been Richard Pynson....

1497 erected by many public companies and benevolent indiTybalt's Prognostications...

1533 viduals, particularly since the abolition of religious houses Almanac Liégeois..

at the Reformation in the sixteenth century. A list of Lilly's Ephemeris.. Poor Robin's Almanac..

1652 them, with useful information, will be found in “Low's British Merlin.

1658 Charities of London,” 1862; frequently republished. Connaissance des Temps (by Picard). Edinburgh Almanac..

1683
Armorers' almshouses, Bishopsgate..

1551 Moore's Almanac...

.1698 or 1713 Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion almshouses, Lady's Diary.

Westminster. Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac..

1732 Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by lady Dacre. 1594 Season on the Seasons.....

1735 Alleyn's almshouses, near City road, founded by E. AlGentleman's Diary...

leyn. ...

1620 Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Maskelyne (ma

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, were rebuilt terially improved, 1834)..

1767
near Highgate hill by the Mercers' Company..

1826 British imperial Kalendar. .

The Fishmongers Company founded almshouses in 1618, Hono's Every day Book..

and rebuilt them on Wandsworth common..

1850 Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoston, founded by Robert Aske.

1692 * Murphy's Almanack for 1838 predicted correctly a frost Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 1613 (in on 7 Jan. ; thaw and frost 14th; severe frost 21st, and then gratitude for her escape from an arrow-shot), were re. thaw. A great sale of the almanac ensued. Afterwards the built by the Brewers Company..

1839 predictions failed.

Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were erected.. 1735

1636
1644

1679

1705

1577

1741

1809
1826

exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483, a pro- of muriatic acid gas” (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, 28 hibition which was relaxed in 1663.

July, 1863. It came into operation 1 Jan. 1864, proved suc

cessful, was re-enacted 1868, and amended 1874; see ChemAlien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign persons)

ical Works. suppressed in England, 1414.

Alkmaer, see Bergen.
The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.
Act to register aliens, 1795.

Allahabad (N.W. Hindostan), the "holy city" of Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, or the Indian Mahometans, situated at the junction of the

dered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalization by the holding of stock in the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabanks of Scotland, June, 1820.

bad was successively subject to the sovereigns of Delhi New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was re- and Oude, but in 1801 was partially and in 1803 wholly

pealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836. The rigor of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed in incorporated with the British possessions. By treaty 1844 and 1847.

here, Bengal, etc., was ceded to the English in 1765." Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our feps, During the Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments fished our seas, and built our bridges and harbors."

rose and massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857; col. Neil Smiles, 1861. Their status defined by the Naturalization Act, passed 12 May, marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the in1870.

surrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city By act of Congress passed 1798, alien enemies might be the capital of the N.W. provinces. Visit of the prince restrained, secured, or removed from the territories of the of Wales, 7 March, 1874. United States. An act of Congress relieving the chil- Allatoona Pass (Ga.), BATTLE OF, fought 6 Oct. dren born abroad of United States fathers from alienage 1864. After his evacuation of Atlanta, Hood covered was passed 1854. In 1857, the United States attorney- the road to Macon. Soon, however, he shifted southgeneral officially asserted that a United States citizen ward to the West Point road, and then boldly pushed may renounce his citizenship. Aliens may readily nat- north ward against Sherman's communications. Sheruralize themselves in the United States; see Naturali- man followed him with the bulk of his army, but on 6 zation. In the United States aliens may sue and be sued, Oct. had only reached Kenesaw. Hood, farther north, but cannot serve a process, vote, or hold office. With that day attacked Allatoona Pass, the most important respect to the power of aliens to hold real estate, the laws station on the road, and stored with one and a half of the several States are not alike. Some impose restric- million of rations. Gen. Corse conducted the defence, tions, while others do not. The question of the inheri- and all day long held out against the assailing force, tance of the property of aliens has been the subject of retaining his position until relief approached and several treaties between the United States and foreign Hood was compelled to withdraw. Corse was severely nations,

wounded. Aliwal, a village of N.W. India, the site of a battle, Allegiance, see Oaths. 28 Jan. 1846, between the Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor

Allegory abounds in the Bible and in Homer: see Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Gen. xlix. (1689 B.C.), of cannon, and the British under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 Psa. lxxx., and all the prophets. Spenser's Faerie men with 32 guns. The contest was obstinate, but ended Queene (1590) and Bunyans Pilgrim's Progress (1678) in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or

are allegories throughout. The Spectator (1711), by drowned.

Addison, Steele, and others, abounds in allegories. The Alizarine, a crystalline body, the coloring principle allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures is said to of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in have begun with Origen in the third century; but see 1831. Schunck showed that all the finest madder colors Gal, iv. 24. contained only alizarine combined with alkalies and fatty

Alleyn, see Almshouses and Dulwich.' acids. Graebe and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869. Allia (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal where Brennus and the Gauls defeated the Romans, 16 oils by Dumas, and Laurent in 1832; see Madder.

July, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed

so much injury that the day was thereafter held to be Aljubarrota, Portugal. Here John I. of Portugal unlucky (nefas), and no public business was permitted defeated John I. of Castile, and secured his country's in- to be done thereon. dependence, 14 Aug. 1385; see Batalha.

Alliance, TREATIES OF, between the high EuroAlkahest, see Alchemy.

pean powers. The following are the principal (see Alkalies (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdom, etc.): from which an alkaline substance was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the of Leipsic....

9 April, 1631

Of Vienna.. nature of the difference between caustic and mild alka

.27 May, 1657 The Triple..

...28 Jan. 1668 lies in 1736.

Of Warsaw.

.31 March, 1683

The Grand.. The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the met. The Hague..

12 May, 1689

4 Jan. 1717 als potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry at the The Quadruple.

.2 Aug. 1718 Royal Institution, London, 1807.

of Vienna. Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816.

.16 March, 1731 Of Versailles.

...1 May, 1756 The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lancashire and

Germanic. Cheshire, is based on the decomposition of common salt or Paris.

23 July, 1785 (chloride of sodium) by a process invented by a Frenchman of St. Petersburg.

.16 May, 1795

...8 April, 1805 named Le Blanc, about 1792.

Austrian.. Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814. Va of Sweden...

14 March, 1812 rious modifications of these processes are now in use.

.24 March,

Of Töplitz. "Alkali works" are defined as works for the manufacture of Holy Alliance...

...9 Sept. 1813

26 Sept. 1815 alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in which of England, France, and Turkey (at Constantinople), muriatic gas is evolved.

12 March, 1854 Mr. William Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid of England and France ratified.....

..3 April, gas patented in 1836. The “ammonia process" of making soda invented by Dyer or Sweden with the Western Powers..

Of Sardinia with the Western Powers (at Turin)... 26 Jan. 1855

.....19 Dec. and Hemming in 1838; patents respecting it taken out by of Prussia and Italy....

.........June, 1866 Solvay, 1863, 1867, 1872;

Gossage, 1854; Schloesing, 1854, 1858; Young, 1871, 1872; Weldon, 1872, 1873; and by others. All-night Sittings, see Parliament, 1877 and 1881. Mr. Walter Weldon received the French Lavoisier medal for

his most important improvements in the alkali manufact- All-saints' Day (Nov.1), or ALL-Hallows, a fes

ure, July, 1877. In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by the tival said to have been begun by pope Boniface IV. about

alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the Alkali works 607, celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established Act "for the more effectual condensation (of 95 per cent.] | by pope Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration

ALLIANCR.

of all those saints and martyrs in whose honor no par- | British Almanac and Companion...

1828

1832 ticular day is assigned. The reformers of the English Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd..

1849 church, 1549, struck out of their calendar a great num- Chambers's Book of Days.

1862-63 ber of anniversaries, leaving only those which at their Whitaker's Almanack..

1869 time were connected with popular feeling or tradition. Spofford's American Almanac...

1878 All-souls College, Oxford, see Oxford.

Most of the great daily journals in New York and other

American cities publish almanacs containing elaborate and All-souls' Day (2 Nov.), a festival of the Roman detailed political and industrial statistics. Catholic church to commemorate the souls of the faith- publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I.,

The Stationers' Company claimed the exclusive right of ful, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000.

granting the privilege to them and the two universities; but “All the Talents" Administration, see Gren- Common Pleas in 1775. A bill to renew the privilege was

the monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of ville Administrations.

lost in 1779. Allobroges, Gauls, defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus, was abolished in Aug. 1834; since when almanacs have be

The Stamp Duty on English almanacs first imposed in 1710, near the contluence of the Rhone and Saone, 121 B.C. come innumerable, being issued by tradesmen with their

goods. Allotments, see Land, note.

of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the Alma, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought able computer of the "Nautical Ephemeris'') at one time upa great battle on 20 Sept. 1854; see Russo-Turkish Wur wards of 430,000 copies were annually sold. He died in 1820.

of Foreign Almanacs, the principal are the “ Almanach de and Crimea. The English, French, and Turkish army France," first published in 1699, and the “Almanach de (about 57,000 men) moved out of their first encampment Gotha,” 1764. in the Crimea on 19 Sept., and bivouacked for the night Almanza (S.E. Spain). Here on 25 April (0. s. 14), on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (com- 1707, the English, Dutch, and Portuguese forces under manded by prince Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 in the earl of Galway were totally defeated by the French fantry, had 180 field - pieces on the heights, and on the and Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of morning of 20 Sept. were joined by 6000 cavalry from Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). Most of the Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under lord English were killed or made prisoners, having been abanRaglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the French of 24,000, doned by the Portuguese at the first charge. under marshal St.-Arnaud. At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made; the river Alma was crossed, while

Almeida (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by prince Napoleon took possession of the village under the Massena, 27 Aug. 1810. The French entered Spain, leartire of the Russian batteries; and at 4, after a sanguinary ing a garrison at Almeida ; blockaded by the English 6 fight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, April, 1811. Almeida was retaken by Wellington (11 utterly routed, threw away their arms and knapsacks in May), and Massena retired from Portugal. their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900 Almenara, a village N.E. Spain, where, on 28 July, were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the 1710, an English and German army defeated the SpanBritish was 26 officers and 327 men killed, and 73 officers ish army supporting Philip V., the grandson of Louis and 1539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23d, 7th, and XIV. of France. Stanhope, the English general, killed 33d regiments); that of the French, 3 officers and 233 the Spanish general, Amezaga, in single conflict; an act men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men wounded. almost unexampled in modern warfare. Total loss of the allies about 3400.

Almohades, Mahometan partisans, followers of MoAlmack's Assembly-rooms, King street, St. hammed ben Abdalla, surnamed El-Mehedi, in Africa, James's, London, at first very exclusive, were erected by about 1120. They subdued Morocco, 1145; entered a Scotchman named Almack, and opened 12 Feb. 1765. Spain and took Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 1146-56; They are now termed Willis's Rooms, from the name of and founded a dynasty and ruled Spain till 1232, and the present proprietors.

Africa till 1278. Almanacs (from the Arabic al manah, to count).

Almoner, an office anciently allotted to a dignified The Egyptians computed time by instruments ; the Al- clergyman who gave the first dish from the royal table exandrians had almanacs, and log calendars are ancient to the poor, or an alms in money. By an ancient canon In the British Museum and universities are specimens all bishops were required to keep almoners. The grandof' early almanacs. Michael Nostradamus, the astrologer, almoner of France was the highest ecclesiastical dignity wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556.---Dufres- in that kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen noy.

Prof. Augustus De Morgan's valuable " Book of Victoria's almoner (Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, Almanacs, with an index of reference, by which the al- appointed 28 May, 1870), or the sub-almoner, distributes manac may be found for every year," was published in the queen's gifts on Maundy-Thursday (which see). March, 1851.* Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were

Almoravides, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose

about 1050; entered Spain by invitation, 1086; were John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford..

1380 One in Lambeth Palace, written in..

1460 overcome by the Almohades in 1147. First printed one, published at Buda..

1472

Almshouses for aged and infirm persons have been “Shepheard's Kalendar” (first printed in England) by Richard Pynson...

1497 erected by many public companies and benevolent indiTybalt's Prognostications..

1533 viduals, particularly since the abolition of religious houses Almanac Liégeois...

at the Reformation in the sixteenth century. A list of Lilly's Ephemeris.... Poor Robin's Almanac.

1652 them, with useful information, will be found in “Low's British Merlin..

1658 Charities of London," 1862; frequently republished. Connaissance des Temps (by Picard). Edinburgh Almanac.. 1683 Armorers' almshouses, Bishopsyate..

1551 Moore's Almanac...

.1698 or 1713 Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion almshouses, Lady's Diary..

Westminster...

1577 Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac.

1732 Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by lady Dacre. 1594 Season on the Seasons.......

1735 Alleyn's almshouses, near City road, founded by E. Al. Gentleman's Diary..

1741
leyn....

1620 Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Maskelyne (ina

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, were rebuilt terially improved, 1834)... 1767 near Highgate hill by the Mercers' Company..

1826 British Imperial Kalendar.

1809 The Fishmongers' Company founded almshouses in 1618, Hono's Every day Book.....

1826
and rebuilt them on Wandsworth common..

1850
Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded by Robert
Aske..

1692 * Murphy's Almanack for 1838 predicted correctly a frost Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 1613 in on 7 Jan., thaw and frost 14th; severe frost 21st, and then gratitude for her escape from an arrow-shot), were re. thaw. A great salo of the almanac ensued. Afterwards the built by the Brewers' Company...... predictions failed.

Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were erected. 1735

1636

1644

1679

1705

1839

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