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interpellation in the chambers ; relaxation of the restriction on the press

Jan. 1867 Ministerial changes; Rouher becomes minister of finance; Niel, of war, &c.

Jan.
The chambers opened by the emperor
Emile Gerardin fined for libel in La Liberté,

7 March, Severe speech of Thiers on foreign policy, 18 March, International exhibition opened (see Paris),

1 April, Resignation of Walewski, president of the chamber,

29 Mar.; succeeded by M. Schneider, 11 April, Scheme for organising the army rejected by committee

May, Paris visited by the czar, 1-12 June; and the king of Prussia

5-14 June, Three provinces in Annam annexed to the French empire

25 June, International conference at Paris respecting mone

17 June-9 July, The emperor distributes the prizes of the inter: national exhibition

1 July, Protectorate of France over Cambodia assured by

treaty Law abolishing imprisonment for debt adopted by the senate

18 July, Meeting of the emperors of France and Austria at Salzburg

18-21 Aug. The emperor's leiter recommending money to

be expenderl in improving intercommunication by means of railways, canals, and roads,

15 Aug. Emperor of Austria visits Paris 23 Oct.-2 Nov. French troops enter Rome (see Rome) Garibaldians defeated at Mentana Lord Lyons received as British ambassador. 9 Nov. Pacific and liberal speech of the emperor on opening the chambers

18 Nov. "Napoleon III. et l'Europe en 1867," published, During a debate in the legislative assembly, Rouher,

the minister, says, “We declare that Italy shall never seize upon Rome" (the go nment sullported by 238 votes to 17) 12 persons convieted for belonging to a secret sedlitious society.

about Dec. Friendly reception of foreign ministers I Jan. 1868 New army bill (allowing 100.000 men to be added

to the army annually; establishing a new national guard, &c. ; giving the empire virtually an ariny of 1,200,000 men), passed in the corps legislatif (206 to 60)

1 Jan. Ten journals fined for printing comments on legislative debates

end of Jan. M. Magne announces a deficiency in the budget ;

and a loan for 17.600,cool. The army bill passes the senate-125 to i (Michel Chevalier, who spoke warmıly against it), 30 Jan.;

becomes law The “Arcadians" (new ultra-conservative party) oppose the new press law ; tierce debates on it,

Feb. New press law passed in legislative chamber, 240 to 1 )

Mareli, “Les Titres de la Dynastie' Impérialeappeared,

about 20 March, Riotous opposition to enlistments for “gardé

mobile" (new national guard) at Bordeaux,

Toulon, and other towns 20 March, et seq. Defeat of an attack on free trade in the chamber,

May, New press law put in force; increasing facility for publishing new journals

June, The assembly closes

30 July, Rochefort's weekly satirical pamphlet La Lanterne,

suppressed; he and his printer condemned to

tine and imprisonment, escapes to Belgjunn, Ang. M. Berryer, the advocate (born 1790) died, 29 Nov. Ministerial changes ; marquis de la Valette, foreign

minister, in room of De Moustier; Forcade de la Roquette minister of the interior

Dec. The Moniteur replaced by the Journal Oficid, 1 Jan, 1869 Meeting of the assembly

18 Jan.
De Moustier dies
Death of Lamartine (born oct. 1992), 28 Feb. ; of

Troplong, president of the senate 1 March,
Dissolution of the legislative assembly of 1863,

26 April,

5 Dec.

Difference with Belgium respecting the Luxem

bourg railway settled Fierce élection riots at Paris, 9 June; the emperor

27 April, 1860 and empress ride boldly through the Boulevarls,

11 June, The new legislative chamber meets ; the opposition to the government more than trebled,

26 June, Message from the emperor announcing important

political changes; introducing ministerial responsibility, &c., read 12 July; resignation of ministers,

13 July, New ministry: Forcade de la Roquette (interior); La

Tour d'Auvergne (foreign); Chasseloup-Laubat, president, &c. M. Rouher made president of the senate,

20 July, French Atlantic telegraph completely laid, 23 July, Marquis de la Valette appointed ambassador in London

July, The political changes announced to the senate,

5 Aug. Marshal Niel, war minister, aged 66, dies, 13 Aug. Centenary of the birth of Napoleon I. ; amnesty

granted to political offenders ; increased pensions to survivors of the grand army : troops reviewed by the imperial prince (the emperor ill),

15 Aug. Ultra-liberal speech of prince Napoleon Jerome in the senate

i Sept. New constitution promulgated. 10 Sept. Père Hyacinthe (nume Loyson), popular Carmelite

preacher at Paris, protests against papal infullibility and encroachments, and resigns by letter,

20 Sept. Great excitement at Paris through discovery of Tropmann's murder of the Kinck family at Pantin,

about 19 Sept. Proposed meeting of republicans at Paris (did not take place)

26 Oct. Agitation against free trade

oct., Nov., Dec. Journey of the empress to the East; arrival at

Constantinople, 13 Oct. ; at Alexandria, 13 Nov. Firm and temperate manifesto of the left (ultra

republican opposition) issued about 16 Nov. Henri Rochefort (of Lu Lanterne) elected a deputy for Paris

22 Nov. The chambers opened by the emperor with a liberal

speech Resignation of ministers announced New liberal ministry formed by Emile Ollivier(jus

tice); Daru (foreign); Le Beuf (war) 3 Jan. 1870 Resignation of M. Haussmann, prefect of the Seine,

about 6 Jan. Victor Noir, a journalist, killed by Pierre Bona

parte during an interview at Auteuil respecting a challenge sent to M. Rochefort

10 Jan. Tropmanı, the murderer, executed Great excitement amongst lower orders ; prosecu

tion of Rochefort for libel in his paper, the Marseillaise; he is sentenced to fine and imprisonment Barricades erected in Paris, and riots after the apprehension of Rochefort, 7 Feb.; soon quelleri,

8, 9 Feb Jules Favre's attack on the ministry in the chan

ber defeated (236 to 18) Charles, comte de Montalembert, eminent author, dies (sce 1858).

13 March, Trial of Pierre Bonaparte at Tours; acquitted (but ordered to pay 1000l. to Noir's family);

21–27 March, Emperor's letter to Ollivier, agreeing to modifica

tion of the constitution of the senate, 22 March, Senatus consultum communicated to the senate, 28 March ; adopted

20 April, Ministerial crisis: resignation of Daru and other ministers opposing the proposed plébiscite,

10 April, Proclamation of the emperor respecting changes in the constitution

24 April, Conspiracy against the emperor's life detected Baurie (aged 22) and others arrested,

about 30 April, Plibiscite to ascertain whether the people approve of these changes,- yes, 7,527,379; no, 1,530,909,

8 May, Ollivier ministry reconstructed, 13 April ; duc de

Grammont foreign minister about 15 May,

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Riotin, and barricadles in Paris, 9, 10 May ; about 100 arrested, many sentenced to imprisonment,

14 May, 1870 Speech by the emperor on receiving result of the

plebiscite The Orleans princes address the legislative Assem

23 May, bly, demanding their return to France, 19 June; Olimsel by 173 to 31

2 July, Discovery of a plot against the emperor's life,

5 July, Great excitement through the nomination of prince

Leopold of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen for the
Spanish throne; warlike speeches of the ministers,

5, 6, 7 July, The prince Leopold withdraws from candidature;

muarantees required by France from Prussia refund; France decides to declare war against Prussia, 15 July; declaration sighed, 17 July, [For events of the war, see Franco-Prussian ivar.] The empress appointed regent

23 July, The emperor joins the army

28 July, Publication of the Marseillaise of Rochefort ceases,

end of July, The government declare that they are only "at war with the policy of Bismarck”

2 Aug. Great excitement in Paris through the false announcement of a great victory

6 Aug State of siege proclaimed in Paris after the great defeat of MacMahon at Werth

7 Aug. Decrees for the enlargement of the national guard, appealing to patriotism and deprecating discord,

7, 8 Aug. At Blois, the conspirators against the emperor's life sentenced to long imprisonments

8 Aug. Energetic measures taken for the defence of Paris

Changarnier offers his services to the emperor;
well received

.8 Aug The government appeals to France and Europe

asqainst Prussia Storing debate in the corps légisiatis; (M. de Kératry

talled on the emperor to ablicate ; M. Guyot Montpeyroux said that the army were “lions led by asses"); resignation of Ollivier and his

ministry New ministry formed: General Cousin-Montauban

conte de Palikan (distinguished in the war with China), minister of war, chief: M. Chevreau, minister of the interior; M. Magne, minister of finance; M. Clement Duvernois, minister of comInerce and agriculture; aclmiral Rigault de Genouilly, minister of marine; baron Jerome Davil, minister of public Works; prince de la Tour d'Auvergne, minister of foreign affairs; and others

· 10 Aug. Decree for the great augmentation of the army

during the war, and appointing a “defence coinmittee" for Paris

10 Aug The Orleans princes (the duc d'Aumale, prince de

Joinville, and duc de Chartres), protler their services in the army; declined

Aug. Extraordinary sitting of the corps législatif respect: ing the new levies

Sunday, 14 Aug. Great disturbances at La Villette, a suburb of

Paris ; abut 200 armed men attack the police, crying “Vive la république!" soou suppressed, and many arrested

14 Aug. The government declare against any negotiations

14 Aug. Atrocious murder of M. Alain de Moneys, sus

pected of republicanism and Germanism; he was half killed by blows and then burnt to death by infuriatel peasants at Hautefaye, Dordogne, not fur from Bordeaux

16 Aug General Trochu (Orleanist), energetic and able

author of“l'Armée Fruncaise en 1867," appointed governor of Paris, 17 Aug : issue

a stirring prolaination

18 Aug. i loall of

750

million franes announced, 21 Aug Frequent diplomatic conferences at the British

of the legion of honour, aged 85 (served under Napoleon I., Louis Philippe, and Napoleon III.),

31 Aug. 1870 Deputation from 10,000 persons call on Trochu to assume the government: he declines,

8 p.m., 3 Sept. The news of the final defeat of MacMahon near

Sedan, and the surrender of the emperor and the remainder of MacMahon's army (90,000), to the king of Prussia announced by comte de Palikao to the legislative assembly! Jules Favre declares for defending France to the last gasp, attacks the imperial dynasty, and proposes concentration of all power in the hands of general Trochu, amid profound silence

· 3.35 a.m., 4 Sept. The ruin of MacMahon's army announced in the

Journal Officiel
On the proposition of Thiers the chamber appoints

a commission of government and national de-
fence, and orders the convocation of a constituent

assembly, and adjourns 3. Io P.m., 4 Sept. At the resumption of the sitting of the assembly it

is invaded by the crowd, demanding a republic; most of the deputies retire. Gambetta and other liberal members of the “ left” proclaim the deposition of the imperial dynasty and the establishment of a republic

4.15 p.m., 4 Sept. Last meeting of the senate; it declares adhesion to

the emperor Proclamation of a “government of defence," gene

ral Trochu, president; MM. Léon Gambetta (interior), Jules Simon (public instruction), Jules Favre (foreign), Cremieux (justice), Jules Picard (tinance), general Le Flo(war), Fourichon(marine), Magnin (agriculture), Dorian (public works), Etienne Arago (mayor of Paris), Kératry (police).

4 Sept. An informal meeting of the legislative assembly

held, M. Thiers, president. M. Jules Favre reports to it the formation of the provisional government ; some protest ; Thiers recommends moderation, and the meeting retires,

evening 4 Sept. The empress, the comte de Palikao, and other ministers secretly leave Paris and enter Belgium,

evening, 4 Sept. Legislative chamber dissolved ; senate abolished; regular troops and national guard fraternize; perfect orler reigns"

5 Sept. M. Favre calis on the United States of America for moral support

5 Sept. The emperor Napoleon arrives at Wilhelmshöhe, near Cassel

9.35 P. m. 5 Sept. The republican deputies in the Spanish cortes greet the republic

5 Sept. Henri Rochefort added to the governinents Sept. The red republican flag raised at Lyous, 5 Sept. Victor Hugo and Louis Blanc arrive in Paris, 6 Sept. Jules Favre, in a circular to French diplomatic

representatives, while professing desire for peace, says, “We will not cede either an inch of our

territories or a stone of our fortresses," 6 Sept. Proclamation of general Trochu, saying that the defence of the capital is assured

6 Sept. The police replaced by national guards 6 Sept. Proffered services of the Orleans princes again declined

6 Sept. The imperial correspondence seized, about 2 Sept. The government proclaim that to-lay, as in 1792,

the republic signities the hearty union of the army and people for the defence of the country 7 Sept. The republic recognised by the United States,

8 Sept. The defence committee summon the king of Prussia to quit French territory without loss of time

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embassy respecting mediation about 22 Aug. Confident statement of the national position by the ministry

23 Aug 21. Thiers placed on the defence committee,

about 26 Aug. Decree of M. Trochu for the expulsion from Paris of all foreigners not naturalized

28 Aug. Death of count Flahault de la Billarderie, chancellor

8 Sept. Reappearance of the Marseillaise : Rochefort resigns

editorship, and disclaims connection on account of a violent article; the paper ceases to appear soon after

8 Decree convoking the constituent assembly, to be composed of 750 members (to be elected on 116

8 Sept. The imperial prince at Hastings, 7 Sept., joined by

the empress Victor Hugo publishes an address to the Germans, appealing to their fraternal sentiments

9 Sept.

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Cattle plague began in Alsace and Lorraine, Sept. 1870
The republic recognised by Spain, 8 Sept. ; by

Switzerland
M. Thiers arrives in London on a mission from the
Lyons said to be ruled by a “committee of safety;":

red flag raised; reign of terror
Letter from M. Pietri, private secretary to the

emperor, stating that "his master has not a centime in foreign funds"

15 Sept. Elections for constituent assembly ordered to take place on 2 Oct.

16 Sept. The academies of the institute protest against the bombardment of the monuments, museums, &c., in Paris

16 Diplomatic circular from M. Jules Favre : he admits

he has no claim on Prussia for disinterestedness; urges that statesinen should hesitate to continue & war in which more than 200,000 men have already fallen; announces that a freely elected assembly is summoned, and that the government will abide by its judgment, and that France, left to her free action, immediately asks the cessation of the war, but prefers its disasters a thousand times to dishonour. He admits that France has been wrong, and acknowleriges its obligation to repair by a measure of justice the ill it has done

17 Sept. A government delegation at Tours under M.

Crémieux, the ininister of justice; the foreign ambassadors proceed there

18 Sept. Manifesto of the red republicans signed by general

Cluseret, placarded in Paris about 13 Sept. Bronze statues of Napoleon ordered to be marle into cannon

about 19 Sept. Stern proclamation of Trochu respecting the cowardice of the Zouaves on 19 Sept.

20 Sept. M. Duruof in a post-balloon quits Paris with mail. bags, arrives at Evreux, and reaches Tours

23 Sept. The Journal Officiel replaced by the Moniteur Universel as the organ of the government,

about 23 Sept. Esquiros struggles to maintain order at Marseilles

24 Sept. Failure of the negotiations for peace between count

Bismark and Jules Favre; manifesto of the government at Tours, calling on the people to rise and either disavow the ministry or “fight to the bitter end;" the elections for the assembly suspended

24 Sept. Al Frenchnen between

and 25 years of age prohibitud leaving France

about 26 Sept. Great enthusiasın in the provinces on the failure of

the negotiations ; " war to the knife" and levée en prosse proclaimed by the prefects; efforts made to excite warlike ardour in Brittany by M. Cathelineau

26, 27 Sept. The duc d'Aumale consents to become a candidate

for the representative assembly, and promises submission to the de facto government for defence

about 27 Sept. Attempted insurrection of the red republicans at

Lyons ; order restored by national guards : general
Cluseret disappears

28 Sept. Great order in Paris maintained by the national guard ; report from surgeon-major Wyatt,

28 Sept. All between 21 and 40 to be organised as a national

garde mobile; all men in arms placed at the disposal of the minister of war

30 Sept. The empress and her son residing at Camden-house, Chiselhurst, Kent

Sept. The elections for the constituent assembly (153

members) ordered by the delegates at Tours to take place on Oct.

29 Sept. -1 Oct. Proclamations of general Trochu for maintaining order in Paris

about 1 Oct. Marseilles said to be unsettled : many arrested,

1 Oct. The elections deferred till they can be carried out

throughout the whole extent of the republic, by order of the government at Paris

1 Oct. M. Cremieux becomes delegate minister of war at

Tours in room of admiral Fourichon, still minister

of marine Gustave Floureus, heading five battalions of national

guards, marches to the Hótel de Ville and

demands chassepots (not to be had) 5 Oct. 1870 Suppression of the schools of the “brethren of the

Christian doctrine" by the republicans : much dissatisfaction

8 Oct. All Frenchmen under 60 years of age forbidden to quit France

8 Oct. M. Gambetta escapes from Paris in a balloon, 7 Oct.;

arrives at Rouen and declares for "a pact with victory or death," 8 Oct.; arrives at Tours and

becomes minister of war as well as of the interior Address from the comte de Chambord, saying that

his whole ambition is to found with the people a

really national government Battalions of amazons said to be forming in Paris

12 Oct. Blanqui, Gustave Flourens, Ledru Rollin, Felix

Pyat, and other red republicans defeated in their attempts to establish the commune at Paris to supersede the government, 10, 11 Oct. : reconciliation effected by Rochefort

about 14 Oct. 1870 Riots at Honfleur : the people oppose the embarka

tion of cattle to England, 12 Oct. ; similar riots at

St. Malo
M. Edmond Adam, prefect of police; replacing
M. de Kératry, sent on a foreign mission,

about 16 Oct. M. de Kératry quits Paris in a balloon, 12 Oct.; at

Madrid fails in obtaining assistance from Prim Marseilles disturbed by red republicans ; Esquiros

still in office Publication of the imperial correspondence seized in the Tuileries

Oct. Decree for a loan of 10,000,000l

. issued on behalf of the French government The imperial guard suppressed

26 Oct. Circular of Gambetta stigmatising the surrender of Metz (on 27 Oct.) as a crime

28 Oct. Death of M. Baroche in Jersey M. Thiers arrives in Paris with news of the sur

render of Metz and the proposals for an armistice Riots in Paris : general Trochu threatened ; the

principal members of the defence government imprisoned in the Hotel de Ville ; Ledru Rollin, Victor Hugo, and Gustave Flourens, and others, established as a committee of public safety and of the commune of Paris, under the direction of M. Picard ; the national guard releases the

government, and order is restored General Boyer, replying to Gambetta, says, “We

capitulated with hunger" The empress arrives at Wilhelmshohe ; interview of Bazaine with the emperor

31 Oct. Etienne Arago and other mayors of Paris resign,

i Nov. Marshals Canrobert and Le Beuf and many generals at Wilhelmshöhe

i Nov. Proclamation of Gambetta calling on the army to avenge the dishonour at Metz

i Nov. The government proclaim a plebiscite in Paris on 3

Nov. to ascertain whether the people maintain the power of the government of national defence

i Nov. M. Rochefort, member of the defence government,

2 Nov. Result of the plébiscite : --for the defence

government, 557,976 ; against, 62,638

3 Nov. Resignation of M. Esquiros at Marseilles, succeeded

by M. Alphonse Gent The ex-empress returned to Chiselhiirst, Mobilisation of all able-bodied men between 20 and 40, ordered

4 Nov. Fail of the negotiations for an armistice, 6 Nor. Felix Pyat and others arrested for the affair of 31 Oct.

6 Nov. “France can do nothing now but carry on with

such courage and strength as remain to her a war à outrance."-Guizot.

8 Nov. Decree for melting soine of the church-bells to make

10 Nov. Alexander Dumas, novelist and dramatist, dies

10 Dec. The delegate government removed from Tours to Bordeaux

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Murder of lieut. Arnaud at Lyons by the people for resisting them

20 Dec. 1870 Trial of 21 peasants for murder of M. Moneys (see

16 Aug.): 4 condemned to death; others to imprisonment

about 23 Dec. Finn proclamation of Trochu at Paris Gambetta at Bordeaux declares that the govern

maent only holds office for defence of the country;

demonstration in honour of the republic, 1 Jan. 1871 Foreigners not permitted to leave Paris by the

Germans
Fierce speech of Gambetta at Lille, demanding con-

tinuance of the war
Disturbances at Paris suppressed by the army,
Resignation of Trochu; Vinoy made governor of

Paris
Capitulation of Paris ; armistice signed by Favre
and Bismarck

28 Jan.
Disavowed by Gambetta at Bordeaux
Manifesto of the duc d'Aumale in favour of a con-
Amival of food from London to relieve Paris (see

Mansion-house)
The defence government publish their reasons for

capitulation (2,000,000 people in Paris with only
ten days' provisions), 4 Feb.; and annul Gam-
betta's decree, 4 Feb.; he and his ministry resign,

5, 6 Feb. Railway accident between Bandoz and St. Nizaire;

explosion of casks of gunpowder; to killed ; about 100 wounded

5

Feb. Four murierers of M. Moneys (16 Aug. 1870) executed

8 Feb. Proclamation of Napoleon ini. “ Betrayed by

fortune," he condemns the government of 4 Sept.;
states that his government was four times con-
finned in 20 years; submits to the judgment of
time; saying "that a nation cannot long obey

those who have no right to command," 8 Feb,
General election of a national assembly 8 Feb.
First meeting of the new national assembly, 12 Feb.
Supplementary arniistice signed
Garibaldi resigns his election, 13 Feb.; Grévy

electeil president by 519 out of 538 16 Feb. Termination of the war: the Belfort garrison (12,000) märches out with military honours,

16 Feb. * Pact of Boricauz:" M. Thiers marle chief of the

executive power, by agreement of the different parties in the assembly, 17 Feb.; voted, 18 Feb. Thiers' ministry : Dufaure (justice); Jules Favre

(forriyn), Picard (interior), Jules Simon (public
instruction), Lambrecht (commerce), gen. Letlo
(war), admiral Pothuan (marine), De Larcy

(public works)
The French government recognised by the great
The due de Broylie appointed French minister at
London

21 Feb Negotiations for peace between Thiers and Bismarek

22, 23, 24 Feb. Prrliminaries of a trenty of peace accepted' by MM.

Thiers and Favre, and 15 delegates of the national assembly at Versailles (cession of parts of Alsace and Lorraine, including Strasbourg and Metz, and payment of tive milliards of franes 200,000,000!.), 25 Feb.; signed

26 Feb. Intense excitement in Paris . Preliminaries of the treaty accepted by the assembly

Meeting of national guard in Paris quelled,

10 March, 1871 The national assembly vote for removal to Versailles (461-104)

10 March, Le Vengers and four other violent journals suppressed in Paris by Vinoy

11 March, Blanqui, Flourens, and others condemned for insurrection of 31 Oct. 1870

12 March, Central committee of republican confederation of

national guards (termed“ the governinent of the Buttes ") meet; depose Vinoy and appoint Gari

baldi general-in-chief Insurrection at Paris : the regular troops take

15 March, possession of the Buttes, Montmartre, and Belleville, for the assembly; the uational guard attempt to recover them; after a brief conflict the troops fraternise with the insurgents, who capture and shoot generals Lecomte and Clément Thomas, and take possession of the Hôtel de Ville: barricades erected in Belleville and other places ; general Vinoy with the gendarmerie retire across the Seine

18 March, The insurgents nominate a central committee of

the national guard, headed by Assy, a workman, which takes possession of public offices ; Thiers issues a circular, enjoining obedience to the assembly The central committee order communal election in

· 19 March, Paris, 19 March ; and liberate about 11,000 political prisoners in Paris

20 March, The national assembly meet at Versailles ; propose conciliatory measures ; and appoint a committee to support the government

20 March, Napoleon III. arrives at Dover

20 March, The Journal des Debuts and other papers renounce the central committee

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(546 to 107); the fall of the empire unanimously confirmed ; and the

emperor stigmatised,

1 March, A strong party of the national guard seize some

cannons and transport them to Montmartre and Belleville, to defend themselves against the Germans entering Paris

i March, The emperor of Germany reviews about 100,000 of

his troops at Longchamps near Paris, 1 March, About 30.000 Germans enter Paris, 1 March ; reinain 48 hours; depart

3 March, Impeachment of the defence government demandesi

by the party of the left (Victor Hugo, Louis Blanc, Quinet, and others)

6 March, The ex-emperor protests against his deposition,

6 March, The army of the north and other special army corps dissolved

7-10 March,

20 March, The assembly appeal to the nation and the army,

21 March, Requisitions levied on the Paris shop-keepers,

21 March, Unarmed demonstration of the Friends of Order ;

they are fired on by the insurgents ; 1o killed, 20 wounded

22 March, Lullier arrested by the centralcommittee, 22 March, Admiral Saisset appointed commander of the national guard for the asserubly

23 March, The 69th regiment of the line retire to Versailles,

23 March, The central committee appoint some of their delegates generals

24 March, The insuryents hold central Paris ; Saisset returns

to Versailles Municipal elections at Paris : 200,000 out of 500,000

25 March, vote: majority of two-thirds in favour of the insurgents

26 March, The government of the commune proclaimed at the Hotel de Ville

28 March, Meeting of the conference for the peace at Brussels,

28 March, Gustave Flourens, Blanqui, and Felix Pyat now at

the head of the movement: they propose revival of the system of the Italian republics of the middle

29 March, The remission of part of the rents due by tenants

ordered ; the standing army to be named the national guard

29 March, Reign of terror :“ Paris has no longer liberty of the

press, of public meeting, of conscience, or of person."- Le Soir

1 April, Military operations commence 9 a.m.; action at

Courbevoie ; Flourens marches his troops to
Versailles, viñ Rueil

2 April, The corps d'armee of general Bergeret at the Rond

Point, near Neuilly, stopped by the artillery of
Mont Valérien ; exchange of shot between Fort
Issy and Fort Vanves, occupied by the insurgents,
and Meudon

· 3 April, General Duval made prisoner in the engagement at

Châtillon and shot; death of Flourens at Chatou; Delescluze, Cournet, and Vermorel succeed Bergeret, Eudes, and Duval on the executive commission ; Cluseret, delegate of war, and Bergeret, commandant of Paris forces

4 April, Communist insurrection at Marseilles suppressed,

4 April, General Cluseret commences active operations ;

military service compulsory for all citizens uniter 40 ; the archbishop of Paris arrested, 5 April,

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Extension of action to Neuilly and Courbevoie ; severe

decree concerning complicity with Versailles, and arrest of hostages ; Dombrowski succeeds Bergeret as commandant of Paris ; the guillotine burnt on the Place Voltaire

6 April, 1871 Federals abandon Neuilly; commission of barri

caules created and presided over by Gaillard Senior ; military occupation of the railway termini by the insurgents

8 April, Insurgents repulsed in an attempt to take Chatil

lon; forts Vanves and Montrouge disabled ; Mont Valérien shells the Avenue des Ternes ; Bergeret arrested by order of the commune,

9 April, Marshal MacMahon, commander-in-chief for the

assembly, distributes his forces, and commences the investment of Fort Issy

11 April, Versailles batteries established on Châtillon; the

Orleans railway and telegraph cut, communications of the insurgents with the south intercepted ; decree ordering the fall of the column Vendome

12 April, Publication of the reports of the sittings of the

13 April, The redoubt of Gennevilliers taken; the troopis of

Versailles advance to the Château de Bécon, a post of importance; Assy at the bar of the commune

14 April, The national assembly pass the new municipal bill (419-18).

Treaty of peace with Germany signed at Frankfort,

10 May, 1871 Cannon from the fort Issy taken to Versailles ;

decree for the demolition of M. Thiers' house;

Delescluze appointed delegate of war, 10 May, Thiers opposed ; offers to resign; the assembly vote confidence in him (495-10).

11 May, Troops take possession of the Couvent des Oiseaux

at Issy, and the Lyceuin at Vanves ; Auber, the composer, dies, aged 89

12 May, Triumphal entry of the troops into Versailles with

flags and cannon taken from the convent; evacuation of the village of Issy completed ; fort Vanves taken by the troops

13 May, Vigorous cannonade from the batteries of Courbe

voie, Bécon, Asnières, on Levallois and Clichy; both villages evacuated ; commencement of the demolition of house of M. Thiers.

14 May, Report of the re-armament of Montmartre, 15 May, The column Vendome overthrown

16 May, Secession from the communist government ; a central club forined; a battalion of women formed,

17 May, Stringent conscription in Paris about 17 May, Silver ornaments in churches seized ; explosion of

a cartridge factory near the Champ de Mars ; above 100 killed

17 May, The assembly adopt the treaty of peace, 18 May, Rochefort brought a prisoner to Versailles; last sitting of the commune

21 May, Noon, explosion of the powder magazine of the

Manege d'Etat- Major (staff riding-school); the hostages transferred from Mazas to La Roquette ; Assy arrested in Paris by the Versaillais ; the assembly votes the re-erection of the column Vendome ; M. Ducatel, at the risk of his life, having signalled that the way was clear, the Versailles troops enter Paris by the gates of St. Cloud and Montrouge, 2 p.m., 21 May; take possession of the south and west, and about 10,000 prisoners, after some conflicts 22 May, Montmartre taken by Douai and Ladmirault :

death of Dombrowski. Morning : Assy arrives) at Versailles ; execution of gendarmes and Gustave Chaudey at the prison of Sainte-Pélagie. Night : the Tuileries set on fire ; Delescluze and the committee of public safety hold permanent sittings at the Hotel de Ville Morning: Palais Royal, Ministry of Finance, Hotel de Ville, &c., set on fire.

23 May,

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14 April, Complementary elections ; organisation of a court

martial under the presidence of Rossel, chief officer of the staff

16 April, Capture and fortification of the Chateau de Bécon by the Versailles troops

17 April, Station and houses at Asnières taken by the army of Versailles

18 April, The communists appeal to the nation,

19 April, Bagneux occupied by the Versaillais ; reorganisa

tion of commissions ; Eudes al pointed inspectorgeneral of the southern forts ; transfers his quarters from Montrouge to the palace of the Legion of Honour.

20 April, The Versailles batteries at Breteuil, Brimborion,

Meudon, and Moulin de Pierre trouble the federal fort Issy, and battery between Bagneux and Chatillon shells fort Vanves ; truce at Neuilly from 9am to 5 pm. ; the inhabitants of Neuilly enter Paris by the Porte des Ternes,

25 April, Capture of Les Moulineaux, outpost of the insur

gents, by the troops, who strongly fortify themselves on the 27th and 28th

26 April, Cemetery and park of Issy taken by the Versaillais

in the night; freemasons make a new attempt at reconciliation; the commune levies a sum of two millions of francs from the railway companies,

29 April, A flag of truce sent to fort Issy by the Versaillais,

calling upon the federals to surrender; general Eudes puts fresh troops in the fort, and takes the command ; Cluseret imprisoned at Mazas by order of the commune ; Russel appointed provisional delegate of wir .

30 April, The Versaillais take the station of Clamart and the

Chateau of Issy; creation of the committee of public safety ; members ; Antoine Amauld, Leo Meillet, Ranvier, Felix Pyat, Charles Gérardin;

alleged massacre of communist prisoners, 1 May, Lacretelle carries the recloubt of Moulin Saquet, Colonel Rossel appointed to the direction of

military affairs, defines the military quarters of Dombrowski, La Cécilia, Wroblewski, Bergeret, and Eudes

5 May, Central committee of the national guaril charged

with administration of war; the Chapelle Expiatoire condemned to destruction--the materials to be sold by auction

5 May, Concert at the Tuileries in aid of the ambulances: Suppression of newspapers

6 May, Battery of Montretout (70 marine guns) opens fire;

Thiers exhorts the Parisians to rise against the commune

8 May, Morning : insurgents cvacuate the fort Issy; the

committee of public safety renewed; members : Ranvier, Antoine Arnauld, Gambon, Eudes, Delescluze ; Rossel resiydis

8 May,

I P.m., the powder magazine at the Palais du Luxembourg blown up; the committee of public safety organise detachments of fusee-bearers ; petroleum pumped into burning buildings; Raoul Rigault shot in the afternoon by the soldiers. Evening: execution in the prison of La Roquette of the archbishop, abbé Deguerry, president Bonjean, and 64 others, hostages.

24 May, The forts Montrouge, Hautes-Bruyères, Bicêtre evacuated by the insurgents ; the death of Delescluze reported; executions in the Avenue d'Italie of the Pères Dominicans of Arcueil,

25 May, 16 priests and 38 gendarmes shot at Belleville by

the insurgents ; many women fighting, and casting petroleum into tires, shot 26, 27 May, The Buttes Chaumont, the heights of Belleville,

and the cemetery of Père Lachaise carried by the troops ; taking of the prison of La Roquette by the inarines ; deliverance of 169 hostages; the investment of Belleville complete ; last position captured by Mac Mahon; fighting ends,

5 p.m., 28 May, Federal garrison of Vincennes surrendered at discretion

29 May, Reported results of seven days fighting in Paris :

regular troops, 877 killed, 645 wounded, 183 miss. ing; insurgents, about 50,000 dead, 25,000 prisoners; nearly all the leaders killed or prisoners ;

about a fourth part of Paris destroyed 22-27 May, Estimated loss of property through the insurrection, 32,000,000l.

April, May, Thiers' decree for disarming Paris and abolishing the National Guard of the Seine

29 May, Victor Hugo expelled from Belgium Reported wholesale execution of prisoners by the

marquis de Gallifet ; Paris put under inartial law ; about 50,000 insurgents still at large

30 May,

3 May,

30 May,

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