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three stout brigs, besides gun-boats and row gallies; and while he can keep in with his Janissaries, he has nothing to disturb him in the enjoyment of his power.

is the report. What the real state and extent of the affair has been, we do not know; we are kept so completely in the dark.

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"We have had to-day an uproar on the exchange in this city-it appears, notwithstanding the solemn promises of the legitimate Bourbons to the contrary, contained in their proclamations on entering France, that the droits reunis, so obnoxious under Napoleon, is to be re-established, and that on the 20th of the present month, this law, which is now more oppressive than under the emperor, is to go into operation in this city. There was a general hue and cry against it on the exchange, and against the powers that be, for a want of faith -"a bas les droits reunis and its authors," was vociferated by every one, as loud as their lungs "The scene I witnessed on their embarkation would permit. The exchange was immediately was calculated to excite every tender feeling of the shut by an armed force, and the merchants driven heart. Some had been half their lives in bond-home like hogs to their hovels-so unpopular are age-and the various emotions of frantic joy and the legitimates now becoming, that even in this inexpressible gratitude, pourtrayed in their coun- royal city, or, what is better, English city, the tenances, can only be conceived. Some were cheer- greater portion of the population begin to curse ing, shouting, betraying their joy in a thousand the coming and second coming of Louis, whom childish and extravagant gestures, while others they now call the Messiah of destructive politics. appeared bewildered by their sudden change of situation, fearful that it could not be reality.

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George Canning the famous is now here; it is said by the patriots, that he has already concluda treaty with the ruling party, for the establishment of a separate government, in this section of France, in case the Bourbons should be forced out of Paris.

"Mr. Wilson, a very worthy man of Baltimore,

"The English are certainly a brave and gener-ed ous people; yet with half that force Decatur would emancipate every Christian in Barbary, and knock their towns about their ears to boot. Would to God it had been left to our navy to effect the glorious purpose. I am confident there is not an offi.who was lately named consul for Nantz or L'Oricer or sailor who would not cheerfully risk his ent by our government, has been told by the duke last drop of blood in such a cause. of Richelieu, through the prefect of his depart"The town and country about Algiers presentment, that his politics, are so abnoxious, that he a beautiful appearance as you approach them from cannot be acknowledged in that capacity! When the sea. All that taste and fancy could suggest, consuls are to be sent to France in future, it will seems displayed in the marble palaces and gardens, be useless to send any one whom the English miwhich are interspersed throughout the country.nister at Washington disapproves, for his letters The fresh verdure of vegetation contrasted with will prevent any exequatur. the snow which covers the tops of the high range of mountains bordering richest vallies in the rear of the town, forms a pleasing and delightful scenery. Still beyond this range to the S. E. of Algiers, can be just discerned old Atlas, majestically rearing his venerable top above the others.

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"Our consul here is to embark next monthhis furniture is now selling off; he is making his arrangements for that purpose. He has had a sorry time of it here under this regular government. The treatment he has experienced would disgrace the government of Algiers.

"I can send you no papers, for I take none, nor do any of my neighbors; they are so barren and servile that they are to be found only in the coffee houses. English papers are prohibited, and American papers we get only now and then by stealth."

"The interior of the town of Algiers is as disagreeable as accumulated filth and narrow streets can render it. The houses are extremely high and generally connected by small arches thrown across from one side of the street to the other; so that the poor passenger is impervious either to sun or air. I never was so harassed, or so completely tired of any place in my life; and saw nothing, which afforded either pleasure or gratification, except a collection of lions and leopards, 14 in number, intended as a present to the Grand Seignior. The ladies (that is, such as have charms enough to render them dangerous, never appear abroad, but confine their promenades to the terraces of their respective dwellings." [Enquirer.

We found here the English squadron under Admiral Lord Exmouth, consisting of the Royal 98, Leviathan, Bombay, Berwick, Ajax and Montague, 74's, Clorinde and Tagus frigates, besides a 22 gun ship, and five gun-brigs and bomb-vessels. This formidable force was acting under the immediate orders of the King of Sardinia, and the avowed object of the expedition was the release of all Christians in captivity among the Barbary powers. They effected the release of 500 poor wretches at the enormous ransom of $500 and $1000 per

man.

SUMMARY-FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC. England. It is said that retrenchment is now the tone in this country-One nobleman has put down 4 carriages and discharged 12 servants-She has now 7 armed vessels on Lake Erie and is preparing to build more-Numerous emigrations are daily taking place from England to the U. States, among whom are many courteous men of wealthSerious disturbances have taken place in this Extract of a letter dated Bordeaux, May 17, 1816. country in consequence of the lowness of wages. "This country is in rather a worse state than A new coinage had been commenced at the mint; when I last wrote you-there have been some to include gold and silver. The gold coin to conserious movements at Grenoble. It appears thesist of 20 shilling pieces, and the silver to be of leaders of the patriots in that quarter were too one shilling. It is remarkable that coins of these precipitate ******** Two hundred, it is said, convenient denominations have never been issued of the patriots, were left on the field of battle,|| before. Intelligence has been received from Maand about twelve hundred were taken prisoners jor Peddie, who commands the expedition for exand put to death by a fusilade, without trial-such ploring the interior of Africa, by way of the Ni

ger, to March 15. He was then at Senegal, where Phoebe and sloop of war Cherub in the bay of he was to remain until September on account of Valparaiso, have arrived at New York-they are, the rainy season, but would be employed in the Joshua Whipple, Wm. Coles (with the loss of his mean time in making preparations and collecting leg) Wm. Whitney, (thigh broke and wounded in information. Another expedition is to proceed the side) and Peter Codington, (wounded in the by the way of the river Congo, and the two are head.) A horse thief was shot on the mountain, intended to meet in the interior of the continent.near Willksbarre, Pa. on the 28th June, in endeaFrance. They have tried in Paris, Lieut. Gen. vouring to escape from his pursuer-The ball passDesnouettves, now in Philadelphia, on various ed through his head. charges, and sentenced him to death. It is stated that every thing is tranquil in France, and that there is no agitation in any department but that of L'Isore, which is declared in a state of siege. It is probable there will be no counter-revolution in that country-Mr. Lee, our consul, has left Bordeaux for the U. S. The Grenoble insurrection continues to occupy the French papers. 20 rebels were shot in one day-Dedier was the chief -20,000 francs are offered for his apprehension. Fourteen young women were to be married, at the expense of the city of Paris, on the day of the duke of Berri's marriage, each to receive a dowry of 12,000 francs. The Messager des Chambres, an evening paper, has been suppressed by order of the police. An embassy from the Sophi of Persia, has arrived in France.

NORTHAMPTON, June 26. Monday last was the hottest day we have exat 2 o'clock, P. M. stood at 102 in the shade on The thermometer perienced the present season. the northeast side of the house. Yesterday, it was

down to 55.

Austria. The uxorious old Emperor of Austria is looking out already for another partner; and has fixed his imperial eye on the fair daughter of the King of Saxony.

Our Mission to France.

The hon. Albert Gallatin, our minister to the court of France, sailed with his suit on board of the United States sloop of war Peacock, Captain Rodgers, from New-York, on the 12th ult.

VASE FOR GEN. JACKSON.

We had the satisfaction of exhibiting in our of fice this morning, (says the Southern Patriot of the 19th inst.) the elegant VASE intended as a present to Gen. JACKSON, by the Ladies of South Carolina. It was received by the Georgia Packet, arrived last evening from Philadelphia. It is not our power to do justice to the appropriate design and exquisite execution of this specimen of

art.

Spain. This country seems to be uneasy about West Florida, she growls at our having possession of it, and claims it as hers-It may lead to a warA Spaniard named Jose Florantine Hara, 27 years old, was lately executed in the Havanah for mur-glance. The supporters are four eagles' claws

A slight description, however, is attempted. The body of the Vase is about 15 inches high, mounted on a pedestal of 5 inches-the width from handle to handle 16 inches. The proportion and harmony of its parts strike the eye at a single

dering a Spanish justice of the peace. He confessed that the last was the 17th murder he had in the course of his short career, committed.

on three sides of the pedestal are eagles in basorelievo. On the front is a sketch of that GREAT BATTLE, which throws all other victories into shade, and above it the expressive words

Quebec.-There has been a heavy fall of snow in Canada from the 6th to the 10th June, accompanied with severe frosts. Birds that had never before been found but in distant forests, fled to the cities-swallows disappeared-many of the sheep recently shorn, died of cold, and the young

leaves fell from the trees-this weather has been experienced in different parts of the U. States.

Prussia.-35 villages in Marienburg, 49 in Tri-in egenhoff, and 17 in Elbing, have been entirely

inundated.

“EIGHTH OF JANUARY, 1815."

On each corner of the pedestal is a spread eagle, in frosted silver, grasping a thunderbolt. The vase then rises with a bold swell, and of a polish equal to the most perfect mirror-ornamented on the border, with a circle of laurel. The handles are two curled serpents, terminating in a double head. On one side of the vase are the arms of S. Carolina ;-on the other, this inscription;

DOMESTIC.

Mr. Savage of Boston, has invented a loom to be worked by steam or water. It is said that it weaves woollen cloths 3 yds. wide, and the largest cotton sheets without a seam. The convention of Indiana has consented to become a state, and is now preparing a constitution. The water has entirely receded from Orleans, and very little injury has been sustained. The secretary of the treasury and navy have left the city. The French ambassador, Hyde de Neuville, has gone to visit the president in Virginia. The Richmond Enquirer says that the crops of wheat are fine in that state- || is such, that all its ornaments are multiplied by resome of it which was cut on the 8th June, weighsfection-and gives it a richness beyond descrip66lbs. to the bushel. In Richmond near 1600tion.

The cover is of polished silver surmounted with a large spread eagle, in frost, resting on a ball and cannon. The beauty of this elegant piece of workmanship, consists, not only in the minute perfection of its parts-but in the general and striking effect produced upon the beholder from the harmony of the whole. The polish of the work

"Presented by the Ladies of South-Carolina to Major General Andrew Jackson."

shares of N. Bank stock were taken in two days. The weight of the whole is 14lb. 10oz.-The

The legislature of New Hampshire have repeal-workmanship is by Fletcher and Gardiner, of Phied the judiciary acts. The electors and membersladelphia.-The design and execution do honor to of congress in that state are to be chosen by gen-the artists, and the object for which it is intended eral ticket in November next. The remainder of by the enlightened fair of South-Carolina, must the crew of the U. States frigate Essex who were be as gratifying to our state, as it can be to the wounded in the action with the British frigate hero for whose honor it was designed.

No. 20. VOL. I.]

[WHOLE NO. 20.

WASHINGTON, SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1816.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

his indictment, he merely says this, prove that I have purloined the watch, and I will submit to the penalty imposed by the, law. Now this may be called, comparatively, an honest rogue; he has no other defence to make, than the incompetence of his accuser to prove him a guilty man. The law, with all its terrors, is preserved in its integrity, and the only question is, whether the fact can be proved against the criminal. If this single fact is established, adds to the force of the law, and exhibits himself as an example of its salutary severity.

There is nothing which has more fatally contributed to the degradation of our native country than the opinion so often expressed, that politics is a mere scramble for power between two contending parties. May shame and perdurable contempt fall upon the head of the guilty wretch, of whatever party, who dares, in the face of God and heaven, to avow such sentiments as these! We have no hesitation in declaring such a man to be a monster, more detested than the midnight robber on the high way, or the still more mean and cowardly pick-pocket. The murderer, the robber, the house-breaker, do indeed an injury, but it is a local injury. Property when purloined, may be restored, or enterprise may remunerate us for the loss which we sustain by its deprivation. A fire, an earth-quake, or an ocean tempest do more damage than an army of felons. The evils which such vagabonds commit, except in cases of murder, are temporary and reparable evils. The pillory, the cat-o-nine-tails, or the gibbet, put an end to this business, and society recovers, by such trifling sacrifices, its wonted quietude, security, and repose. Now let us for a moment contrast the extent of injury done by such miserable vagabonds, with that injury inficted by those who dare to prostitute the sacred and venerable name of legislators, by maintaining that hypocrisy, detestable as it is in private life, becomes, in a public station, a virtue. These men explicitly declare that they have a natural, inherent, and indefeasible right to adopt a certain set of political opinions and to abandon them for money; they maintain that they have a right to abuse the sanctity of confidence, whenever it becomes their low, grovelling, and dirty interests so to do; that they are fully justified in selling this confidence for money; that they are authorized to make foes of friends, or friends of foes, as the case may require; that our hopes of heaven and fears of hell may be safely and honourably sold for a guinea. If we compare the injury done between these two honourable men, how does the account stand! The one, while he purloins the watch from the pocket, by the very act acknow-criminals, a common thief or pick-pocket does ledges the justice of the law inflicting the punish- not appear white and brilliant when placed in the ment, if he is detected in the commission of the neighbourhood of such awful depravity? we will crime; he puts the time piece in the one scale ask, whether, if a man professing such worse and the cat-o-nine-tails in the other, and he regu- than diabolical principles deserves a seat in a lates his actions by the preponderance of the legislative body, a common murderer, instead of beam. When called upon, in the ordinary course the gallows, should not be rewarded by a marblé of justice, to hold up his hand and to answer to monument? VOL. I. X.

The other criminal maintains that the law itself is nothing more than a solemn piece of burlesque a rule made to be violated whenever it suits his owni convenience. The plunderer of the watch, it is true, must suffer the penalty of the law; but the man who maintains that the judge who condemns is equally criminal with the culprit on whom he passes sentence, is entitled to the highest public honours. Vice and virtue, in his estimation, are words precisely of the same import, and the weight of a guinea, more or less, will change the character of either. To steal a watch, we then perceive, is a criminal act; but to steal confidence is so far from being a crime, that it absolutely amounts to a virtue: it is felony to do a small, trifling, and reparable injury; but to do the greatest injury that can possibly be done is a glorious and magnificent action. But this evil does not end here! The rising generation are taught to believe, that sincerity and truth, the predominant characteristics of God, are nothing but base and grovelling superstitions, made to be sported with, laughed at, and to be bartered away for money. They are told that hypocrisy is the first duty which a man owes to his country, or to his Creas tor; that if there is one man living who has a confidence in his word of honour, he is a mean, grovelling wretch, and he is bound in conscience to deceive that one man. Such depravity will be taught in the cradle, and children will be instructed to lisp treachery with the letters of the alphabet. Now we will ask, if, between two such

poison upon the sand. As soon as she finds her. self relieved from her fears, she runs to join him-they embrace, kiss each other, and love intoxicates them with pleasure.

The above was considered to be true by Theo

THE ORIGIN OF WINE.
From the same.

The present cannot, by any art or sophistry, || the just alarm that detains her, he vomits his be made a question of party; it appeals with an intensity of interest to every man, whatever may be his politics, of honourable mind. It is a plain proposition, submitted for the determination of every parent, whether he will teach his children from their infancy to trample the Bible under || pompus Oppien, Phileus, and many other Greeks. their feet, and to fling contempt in the face of their adorable Creator. If an assembly of demons were specially commissioned from the infernal regions to taint and corrode the human heart to the core, to render the human bosom the receptacle of all those foul, malignant, horrible, and unnatural passions, which make the society of wicked spirits intolerable to each other, they would proceed on this principle; they would poison, taint, and corrupt our youth in the cradle. Will any one say that this picture is overdrawn? Do we not hear it openly and shamefully avowed, that politics is nothing but a scramble for power; that a man has only to embrace the system which will answer most effectually the ends of his per-will; that the shepherd, charmed with a nectar sonal advancement? This is the despicable cant so delicious, leaped with pleasure, and turning of those miserable men, who are conscious of towards Bacchus, whence comes this purple wa their own degradation, sensible that they have ter? said he, with an air of simplicity, or rather become already the outlaws of honour, and who in what part of the world is found this blood, have now no other security left but to degrade which flatters the taste so sweetly? for this does the sanctity of virtue. This is to train up our not resemble the drink which the rivers and founfellow beings, not merely to be evil men, but || tains afford us—a drink without pleasure, and monsters of depravity; they are taught to sin || which only serves to satisfy our thirst-but this without remorse. When legislators inculcate by oderiferous perfume embalms the mouth, and, precept and example such accursed maxims, they though cold in appearance, bears a voluptuous are a set of banditti much more to be dreaded warmth to the very depth of our hearts. They than the midnight foot-pads of the forest, for vil-add, that at these words Bacchus conducted the lainy has then fled from the bar of justice, and shepherd to a place planted with vines; that he assumed the robes of the magistrate. took some grapes, and having expressed the |juice-behold, said he, whence comes this divine water, this wonderful blood; the fruits which you see are its source. It is thus, according to the Tyriens, that the art of making wine was first

They say that in the first ages of the world wine was unknown to mortals; that this precious liquor originated in the country where there was found a shepherd who religiously observed the rights of hospitality, a man soft, affable, and kind; that one day he presented all kinds of fruits to Bacchus, who had retired into his house, but he offered him nothing but the insipid beverage which nature yields to men and animals; that the god, satisfied with the humanity of his host, gave him some wine, as a mark of his good

THE VIPER AND LAMPREY.

The following is translated from “Le Nouvel An-taught to man.

CURIOUS.

tenor," a work published in France in 1803. The viper, a land serpent, burns with love for the lamprey, an animal that lives in the water. When the season excites them to enjoy the fruits of their mutual flame, the viper, which is the male, repairs to the banks of the river, and by his long and continued hissings, calls up the lamprey. She no sooner hears the signal, than she hastens from her liquid retirement, but does not go immediately to meet her spouse; she knows that he bears death in the fury of his caresses, and that his fangs ooze a fatal poison. Thus she contents herself by barely showing herself on some adjacent rock, surrounded by water, whence she can regard him. Then perceiving

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ORIGIN OF THE TYRIAN PURPLE.

From the same.

One day it happened that a fisherman, having found in his nets many shells which the sea had cast into it, he threw them upon the sand with contempt, and as a capture of no importance., A dog that unexpectedly came up, broke some of them with his teeth, and immediately there issued a purple liquid, which stained his hair. His master, who was a shepherd of the neighbourhood, believed at first that he was wounded; he washed him, and saw, with astonishment, that this admirable tincture, far from being effaced, seemed to acquire an additional lustre. He then con.

tural dye, more brilliant than all the industry of man could invent. In order to be better informed he opened one, and dipped some wool into it; the experiment succeeded. It was by this means that the true purple was discovered and introduced into the world.

ceived that those precious shells contained a na- || between individuals, and reason with justice from the one to the other. Undoubtedly this class of wars is, in the general, what you state them to be, "needless, unjust and inhuman, as well as antichristian."

I

From the North American Review.

The second branch of this subject, to wit, wars undertaken on account of wrong done, and which may be likened to the act of robbery in private life, I presume will be treated of in your future numbers. I observe this class mentioned in the "Is it common for a nation to obtain a redress of Solemn Review, p. 10, and the question asked, wrongs by war?" The answer to this question you will of course draw from history; in the mean time, reason will answer it on grounds of probability, that where the wrong has been done by a weaker nation, the stronger one has generally been able to enforce redress: but where by a stronger nation, redress by war has been neither obtained nor expected by the weaker; on the contrary, the loss has been increased by the expenses of the war, in blood and treasure, yet it may have obtained another object, equally securing itself from future wrongs. It may have retaliated on the aggressor, losses of blood and treasure, far beyond the value to him, of the wrong he had committed, and thus have made the advantage of that too dear a purchase to leave him in a dispo sition to renew the wrong in future; in this way, the loss by war may have secured the weaker nation from loss by future wrong. The case you state of two boxers, both of whom get a "terrible bruising," is apposite to this; he, of the two who committed the aggression on the other, although victor in the scuffle, yet probably finds his aggression not worth the bruising it has cost him.To explain this by numbers, it is alleged, that [A society has been established in Massschu- Great Britain took from us, before the late war, setts, by some christian philanthropists, to dis-near 1000 vessels, and during the war, we took courage war. Whatever opinion may be enter-from her 1400; that before the war, she seized, tained of the utility of this institution, no doubt and made slaves of 6000 of our citizens, and that can exist about the purity of the motives of the we in the war killed more than 6000 of her subrespectable individuals who compose it. One of ects, and caused her to expend such a sum as athe strongest arguments for war in Europe, a mounted to 4 or 5000 guineas a head for every crowded population, cannot be found in this slave she made. She might have purchased the country for a long period of time. The following vessels she took, for less than the value of those letters were received by the founder of this so- she lost, and have used the 6000 of her men killed, ciety, in answer to an application to the writers for the purposes to which she applied ours, have for their support of its views. Any letters com- saved the 4 or 5000 guineas a head, and obtained ing from such eminent men as Mr. Adams and a character of justice, which is valuable to a naMr. Jefferson, must be interesting; but these are tion as to an individual. These considerations, highly characteristic. We copy them from the therefore, leave her without inducement to plun4th number of "the Friend of Peace," a work der property, and take men in future on such dear published under the auspices of this society.] terms. I neither affirm nor deny the truth of these allegations, nor is their truth material to the question; they are possible, and therefore present a case which will claim your consideration in a discussion of the general question: Whether any deof injury can render a recourse to war expedient? Still less do I propose to draw to myself any part in this discussion. Age and its effects both on body and mind, has weaned my attentions from public subjects, and left me unequal to the labours of correspondence, beyond the limits of my personal concern. I retire therefore from the question, with a sincere wish, that your writings may have effect in lessening this greatest of human evils, and that you may retain life and

Mr. Jefferson's Answer.

MONTICELLO, Jan. 29, 1816. SIR-Your letter, bearing date October 18, 1815, came only to hand the day before yester-gree day, which is mentioned to explain the date of mine. I have to thank you for the pamphlets accompanying it, to wit, the Solemn Review, the Friend of Peace or Special Interview, and the Friend of Peace No. 2. The first of these I had received, through another channel some months ago. I have not read the two last steadily thro' because where one assents to propositions as soon as announced, it is loss of time to read the arguments in support of them. These numbers dis-health, to enjoy the contemplation of this happy cuss the first branch of the causes of war, that is spectacle; and pray you to be assured of my great to say, wars undertaken for the point of honour, respect. which you aptly analogise with the act of duelling

TH: JEFFERSON.

The following beautiful thought is from "Voyage du June Anacharsis," tome. 1-page 90.

"Homer often reposes, and sometimes sleeps, but his repose is that of the eagle, who after having coursed through the air, his vast domain, sinks overcome with fatigue upon a lofty mountain, and his sleep resembles that of Jupiter, who, according to Homer himself, awakes in darting his thunderbolt."

Another from Corinne, mad. de Stael Holstein. "When our Sicilians, in conducting travellers in their barks, address them in the gracious dialect of sweet felicitation, and bid them, in verse, a sweet and long adieu-one would say that the pure breath of heaven and the sea, acts upon the imagination of man, like the wind upon the eolian harp, and that poesy, like harmony is the echo of nature. Tome 1-p. 93.

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