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to reason the cannon will be resorted to for giving them a lesson”

7 Nov. 1870 Bombardment of Thionville Circulars on the armistice negotiations-of M.

Favre, 7 Nov. ; of count Bismarck 8 Nov. The king's permission for the election of a

French national assembly declined by the

French government
Orders that no one shall enter or quit Paris,
A Prussian column repulsed in an attack on the

army of the Loire at Marchenoir Capitulation of Verdun

8 Nov. Seven persons, captured in balloons from Paris,

sent to German fortresses to be tried by court martial

8 Nov. The French feet off Heligoland 8 Nov. German corps, under Manteuffel, advancing on Amiens and Rouen

8 Nov. Firm circular from M. Favre to French diplomatic representatives

about 8 Nov. The Germans enter Montbeliard (Doubs), The Germans under gen. Von der Tann defeated

between Coulmiers and Baccon, near Orleans,

retire to Thoury M. Thiers' report of the unsuccessful negotiations for an armistice



Nov. Reported naval victory of the Prussian steamer

Meteor over the French steamer Bouvet off

Continued fighting; Orleans retaken by gen.

D'Aurelle de Paladines ; French losses, 2000;

Germans about 700, and 2000 prisoners, Capitulation of Neu Breisach, 5000 prisoners and 100 guns taken

Io Nov. The French repulsed near Montbeliard on the Swiss frontier

Nov. Von der Tann's army reinforced by 30,000, now

70,000, the grand duke of Mecklenburg commander; the Loire army about 150,000, but

only 12,000 regulars Bankers at Berlin

and Frankfort arrested for dealing in French war loan, about 12 Nov. Dôle, near Dijon, occupied by the Germans, Calm, truthful proclamation of gen. Trochu, at

Paris . The armies in central France have been placed under prince Frederick Charles and the grand

duke of Mecklenburg. Eleven French towns, 3653 guns, 155 mitrail

leuses, nearly 500,000 chassepots, about 90 eagles and standards, and nearly 4,000,oool.

in money, taken by the Germans up to Montmédy completely invested French sorties from Mézières repulsed, 15 Nov.; from Belfort repulsed

16 Nov. The grand duke of Mecklenburg repulses the

army of the Loire near Dreux, which is cap

tured by Von Treskow .
Successfuị French sortie from Mézières, 500

Germans said to be killed
Germans victorious in an engagement near
Châteaudun; French claim the success,

18 Nov. Ricciotti Garibaldi 'said to have beaten 700 or

800 men at Chatillon The national guard at Evreux repulse à Ger

man attack The German army under prince Frederick

Charles and the grand duke of Mecklenburg

(135,000) said to be retreating towards Paris, Paris engirdled with a second line of investment

20 Nov, French attempt to release La Fère repulsed

Several balloons from Paris captured about

20 Nov. 1870 French mobile guard defeated at Bretoncelles,

21 Nov. Bombardment of Thionville begun,

22 Nov. Ham occupied by the Prussians Prince Frederick Charles takes up a position

near Orleans Thionville, in flames, capitulates, with about

2000 prisoners
The Germans repulsed near Amiens and near

La Fère surrenders, after two days' bombard-

ment, with about 70 guns and 2000 inen,
The Garibaldians defeated near Pasques (Côte

d'Or) by Von Werder The French army of the north defeated by Man

teuffel between Villers Bretonneux and

Soleur, near Amiens Amiens occupied by Von Gæben after a severe engagement

28 Nov. Severe engagement near Beaune la Rollande

(Loiret) between part of the army of the Loire under D'Aurelle de Paladines and the Germans under Voigts Rhetz ; prince Frederick Charles arrives and turns the day; the French retire; heavy loss on both sides,

28 Nov. M. de Kératry resigns his command, accusing M.

Gambetta of misconduct, 28 Nov.; Bourbaki

appointed to command an army corps, Fruitless endeavours of the army in Paris and

the army of the Loire to meet, 29 Nov.-4 Dec. Sorties from various parts of Paris repulsed

with loss Great sortie of 120,000 under generals Trochu

and Ducrot, who cross the Marne ; severest conflict between Champigny-sur-Marne, Briesur-Marne, and Villiers-sur-Marne ; the French retain the taken possessions, but their advance is checked ; -great loss on both sides (chiefly Saxons and Würtembergers engaged), The contest resumed at Avron; the Germans retake Champigny and Brie; the French retreat

2 Dec. Ducrot bivouacks in the woods of Vincennes, 3

Dec. : he issues a final order of the day, referring to two days' glorious battles, 4 Dec. The army of the Loire : Chanzy defeated by the

grand duke of Mecklenburg at Bazoche des Hautes, 2 Dec. ; ncar Chevilly (the French report these engagements indecisive),


Dec. Prince Frederick Charles dislodges an encampment in the forest of Orleans


Dec. General d'Aurelle de Paladines entrenched

before Orleans; proposes to retreat; the government opposes him, but yields; he determines to await the attack; part of his army defeated by prince Frederick Charles, and the grand duke of Mecklenburg ; he retreats with about 100,000 men ; Orleans threatened with bombardment; surrenders

at midnight The Germans said to be in pursuit of d'Aurelle

de Paladines (superseded) 10,000 prisoners, 77 guns, and 4 gun-boats captired at Orleans

5 Dec, Rouen occupied by Manteuffel

6 Dec. General order of the king of Prussia, “We

enter on a new phase of the war ... Every attempt to break through the investment or relieve Paris has failed

6 Dec. The grand duke of Mecklenburg attacks gen.

Chanzy and the army of the Loire near Beaugency; indecisive, 7 Dec.; the Germans victorious, taking about 1500 prisoners and

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FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR, continued. six guns, and occupying Beaugency (severe The French government issue a circular against loss to Germans)

8 Dec. 1870 the propagation of false news 20 Dec. 1870 Gen. Manteuffel's army in two parts, one occu- Conflict at Monnaie; about 6000 French gardes pies Evreux, and marching to Cherbourg, and mobiles driven back to Tours the other marching to Havre

8 Dec. Vigorous sortie from Paris repulsed—an artilContinued severe engagements between the lery action

21 Dec. Germans and the army of the Loire; the Tours partially shelled; said to request a Gerdefeated French retreat (7 battles in 9 days) man garrison

21 Dec. 9, 10 Dec.

Chanzy and part of the army of the Loire said Vigorous siege of Belfort; obstinately defended, to have reached Le Mans and joined the


about 21 Dec. Pamphlet (attributed to the emperor Napoleon) Seven hours' battle at Pont à Noyelles between

published under the name of his friend, the Manteuffel and the army of the north under marquis de Gricourt, throwing the blame of Faidherbe: both claim the victory; Faidherbe the war upon the French nation, early in Dec.

retreats Fighting along the whole line of the army of Six English colliers, said to have had Prussian

the Loire, under general Chanzy and others; permits, after delivering coal at Rouen are it retreats, but obstinately resists, 5-10 Dec.

sunk in the Seine at Duclair near Havre by The delegate government transferred from the Prussians for strategic reasons.

Tours to Bordeaux ; Gambetta remains with Explanation given by Bismarck and compensathe army of the Loire

11 Dec.
tion promised

26 Dec. Dieppe occupied by the Germans

12 Dec.

Chanzy, in a letter to the German commandant La Fere threatened by Faidherbe, commander at Vendôme, accuses the Germans of cruelly of the army of the north

12 Dec.

pillaging St. Calais, and denying his defeat, Phalsburg surrenders, subdued by famine; com- says, “ We have fought you and held you in mencement of bombardment of Montmédy,

check since


26 Dec. 12 Dec.

Trochu said to be making Mont Valérien a vast Evreux and Blois occupied by the Germans,


Mont Avron, an outlying fort near Paris, after a Montmédy surrenders

day's bombardment abandoned and occupied Sharp engagement at Frèteval; which is taken

by the Germans and abandoned by the Germans

Alleged defeat of the Germans by detachment Nuits near Dijon captured by the Badenese of Chanzy's army near Montoire under Von Werder, after a severe conflict, Several small engagments in Normandy-re

18 Dec.

ported successful to the French 28-31 Dec. FRANCONIA, or FRANKENLAND (on the Maine), one of the circles of the German empire, formerly part of Thuringia, was conquered by Thierry, king of the Franks, 530, and colonised. Its count or duke, Conrad I., was elected king of Germany, 912; Conrad II. was elected emperor 924; and the imperial dignity was held by his family till 1250. Franconia was made a distinct circle from Thuringia in 1512. At its subdivision in 1806 various German princes obtained a part; but in 1814 the largest part was awarded to Bavaria.

FRANCS-TIREURS, free-shooters, took an active part in the Franco-Prussian war from about 14 Aug. 1870; and more especially after the surrender of MacMahon's army at Sedan, 2 Sept. Their conduct has been much censured.

FRAUDS, STATUTE OF. 29 Charles II., c. 3, 1677. An act for prevention of frauds and perjuryes."

FREE CHURCH SOCIETY, or National Association for Freedom of Public Worship, established in 1857, to abolish the pew-rent system and revive the weekly offertory to defray the expenses of public worship.

FREEMASONRY. The new hall, Great Queen-street, London, was consecrated 14 April, 1869. Earl de Grey was installed grand-master of the English freemasons in room of the earl of Zetland, 14 May, 1870. The prince of Wales was installed at Edinburgh as patron of the freemasons of Scotland, 12 Oct. 1870.

FREE TRADE (p. 320). An agitation for free trade has begun in the United States. A reform league was formed at Boston, 20 April, 1869; and the movement was active in New York, Nov. 1869.

FRUCTIDOR CONSTITUTION; that promulgated in France on the 5th Fructidor, year 3, or 22 Aug. 1795. See Directory.


G. GAIETY THEATRE, Strand, opened 21 December, 1868, Mr. John Hollingshead> manager.

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GAS (p. 326). Gas successfully tried as fuel for the generation By the London gas act, passed 13 July, 1868, of steam hy Jackson's patent

April, 1868 ordinary gas charged 38. od. the 1000 cubic The central gas company robbed of about feet, after 1 Jan., 1870.

70,00ol. by Benjamin Higgs, a clerk; discovered

April, 1869 GENEVA CONVENTION, for the succour of the wounded in time of active warfare. Having been a witness of the horrors of the battle-field of Solferino, 24 June, 1859, M. Henri Dunant published his experiences, which induced the Société Genevoise d'Utilité Publique in Feb. 1863 to discuss the question whether relief societies might not be formed in time of peace to help the wounded in time of war by means of qualified volunteers. At an international conference held 26 Oct. 1863, fourteen governments, including Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Russia, were represented by delegates, and propositions were drawn up. These were accepted as an international code by a congress which met at Geneva 8 Aug. 1864, and on 22 Aug. a convention was signed by twelve of the delegates, and it was eventually adopted by all civilized powers except the United States. International conferences were held at Paris in 1867 and at Berlin in 1869 for further developing in a practical manner the objects of the Geneva conference. The International Society (termed “the Red Cross Society"), established in consequence of these proceedings, was very energetic and effective in relieving the wounded and sick during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, its flag being recognised as neutral. See Aid to Sick and Wounded. Above 13,000 volunteers said to be employed in attending the sick and wounded, Sept.-—Dec., 1870.

GERMANY (p. 333). Inauguration of the Luther monument at Baden and Hesse Darmstadt join the North Worms by the king of Prussia

25 June, 1868

German Confederation by treaty, about 15 German rifle association meeting at Vienna, 26

also Würtemberg, 25 Nov.; and Bavaria, July; addressed by Von Beust at the close, 23 Nov., retaining certain powers in military giving as toast, “Peace and Reconciliation, and diplomatic affairs

Nov. 1870

The North German parliament' opened at After negotiations between Bavaria, Würtem

Berlin by Dr. Simson on behalf of the king, berg, and Baden, July; a South German


Nov. military commission appointed

Oct. The parliament vote 100,000,000 thalers to Wilhelmshaven, at Hippens, bay of Jahde, continue the war

28 Nov. Oldenburg, the first German military port, The king of Bavaria, in a letter to the king of

inaugurated by the king of Prussia, 17 June, 1869 Saxony, proposes the king of Prussia to be Count Arnim, German representative at Rome, nominated emperor of Germany, about 4 Dec.

protests against the doctrine of papal in- The parliament in an address request the king fallibility

May, 1870 to become emperor (votes for, 188; against, 6), Bavaria, Würtemberg, Hesse Darmstadt, and

10 Dec. Baden, support Prussia in the war declared The address solemnly presented to the king in by France 15 July

an assembly of princes by Dr. Simson, 18 Dec. Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, declare for

See Franco-Prussian War. union with North Germany; about 6 Sept. »

GLADSTONE ADMINISTRATION.* Mr. Disraeli resigned 2 Dec., and Mr. Gladstone's ministry received the seals 9 Dec. 1868. First lord of the treasury, W. E. Gladstone.

President of board of trade, J. Bright, resigned (anLord chancellor, lord Hatherley.

nounced 20 Dec. 1870). Lord president of the council, earl de Grey.

Postmaster-general, marquis of Hartington. Lord privy seal, earl of Kimberley (succeeded by President of Poor law board, G. J. Goschen. viscount Halifax, July, 1870).

Mr. W. E. Forster, the vice-president of the .comChancellor of the exchequer, R. Lowe.

mittee of council, was admitted to the cabinet, Secretaries-home, H. A. Bruce ;-foreign, earl of July 1870.

Clarendon; died 27 June, 1870, succeeded by earl Granville ;-colonies, earl Granville, succeeded by Changes announced : Board of trade, Mr. C. S. Fortesthe earl of Kimberley, July, 1870; -war, E. Card- cue. Chief secretary for Ireland, the marquis of well ;– India, duke of Argyll.

Hartington. Both to be in the cabinet. The new First lord of admiralty, Hugh C. E. Childers.

postmaster-general (Wm. Monsell) not to be in the Secretary for Ireland, C. 8. Fortescue.

cabinet, 1 Jan. 1871. GLASGOW (p. 337). Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities to elect one Foundation of the new university buildings M.P., and Glasgow to elect three instead of laid by the prince of Wales

8 Oct. 1868 two M.P.'s, by the Scoteh reform act, passed Foundation of Albert bridge laid 3 June, 1870

13 July, 1868 | The new university buildings opened, 7 Nov. ,, GLOBE THEATRE, erected on the site of Lyon's inn, Strand; opened 28 Nov. 1868; Mr. Sefton Parry, first manager.

* William Ewart Gladstone, born 29 Dec. 1809 ; master of the mint, Sept. 1841: president of the board of trade, May, 1843-Feb. 1845; secretary for colonies, Dec. 1845—July, 1846; chancellor of the exchequer, Jan. 1853-Feb. 1855, June, 1859-June, 1866; lord high commissioner extraordinary to the Ionian Isles, Nov. 1858; M.P. for Newark, 1832—46; for Oxford, 1847–65; South Lancashire, 1865—8; for Greenwich, Nov. 1868.

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GOLD (p. 340) discovered in the territory of the Transvaal republic, South Africa, Aug. 1868; in Sutherlandshire, N. Scotland, Oct. 1868; in Western Australia, reported Sept. 1870.

GRAVELOTTE, BATTLE OF, 18 Aug., 1870. See Metz.

GREECE (p. 347). Constantine, duke of Sparta, heir to the crown, ladies sent to treat ; 25,00ol. demanded as born 2 Aug. 1868 ransom, with free pardon

11 April, 1870 Rupture between Turkey and Greece in con- The brigands retreating, and surrounded by sequence of Greek armed intervention in

troops, kill Mr. Vyner, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. HerCandia

bert, and the count de Boyl

about 21 April » After a conference

of representatives of the Wes- Great excitement; the king shows great libertern powers at Paris, Jan., their requisitions ality; but many influential persons are were accepted, and diplomatic relations be- charged with connivance at brigandage, May, tween Turkey and Greece resumed 26 Feb. 1869

June, Prince and princess of Wales visit Athens, Several brigands killed; seven captured, tried

19 April,, and condemned, 23 May; five executed, Law authorising the cutting the isthmus of

20 June, » Corinth passed

A new ministry under M. Deligeorges 19 July New ministry under M. Zaïmis

9 Jan. 1870 Greek college opened at Bayswater, London, W., Lord and lady Muncaster and a party of Eng

1 Oct. lish travellers, seized by brigands at Oropos, Decrce for suppression of brigandage issued, Oct. near Marathon ; Lord Muncaster and the Two gentlemen carried off

A new

ministry under M. Comoundoros, 22 Dec. GREENWICH HOSPITAL (p. 349). All the remaining inmates except 31 bed-ridden persons had left the place i Oct. 1869, and the patients of the Dreadnought seamen's hospital were removed here 13 April, 1870. An act for the application of the revenues was passed in 1869.

GUILDHALL, London (p. 351). The prince consort memorial window unveiled in the presence of prince Arthur, 3 Nov. 1870.

GUN LICENCE ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870; annual licence 108.

GUNPOWDER ACT, 23 & 24 Vict., "to amend the law concerning the making, keeping, and carriage of gunpowder,” &c. was passed 28 Aug. 1860. It has not been quite effectual in preventing accidents. See Birmingham, 1870.

II Oct.

-Dec. 1868

H. HACKNEY COACHES (p. 354). By the Metropolitan Carriages Act, passed 12 Aug. 1869, various restrictions respecting the amount of fare, &c., were removed, commencing 1 Jan. 1870. Further regulations were to be issued by the home secretary.

HABITUAL CRIMINALS ACT, for the more effectual prevention of crime, giving powers for the apprehension of habitual criminals on suspicion, passed 11 Aug. 1869.

KANDEL COMMEMORATIONS (p. 356), 15, 17, 19 June, 1868, highly successful ; about 25,000 persons present on 19 June.

HAYTI (p. 360). Insurrection against Salnave, 10 May; said to Baez suppresses revolts in St. Domingo, June

be successful, 26 May; English consul protecting foreigners

June, 1868 Salnave finally defeated flies to the woods, Salnave defeats insurgents, and ‘kills his

18 Dec. 1868; captured, tried, and shot, 15 prisoners 3 June, ,

Jan. 1870 Salnave proclaims himself emperor, Aug.; offers Sale of Samana bay to the United States disan amnesty


Jan. Civil war continued : Saget and Dominguez Gen. Nissage Saget elected president of Hayti proclaimed president by their respective fol

for four years

19 March, , lowers

Oct. HEREFORD. Bishop Renn D. Hampden, who died 23 April, 1868, was succeeded by Dr. James Atlay, consecrated 24 June following.

HISTORICAL MSS. A commission was appointed 31 Aug. 1869, to examine MSS. in the possession of institutions and private families, and publish any considered desirable.

HOLBORN.(p. 366). The Holborn valley viaduct, founded by Mr. F. H. Fry (Mr. William Haywood, cbief engineer), was opened for foot-passengers 14 Oct., and inaugurated by the queen, 6 Nov. 1869.



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HOLLAND (p. 368). The fortifications of Luxemburg rased May, 1868 , International exhibition opened at Amsterdam, After a long struggle between the ministry and by prince Henry

15 July, 1869 the chambers, the ministry resign; a new Meeting of the chambers ; 'strict neutrality in ministry formed by M. de Thorbecke June, , the Franco-Prussian war to be maintained,

19 Sept. 1870 HOLY SEPULCHRE, KNIGHTS OF. This order was founded by Godfrey of Bouillon, 1099; revived by pope Alexander VI., 1496; and reorganised in 1847.

HONVEDS, the militia of Hungary. They supported the rebellion against the emperor in 1849, but on the completion of the changes whereby the independence of Hungary was secured, in 1868, they offered a loyal address to the emperor-king.

HORSE-SHOES. Goodenough's American horse-shoes put on cold (made by machinery) patented 1860, were used by the London omnibus company, Oct. - Dec. 1868. The international horse-shoe company for adopting the patent was established early in 1870.

HUDSON'S BAY (p. 373). The company's territories (Rupert's Land), on the proposition of earl Granville, the colonial secretary (9 March, 1869), were transferred to the dominion of Canada for 300,000l., and a right to claim a certain portion of land within fifty years, and other privileges. The company consented to this, 9 April, 1869. A portion of the people resisted the annexation, and general Louis Riel proclaimed independence and seized the company's treasury, Jan. 1870. On 3 March he tried and shot Thomas Scott, a Canadian, who had escaped from his custody. Col. Wolseley conducted a Canadian expedition to the territories (now named Manitoba), and issued a proclamation to the loyal inhabitants, 23 July, saying “our mission is one of peace.” Riel was unsupported and offered no resistance. The governor, Mr. Archibald, arrived 3 Sept.

HUNGARY (p. 378).
A Croatian deputation accepts union with Hun- Powerful counter-addresses from Andrassy

27 May, 1868
and Kossuth published

Jan. 1869 Prince Napoleon Jerome's visit; warmly re- Royal Hungarian guard organized ceived

June, Chamber of deputies meet . · 22 April, Dispute respecting the apportionment of the Remains of Louis Batthyany (executed and army settled


privately buried, Oct. 1849,) re-interred The diet of 1865 closed with an address from solemnly in the public cemetery, Pesth, the emperor .

9 June, » Congress of Hungarian Jews opened Dec.

HYDROGENIUM, a hypothetical metal. In paper read before the Royal Society, 7 Jan. 1869, Mr. Thomas Graham, Master of the Mint, suggested that a piece of the metal palladium, into which hydrogen had been pressed, became an “alloy of the volatile metal hydrogenium."

HYTHE, Kent, a cinque-port. A school of musketry was established here in 1854, under the charge of major-gen. Charles Crawford Hay. He resigned in 1867.

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I. IMPORTS (p. 380) into Great Britain : computed real value in 1866, 295,290,2741.; in 1867, 275,183,1371. ; in 1868, 294,693,6081.; in 1869, 295,428,9677.

INCOME TAX (p. 381) reduced to 5d. in the pound, April, 1869; to 4d. April, 1870. Gross annual receipts to 31 March, 1868, 6,177,0001.-1869, 8,618,00ol.-in 1870, 10,044,000l.

INFANTICIDE (p. 389). Margaret Waters was convicted of the murder of John Cowen, an illegitimate infant, by poison and neglect, 23 Sept. 1870. She had adopted about 40 children, receiving a few pounds as premium, in four years.

INDIA (p. 387). War on the N. W. frontier ; ne Bazotees, Si R. Temple's budget; deficiency of about

fanatical Mahometans, defeated by general 2,750,000l.; a i per cent. income tax put on Wilde; 30 killed and wounded; all dispersed; (excessively opposed)

March, 1869 villages burnt as punishment for outrages, Meeting of the viceroy and Shere Ali, the

4 Oct. 1868

Afghan sovereign, who receives a subsidy and Death of the begum of Bhopal, who helped the presents

27 March, British during the mutiny

New divorce act in operation

1 April

,, Arrival of the earl of Mayo, the new viceroy, Rise of a body of Indian religious reformers at Calcutta

12 Jan. 1869 (see Deism).


30 Oct.


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