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disguise of a waggish story." Several of our ancient kings kept jesters, and particularly the Tudors. There was a jester at court in the reign of James I., but we hear of no licenced jester afterwards.

JESUITS. The order was founded by Ignatius Loyola (who was canonised), a page to Ferdinand V. of Spain, and subsequently an officer of his army. Loyola having been wounded at the siege of Pampeluna, in both legs, A.D. 1521, devoted himself to theology while under cure, and renounced the military for the ecclesiastical profession. His first devout exercise was to dedicate his life to the Blessed Virgin as her knight; he next made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and on his return laid the foundation for his new order in France. He presented the institutes of it in 1539, to pope Paul III. who made many objections to them; but Ignatius adding to the three vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, a fourth of implicit submission to the holy see, the institution was confirmed by a bull, September 27, 1540, by which their number was not to exceed 60. That clog, however, was taken off by another bull, March 14, 1543; and popes Julius III., Pius V., and Gregory XIII., granted them such great privileges as rendered them powerful and numerous. But though François Xavier, and other missionaries, the first brothers of the order, carried it to the extremities of the habitable globe, it met with great opposition in Europe, particularly at Paris. The Sorbonne issued a decree in 1554, by which they con demned the institution, as being calculated rather for the ruin than the edification of the faithful. Even in Romish countries, the intrigues and seditious writings of this order, have occasioned it to be discountenanced. The Jesuits were expelled England by proclamation, 2 James I. 1604, and Venice 1606. They were put down in France by an edict from the king, and their revenues confiscated, 1764; and were banished Spain 1767. Suppressed by pope Clement XIV. in 1773. Restored by Pius VII. in 1814; and since tolerated in other states, and even where not tolerated, the body, as now in England, possess a secret and extensive existence. JESUITS' BARK. Cortex Peruvianus; called by the Spaniards Fever-wood; disco vered, it is said, by a Jesuit, about 1535. Its virtues were not generally known till 1633, when it cured of fever the lady of the viceroy at Peru. The Jesuits gave it to the sick, and hence its name. It sold at one period for its weight in silver. It was introduced into France as a medicine in 1649; and cured Louis XIV. of fever when he was dauphin of France. This bark came into general use in 1680. JESUS CHRIST. Born on Monday, December 25, A.M. 4004, in the year of Rome 752; but this event should be dated four years before the commencement of the common era. See Nativity. Christ's baptism by John, and his first ministry, A.D. 30. He celebrated the last passover, and instituted the sacrament in its room, on Thursday, April 2. He was crucified on Friday, April 3, at three o'clock in the afternoon. He arose, April 5; ascended to heaven from Mount Olivet, on Thursday, May 14, following; and his spirit descended on his disciples on Sunday, the day of Pentecost, May 24, A.D. 33.

JEWELLERY. Worn by most of the early nations. So prodigious was the extravagance of the Roman ladies, that Pliny the elder says, he saw Lollia Paulina wearing ornaments which were valued at 322,9167. sterling. Jewels were worn in France by Agnes Sorel, in 1434. The manufacture was extensively encouraged in England in 1685. See article Dress.

JEWISH ERA. The Jews usually employed the era of the Seleucidae until the fifteenth century, when a new mode of computing was adopted by them. They date from the creation, which they consider to have been 3760 years and three months before the commencement of our era. To reduce Jewish time to ours, subtract 3761 years.

JEWS. A people universally known both in ancient and modern times. They derive their origin from Abraham, with whom, according to the Old Testament and the Jewish writers, God made a covenant, 1921 B.c.-Blair; Lenglet; Usher.

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riamne, daughter of the king

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In repairing the temple, Hilkiah discovers the book of the law, and Josiah keeps a solemn Passover

Invasion of the Parthians

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Herod rebuilds the temple

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salem after a long siege

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Jerusalem fired, the temple burnt, the

walls razed to the ground, and the city reduced to ashes

JESUS, the long-expected Messiah, is born on Monday, Dec. 25, four years before the common era

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The flight into Egypt

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Joseph and Mary return to Nazareth with Christ

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Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego,

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refusing to worship the golden image, are cast into a fiery furnace, but are delivered by the angel

Judea

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Alexander the Great passes out of Europe into Asia He marches against Jerusalem to besiege it, but on seeing Jaddus, the high priest, clad in his robes, he declares he had seen such a figure in a vision in Macedonia, inviting him to Asia, and promising to deliver the Persian empire into his hands; he now goes to the temple, and offers sacrifices to the God of the Jews Ptolemy Philadelphus employs 72 Jews to translate the Scriptures Antiochus takes Jerusalem, pillages the temple, and slays 40,000 of the inhabitants

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They are banished France

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The Jews of Spain, Portugal, and Avignon
are declared to be citizens of France. 1790
Sitting of the great Sanhedrim, of Paris,
convened by the emperor Napoleon
Jan. 20, 1807

London Society for promoting Christi-
1190
anity among the Jews

The Jews massacred in London, on the
coronation-day of Richard I., at the
instigation of the priests
500 being besieged in York castle by the
mob, they cut each other's throats to
avoid their fury
Jews of both sexes imprisoned; their
eyes or teeth plucked out, and numbers
inhumanly butchered, by king John. 1204
They circumcise and attempt to crucify
a child at Norwich; the offenders are
condemned in a fine of 20,000 marks
They crucify a child at Lincoln, for which
eighteen are hanged.
700 Jews are slain in London, a Jew
having forced a Christian to pay him
more than 2s. per week as interest upon
a loan of 20s.-Stowe.
Statute that no Jew should enjoy a free-
hold, passed

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1808

Alexander of Russia grants land on the
sea of Azoph to converted Jews, Sept. 1, 1820
Bill for Jewish emancipation in Eng-
land, lost on the second reading, by a
majority in the Commons, 228 against
165
May 17, 1830
Moses Montefiore, esq., a very esteemed
Jew, is elected high sheriff of London
for 1837-8; and is knighted at Guild-
hall by the queen, being the first Jew
upon whom that honour has been con-
ferred in Britain
Nov. 9, 1837
Ukase of the emperor of Russia, permit-
ting the title of citizen of the first class
to be held by any Jew who renders
himself worthy of it by services to the
state, or to arts, science, trade, &c.
. 1839
Owing to the disappearance of a Greek
priest, a persecution of the Jews begun
at Damascus.-See Damascus Feb, 1, 1840

The Jewish women are handsomer than the men, because they have escaped the curse which has alighted upon their fathers, husbands, and sons. Not a Jewess was to be seen among the crowd of priests and rabble who insulted the Son of Man, scourged him, crowned him with thorns, and subjected him to the ignominy of the cross. The women of Judea believed in the Saviour; they loved and followed him. A woman of Bethany poured on his head the precious ointment, which she kept in a vase of alabaster: the sinner anointed his feet with a perfumed oil, and wiped them with her hair. The daughters of Jerusalem wept over him; the holy women accompanied him to Calvary, brought balm and spices, and, weeping, sought him at the sepulchre.-"Woman, why weepest thou?" His first appearance after his resurrection was to Magdalen. He said to her, "Mary!" At the sound of that voice Magdalen's eyes were opened, and she answered, "Master." The reflection of some very beautiful ray must have rested on the brow of the Jewess.-Fontanes.

JOAN OF ARC, OR MAID OF ORLEANS. The young and celebrated heroine of France. The English under Bedford closely besieging Orleans, Joan of Arc pretended she had a divine commission to expel them, and Charles VII. entrusted her with the command of the French troops. She raised the siege, and entered Orleans with supplies, April 29, 1429, and the English who were before the place from October 12, preceding, abandoned the enterprise, May 8, following. She captured several towns in the possession of the English, whom she defeated in a battle near Patay, June 10, 1429. In her various achievements no unfeminine cruelty ever stained her conduct. She was wounded several times herself, but never killed any one, or shed any blood with her own hand. She was taken at the siege of Compiegne, May 25, 1431; and, to the great disgrace of the English, was burnt for a witch five days afterwards at Rouen, in the 22d (some say 29th) year of her age.-Voltaire's Pucelle d'Orleans.

JOHN DOE AND RICHARD ROE. Names, as pledges to prosecute, well known in the law. Magna Charta demanded witnesses before trial, and since the reign of Edward III. the fictitious names of John Doe and Richard Roe are put into writs, as pretended witnesses.

JOHN O'GROAT'S HOUSE. An ancient house formerly situated on Duncan's Bay Head, remarkable for being the most northerly point in Great Britain. John of Groat and his brothers, originally from Holland, settled here, about 1489. This house was of an octagon shape, being one room, with eight windows, and eight doors, to admit eight members of the family, the heads of different branches of it, to prevent their quarrels for precedency at table, which on a previous occasion had nigh proved fatal. Each came in, by this contrivance, at his own door, and sat at an octagon table, at which, of course, there was no chief place or head. JOURNALS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. First ordered to be printed, and 50007. allowed to Mr. Hardinge for the execution of the work, by which means the journals can now be searched for precedents in parliamentary transactions. Strangers as well as members may refer to them, and have extracts made from them, on paying the fees, 1752. The journals of the House of Peers are also printed with the same object. The printing of acts of parliament commenced with the reign of Henry VII.; and they have been printed consecutively from A.D. 1509 to the present day.

JUAN FERNANDEZ, ISLAND OF, where Alexander Selkirk, a native of Scotland, was left on shore by his captain, for mutiny, in 1705. In this solitary place he lived more than four years, till he was discovered by captain Rogers, in 1709. From the narrative of his proceedings in this island, Daniel De Foe is said to have derived the hints which produced the celebrated Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. A settlement was made here by the Spaniards at Cumberland Bay, in 1766. JUBILEE. By Mosaic institution the Jews celebrate a jubilee every fifty years. Among the Christians a jubilee every century was instituted by pope Boniface VIII., in the year 1300. It was celebrated every fifty years by command of pope Clement VI.; and was afterwards reduced by Urban VI. to every thirty-third year; and Sixtus V. to every twenty-fifth year, at which period it is now fixed. JUBILEES. A memorable and delightful festival, called Shakspeare's Jubilee, projected by the inimitable Garrick, was celebrated in honour of our great national poet and dramatist in his native town, Stratford-on-Avon, April 23, 1769. The me morable jubilee in England, on account of George III. entering into the fiftieth year of his reign, was celebrated October 25, 1809. The Jubilee in celebration of the general peace, and also of the centennary commemoration of the accession of the family of Brunswick to the throne of these kingdoms, August 1, 1814. JUDGES. On the Norman conquest the judges had the style of Justiciarius Angliæ: these judges continued until the erection of the Courts of King's Bench and Common Pleas. The last who had the office of Justiciarius Angliæ was Philip Basset, in 1261. See the several Courts. Judges punished for bribery, 17 Edward I. 1288, when Thomas de Weyland was banished the land; and in 1351, William de Thorp was hanged. See Bribery. John de Cavendish was beheaded by the Kentish rebels, 1382. Tresylian, chief justice, was executed for favouring despotism, and other judges were seized and condemned, 1388. The prince of Wales was committed by judge Gascoigne for assaulting him on the bench. 1412. Sir Thomas More, lord

chancellor, was beheaded, July 6, 1535. Judges threatened with impeachment, and Berkeley taken off the bench and committed by the commons, 1641. Three impeached, 1680. Most of them dismissed for not allowing the legality of a dispensing power in the crown, 3 James II. 1687. The celebrated judge Jefferies was committed by the lord mayor to the Tower, where he died, 1689. The independence of the judges was established by making their appointments patents for life, 1761. Judges were sent to India, 1773. Three additional judges, one to each court, were appointed, 1784. A new judge took his seat as vice-chancellor, May 5, 1813. JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL, in lieu of the Court of Delegates, for appeals from the Lord Chancellors of England and Ireland in cases of lunacy-from the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Courts of England, and Vice Admiralty Courts abroad-from the Courts of the Isle of Man, the Colonial Courts, &c., fixed by statute 3 and 4 William IV. 1833.

JUGGERNAUT, or "Lord of the world." The first object of Hindoo veneration, is a celebrated idol of an irregular pyramidal black stone, with two rich diamonds to represent eyes; the nose and mouth are painted vermilion, and the visage is frightful. The number of pilgrims that visit the god is stated at 1,200,000 annually; of these a great many never return, and to the distance of fifty miles the way is strewed with human bones: the temple of Juggernaut has existed above 800 years. JUGURTHA, THE WAR WITH. A memorable war against the Numidian to reduce his kingdom, commenced 111 B.C. and continued five years. Cæcilius Metellus was first sent against him, and defeated him in two battles; and afterwards Sylla and Marius; the latter of whom dragged him in chains to Rome to adorn his triumph. The name and wars of Jugurtha have been immortalised by the pen of Sallust. JULIAN PERIOD. A term of years produced by the multiplication of the lunar cycle 19, solar cycle 28, and Roman indiction 15. It consists of 7980 years, and began 4713 years before our era. It has been employed in computing time, to avoid the puzzling ambiguity attendant on reckoning any period antecedent to our era, an advantage which it has in common with the mundane eras used at different times. By subtracting 4713 from the Julian period, our year is found; if before Christ, subtract the Julian period from 4714. For Julian year, see Calendar and Year. JULY. The seventh month of the year, from the Latin Julius, the surname of C. Cæsar, the dictator of Rome, who was born in it. It was the fifth month in the Roman calendar until Numa added January and February to the year, 713 B.C.-See those months severally, and article Year.

JUNE. The sixth month, but originally the fourth month of the Roman year. It had its name Junius, which some derive à Junone, and others à Junioribus, this being for the young, as the month of May was for aged persons. When Numa added two months before March, this month became, as it is now, the sixth of the calendar, 713 B.C. -See Year.

JUNIUS'S LETTERS. Junius was the assumed name of a concealed political writer, who published his letters in the Public Advertiser, in 1769. They were written in a nervous, sarcastic, and clear style, and produced a powerful impression, and the volume is now one of the most admired in British literature. These letters have been ascribed to Mr. Burke, Mr. William Gerard Hamilton, commonly called single-speech Hamilton, John Wilkes. Mr. Dunning (afterwards lord Ashburton), Mr. serjeant Adair, the rev. J. Rosenhagen, John Roberts, esq., Mr. Charles Lloyd, Mr. Samuel Dyer, general Lee, Hugh Boyd, esq., and sir Philip Francis; but the matter is still hidden in obscurity. "I am the depositary of my own secret, and it shall perish with me."-Junius.

JUNONIA. Festivals in honour of Juno celebrated at Rome, and instituted 431 B.c. At these festivals the young maids ran races, and petitioned Juno to give them husbands; at Rome an altar was erected to her as the goddess of marriage, where the new-married couple offered either a white cow, geese, or ravens, from which they took the gall before they sacrificed, and threw it behind the altar, to intimate that in that state of life no bitterness of spirit shall remain. JUPITER. Known as a planet to the Chinese and the Chaldeans; to the former, it is said, 3000 B.c.; and correctly inserted in a chart of the heavens, made about 600 B.C., and in which 1460 stars are accurately described; this chart is said to be in

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