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1774. The statute declared the author to bave an exclusive right for 14 years, and if at the end of that term he were living, the right to again return to him for the same term of years. The later acts extended the author's right to 28 years, and if living at the end of that time, then to the remainder of his life. By the 5th and 6th of Victoria, the right is to endure for the life of the author, and for seven years after his death ; but if that term expire earlier than 42 years, the right is still to endure for 42 years, for which term also any work published after the author's death is to continue the property of the owners of the manuscript ; act passed July 1, 1842. The Dramatic Authors' Protection act, passed June 10, 1833. The Inter

national Copyright bill, passed July 31, 1838. LITERARY SOCIETIES, CLUB, FUND, &c. The various societies connected with

literature in London, will be found in their respective places through the volume.

The celebrated Literary Club was instituted by Dr. Johnson, and included many of the illustrious men in literature of the age, 1765. The Literary Fund, in Lincoln's. Inn Fields, was founded in 1790, to relieve authors and literary men who by age or infirmities are reduced to poverty : this society was incorporated in 1818. The

Royal Society of Literature was established Sept. 15, 1825. LITHOGRAPHY. The invention of it is ascribed to Alois Sennefelder, whose first

essays were executed about 1796; and shortly afterwards the art was announced in Germany, and was known as polyautography. It became partially known in England in 1801 et seq., but its general introduction may be referred to Mr. Ackermann, of

London, about 1817. Sennefelder died in 1841. LITHOTOMY. The surgical operation of cutting for the stone was performed by the

ancients. The small apparatus, so called from the few instruments used in the operation, was practised by Celsus, about A.D. 17. The operation called the high apparatus, is said to have been invented by De Franco, and it is thought to be the

most ancient. The great apparatus was invented by John de Romanis, about 1520. LITURGY. In the ancient Greek and Roman churches the word Liturgy was

restrained to signify the mass only. The present English LITURGY was first composed, and was approved and confirmed by parliament, in 1547-8. The offices for morning and evening prayer were then put into nearly the same form in which we now have them, but other parts were different. Upon the solicitation of Calvin and others, the liturgy was reviewed and altered to very nearly its present state, 1551. It was first read in Ireland, in the English language in 1550, and in Scotland, where it occasioned a tumult, in 1637. Again altered in 1661. The Liturgy was revised by Whitehead, formerly chaplain to Anna Boleyn, and by bishops Parker, Grindali,

Cox, and Pilkington, and dean May, and secretary Smith. LIVERIES. In England they originated with our ancestors, who clothed their vassals

in uniform, thereby to distinguish families ; they were originally a single article of dress, or a particular colour used on a part of some one garment; in the end they

became rich suits and gaudy trappings.- Ashe. LIVERY OF LONDON. See Companies of London. The term “Livery” is derived

from the custom of the retainers and followers of the lord mayor and sheriffs, bearing habiliments of the form and colour displayed by those functionaries. It was usual for the wardens of companies to deliver a purse containing 20s. to the lord mayor on the 1st Dec., to obtain for individuals, so desiring, sufficient cloth to make a suit, and the privilege of wearing the livery. This circumstance added to the splendour of

the mayor's train when the civic court went forth.— Ashe. LIVERPOOL. This town, which within the last century has, by a progressive increase

in extent, population, and commercial importance, obtained the first rank after the metropolis, is supposed to be noticed in Domesday-book under the name Esmedune, or, Smedune. In other ancient records its various appellations are, Litherpul, and Lyrpul, signifying probably, in the ancient dialect of the county, the lower pool ; though some bave deduced its etymology from a pool frequented by an aquatic fowl, called the “Liver," or from a sea-weed of that name; and others, from its having belonged to a family of the name of Lever, whose antiquity is not sufficiently established to justify that conclusion. Soon after the Conquest, William granted that part of the county situated between the rivers Mersey and Ribble to Roger of Poitiers, who, according to Camden, built a castle here, about the year 1089. To tbis circumstance is attributed the origin of the town. It was, bowever, but a small fishing place, until, in 1172, its favourable situation, and the convenience of

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its port, attracted the notice of Henry II., who made it the place of rendezvous and embarkation of his troops for the conquest of Ireland :Liverpool made a free burgh by King Royal Institution founded

• 1814 Henry III. . A.D. 1229 Wellington-rooms built

1815 Made an independent port .

1335 Royal Institution opened by a speech Henry, duke of Lancaster, made it his

from Mr. Roscoe.

Nov. 2, 1818 residence

1358 American Seamen's Hospital Liverpool paved (Leland)

1558 Prince's dock opened

July 19, 1821 “The people of Her Majesty's decayed St. John's Market-place.

Feb, 18:2 town of Liverpool" petition Elizabeth Royal Institution incorporated

1822 to be relieved from a subsidy • 1571 Marine Humane Society formed Town rated for ship-money in only £26, New House of Industry erected

• 1824 by Charles I. . 1630 Liver Theatre opened

1825 Besieged by Prince Rupert, and surren- Old dock closed dered.

.June 26, 1644 | Foundation of the new Custom-house Made a separate parish

1698 laid

Aug. 12, 1828 The Old dock, the first in England, con- Blackrock lighthouse built, and light structed, and opened 1699 first shown

Mar. 1, 1830 Blue-coat hospital founded

1709 Lunatic Asylum founded, 1792 ; new The town opposes the Young Pretender,

buildings erected

18.30 and raises several regiments. 1745 Clarence dock completed Sept. 1830 Town-hall commenced

· 1749 Liverpool and Manchester Railway Infirmary established

1749 (which see) opened

Sept. 15, 1830 Seamen's Hospital founded . 1752 Zoological Gardens opened .

1833 A most destructive fire

1762 Great fire; property valued at £300,000 House of Industry founded .

destroyed

Jan. I, 1833 Theatre licensed, 1771 ; opened 1772 Lock Hospital opened .

1834 Liverpool equips, at the commencement Waterloo dock opened

1834 of the war against France, 120 priva- Victoria and Trafalgar docks opened teers, carrying 1986 guns, and 8754 sea- same time

Sept. 8, 1836 men

1778 (The whole range of the docks is 2 King's dock constructed .

miles, and the cost exceeded $3,000,000 (The Queen's dock was also constructed sterling.] about the same time.)

Mechanics' Institute opened

• 1837 Memorable storm raged

. 1789 New Fishmarket opened Feb. 8, 1837 The Exchange burnt

1795 | Apothecaries' Company formed
The Town-hall (since restored) destroyed The Hall erected
by fire
1795 Statistical Society founded

1838 The Athenæum opened Jan. 1, 1799 The Liverpool steamer of 461-horse Union Newsroom erected

1800

power sails for New York Oct. 28, 1838 The Lyceum erected . 1802 Awful storm raged

Jan. 6, 1839
Awful fire, whose ravages exceeded Foundation of the Collegiate Institution

£1,000,000 sterling . . Sept. 14, 1802 laid by Lord Stanley
Corn Exchange opened Aug. 4, 1808 Foundation of St. George's Hall and
Royal Exchange completed

Courts laid.

1841 Statue of George III. commenced Oct. 25, 1809 Immense fire, which destroyed property Fall of St. Nicholas' Tower, which killed amounting to half a million sterling 20 persons Feb. 11, 1810

Sept. 25, 1842 lo 1843, the number of ships which entered the port of Liverpool was as follows; British, 2,615, of the aggregate burthen of 691,707 tons ; foreign, 1,014, burther 417,621 tons. The amount of duties paid at the custom-house for the year ending 5th January 1844, was £4,121,522.--Parl. Ret. The most remarkable feature in the history of Liverpool is, the rapidity with which it has risen into a degree of im. portance without example in the annals of any other town or city in the world, its

present commercial rank being little inferior to that of London.— Lewis' Topog. Dict. LIVERPOOL RAILWAY. The first grand work of this kind was the Liverpool and

Manchester Railway, about thirty-one miles long, connecting these, two of the most important towns in the empire. The first shaft was commenced in Oct. 1826, and the excavation of the tunnel, one mile and a quarter long, Jan. 1827; and the tunnel was completed in Sept. 1828, and was opened July 30, 1829. At the opening of the railroad, the duke of Wellington and a number of other illustrious persons were present; and Mr. Huskisson, who alighted during a stoppage of the engines, was knocked down by one of them, which went over bis thigh, and caused his death, Sept. 15, 1830. The Liverpool and Birmingham railway was opened its entire length, as the Grand Junction, July 4, 1837; and the railway to London was opened its entire length, Sept. 17, 1838.

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LLANDAFF, SEE OF; an ancient bishopric whose first known prelate was St.

Dubritius, in 522. The church takes its name from its situation, Lan, in Welch, siguifying a church, and it having been erected close to the river Taff, or Taffe, in Glamorganshire.-Dugdale. The see is valued in the king's books at 1541, 14s. ld.

per annum. LLOYD'S. The coffee-house in connexion with the Royal Exchange, and held pre

viously to the late fire (see Exchange) on the northern side of that building. Lloyd's was established in 1772, and is the resort of eminent merchants, underwriters, insurance brokers, &c.; and here are effected insurances for all the world on ships and merchandise. The books kept here contain an account of the arrival and sailing of vessels, and are remarkable for their early intelligence of maritime affairs. In 1803, the subscribers instituted the Patriotic Fund, for the purpose of affording relief to the relatives of those who had died in the service of their country. They likewise subscribe liberally in almost every instance where public subscriptions are

deemed necessary. LOADSTONE. One of the most wonderful productions of the earth. Its virtues

were but indistinctly known to the ancients, yet its attractive quality had been taken notice of from very remote times.--Sturmius. Aristotle assures us that Thales made mention of it, and Hippocrates speaks of it under the name of stone that attracts iron, and Pliny was struck with its attractive power. The polar attraction of the loadstone was, it is said, known in France before A.D. 1180; but this honour is accorded to Roger Bacon about 1267. The Italians discovered that it could communicate its virtues to steel or iron ; and Flavio Gioja of Pasitano, was the

inventor of the mariner's compass. - See Compass. LOANS. Those for the service of the crown of England were generally borrowed at

Antwerp until after the reign of Elizabeth. In 1559, that queen borrowed 200,0001. of the city of Antwerp, to enable her to reform her own coin, and Sir Thomas Gresham and the city of London joined in the security.--Rapin. The amount of the English loans, during four late memorable periods, was, viz. : ven years' war.

from 1765 to 1763 . £52,100,000 American war

from 1776 to 1784

75,500,000 French revolutionary war

from 1793 to 1802 . 168,500,000 War against Buonaparte .

from 1803 to 1814

206,300,000 Besides the property tax. In 1813, were raised two loans of twenty-one millions and twenty-two millions; and it deserves to be recorded that a subscription loan to carry on the war against France was filled up in London in fifteen hours and twenty

minutes, to the amount of eighteen millions, Dec. 5, 1796. LOCHLEVEN CASTLE, KINROSS. Built on an island in the celebrated lake of

Locb Leven, in 1257, and was a royal residence when Alexander III. and his queen were forcibly taken from it to Stirling. It was besieged by the English in 1301, and again in 1335. Patrick Grabam, first archbishop of St. Andrew's, was imprisoned and died within its walls, 1447. The earl of Northumberland was confined in it io 1569. It is, however, chiefly remarkable as the place of the unfortunate queen Mary's imprisonment, in 1567, and of her escape, on Sunday, May 2, 1568. In this castle Mary was compelled to sign her abdication of the throne of Scotland, of which an interesting account is given by sir Walter Scott, in The Abbot ; and of which, also, some new and affecting particulars are given by Mr. Tytler, in the 7th

volume of his History of Scotland, published in August, 1840. LOCKS. Those of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans were clumsy contrivances.

Denon has engraved an Egyptian lock of wood. Du Cange mentions locks and padlocks as early as A.D. 1381. The French are accounted the worst locksmiths in Europe, and the English the best. Bramah's celebrated patent locks were registered in 1784. Locks have been made at Wolverhampton in suits of eight, ten, or more, of exquisite workmanship, all with different keys, so that none of them can open any

but its own lock, yet a master key will open all.–See Keys. LOCUSTS. The visits of these animals in Eastern countries have frequently super

induced pestilence and death, and many instances are recorded of these consequences. Owing to the putrefaction of vast swarms in Egypt and Lybia, upwards of 800,000 persons perished, 128 b.c. The country of Palestine was infested with such swarms that they darkened the air, and after devouring the fruits of the earth they died, and their intolerable stench caused a pestilential fever, A.D. 406. A similar catastrophe occurred in France in 873. A remarkable swarm of locusts settled upon the ground about London, and consumed the vegetables ; great numbers fell in the streets, and were preserved by the curious ; they resembled grasshoppers, but were three times the size, and their colours more variegated, Aug. 4, 1748. They infested Germany

in 1749, Poland in 1750, and Warsaw in June 1816. LODI, BATTLE OF THE BRIDGE OF. One of the great early achievements in Italy of

Buonaparte. He commanded the French army, which was opposed to the Austrians commanded by general Beaulieu, and obtained a brilliant and decisive victory after a bloody engagement in which several thousands of the Imperialists perished on the field, and many thousands were made prisoners, May 10, 1796. The conqueror pursued his advantage with wonderful rapidity, as after this battle all Lombardy lay

open to his army, and the republican flag floated in Milan a few days afterwards. LOG-LINE, used in navigation, A.D. 1570; and first mentioned by Bourne in 1577.

The log-line is divided into spaces of fifty feet, and the way which the ship makes is measured by a half-minute sand glass, which bears nearly the same proportion to an

hour that fifty feet bear to a mile : the line used in the royal navy is forty-eight feet. LOGARITHMS, so useful in mathematics, are the indexes of the ratio of numbers

one to another. They were invented by baron Merchiston, an eminent Scotchman (sir John Napier) in 1614. The method of computing by means of marked pieces of ivory was discovered about the same time, and hence called Napier's bones.

The invention was afterwards completed by Mr. Briggs, at Oxford. LOGIERIAN SYSTEM. A system of musical education commenced by J. B. Logier

in January 1815, and by him introduced into the chief towns of the United Kingdom, the Prussian states, &c. First taught in Dublin with eminent success by Mr. Logier

and Mr. E. C. Allen, and in London by most of the high musical professors. LOGWOOD, a species of wood of a dense and firm texture, and deep strong red colour;

it is the heart only of the tree that produces it; it was first cut by the English in the bays of Honduras and Campeachy, in 1662. Its use in dyeing shortly afterwards

be me general, and was encouraged by a law.-Burns' Annals. LOLLARDS. The name given to the first reformers of the Roman Catholic religion

in England, and a reproachful appellation of the followers of Wickliffe.-Chaucer. The original sect was founded by Walter Lollard in 1315; he was burned for heresy at Cologne in 1322. After his death the disciples of Wickliffe were called Lollards. The first martyr in England on account of religious opinions was William Sawtree, the parish priest of St. Osith, London, Feb. 19, 1401, reign of Henry IV. The Lollards were proscribed by the English parliament in 1416, and about 1414, numbers

of them, or persons to whom the name was given, were burnt alive*.-Moreri ; Carte. LOMBARD MERCHANTS. In England they were understood to be composed of

natives of some one of the four republics of Genoa, Lucca, Florence, or Venice.Anderson on Commerce. Lombard usurers were sent to England by pope Gregory IX. to lend money to convents, communities, and private persons, who were not able to pay down the tenths which were collected throughout the kingdom with great rigour that year, 13 Henry III., 1229. They had offices in Lombard-street, which great banking street is called after them to this day. Their usurious transactions

caused their expulsion from the kingdom in the reign of Elizabeth. LOMBARDY. The Lombards were a detachment of Alemanni from the marches of

Brandenburgh, famous for their bravery. They were invited into Italy by Justinian, to serve against the Goths. To reward their services, the emperor gave them part of Upper Pannonia, A.D. 548. They passed into Italy, and their chief was proclaimed king by his army at Milan, in 570. The kingdom of Lombardy supported itself and made considerable conquests till 772, when Charlemagne took Desiderius, the last

king, and annexed his territories to the German empire.-La Combe. * Among others, sir John Oldcastle, baron Cobham, was cruelly put to death in St. Giles's-in-theFields. His crime was his adoption of the tenets of the great reformer Wycliffe. He was misrepresented to our heroic prince Henry V. by the bigoted clergy, as a heretic and traitor, who was actually at the head of 30,000 Lollards, in these fields. About 100 inoffensive people were found therc. Cobham escaped; but was taken some time after in Wales. He suffered death on this spot; being hung on a gallows, by a chain fastened round his body, and, thus suspended, burnt alive, in 1417.Butler ; Pennant's London.

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LONDON*. The greatest and richest city in the world. Some will have it that a city

existed on the spot 1107 years before the birth of Christ. and 354 years before the foundation of Rome. It was the capital of the Trinobantes 54 B.C. and long previously the royal seat of their kings. In A.D. 61, it was known to the Romans as Lundinium. Lundinium or Colonia Augusta was the chief residence of merchants at that period, and the great mart of trade and commerce, though not dignified with the name of a colony.— Tacitus. It is said, but not truly, to have derived its name from Lud, an old British king, who was buried near where Ludgate formerly stood; but its name is from Llyn-Din, the " town on the lake."

London enlarged by the Romans . A.D. 49 Tax called murage, to keep the walls and
Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, reduces ditches in repair

A.D. 1279
London to ashes, and puts 70,000 Ro- City divided into wards

1285 mans and strangers to the sword 61 Cheapside stood outside the city; the She is defeated Suetonius, 80,000 Bri.

houses built of wood

1300 tons are massacred, and she takes poison 61 Charter granted by Edward III. London is walled in, and a palace built 306 Terrible pestilence, in which 50,000 citi. 800 vessels are employed in the port of zens perish

1348 London for the export of corn alone 359 William of Walworth, lord mayor 1380 London made a bishop's see, and Resti. Wat Tyler's rebellion. See Tyler tutus first bishop

Aldermen elected for life

1394 Theonius, second bishop

City first lighted at night by lanterns 1415 St. Melitus (afterwards translated to Guildhall commenced 1411, finished 1416 Canterbury), third bishop .

604 Whittington thrice lord mayor, viz 1397, Westminster abbey built by Sebert.-See

1406, and

1419 Westminster Abbey

604

He entertains Henry V. at Guildhall, St. Paul's built by Sebert.–See Paul's, St. 604 and throws into a fire of spices, bonds A plague ravages London

664 of that monarch for moneys lent him Great fire, which nearly consumed the to the value of 60,0001.

1419 city 798 Jack Cade's rebellion. See Cade

. 1450 London destroyed by the Danes

First civic procession on the water; sir Alfred repairs and strengthens London . John Norman lord mayor

1453 Another great fire 982 Falconbridge attempts the city

1471 Tower built by William I.

1078 Sweating sickness rages
First charter granted to the city by the The fatal sweat, Su or Anglicus

1517 same king. See London Citizens 1079 Memorable Evil May-day. See Evil MayAnother devastating fire

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day 600 houses thrown down by a tempest 1090 Streets first paved (Viner's Stat.) 1533 Charter granted by Henry I.

1100 Forty taverns and public houses allowed Henry Fitz Alwyn, the first mayor, serv

in the city, and three in Westminster, ing twenty-four years

1189 act 7 Edward VI. (there are now 7000) 1553 Charter relating to weirs.

. 1196 Royal Exchange built. See Exchange . 1566 Charter of king John; mayor and com- Thames water conveyed into the city by mon council elected annually.t-Slowe 1209 leaden pipes :

1682 Charter of Henry III.

1233 New buildings in London forbidden in Aldermen appointed in the city, with any places where none had previously important privileges .

1242 been erected, to prevent the increasing Watch in London, 38 Henry III.

size of the city s

1580 * The fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth, with regard to the origin of London, are unworthy of the attention of the antiquary. That London was founded by Brute, a descendant of the Trojan Æneas, and called New Troy, or Troy-novant, until the time of Lud, who surrounded it with walls, and gave it the name of Caer Lud, or Lud's Town, &c., may be considered as mere romance. Leigh.

| Stowe incorrectly states this charter to have been given in 1209, but it bear: date May 19th, in the 16th year of king John's reign. John began his reign in 1199. This charter was acted on at that period in various instances, as many of the mayors were afterwards continued in their offices for several years together; and the same right was exerted in the case of Mr. Alderman Wood, who filled the office of lord mayor during two succeeding years, those of 1816 and 1817.-Idem.

* This terrible pestilence broke out in India, and spreading itself westward through every country on the globe, reached England. Its ravages in London were so great, that the common cemeteries were not sufficient for the interment of the dead; and various pieces of ground without the walls were assigned for burial-places. Amongst these was the waste land now forming the precincts of the Charter-house, where upwards of 50,000 bodies were then deposited. This destructive disorder did not entirely subside till 1357.--Idem.

$ This proclamation or decree was dated from Nonesuch, 7th July 1580, and it was forbidden to erect new buildings where none had before existed in the memory of man. This extension of the metropolis was deemed calculated to encourage the increase of the plague ; created a trouble in governing such multitudes; a dearth of victuals; multiplying of beggars, and inability to relieve them; an increase of artisans more than could live together ; impoverishing of other cities for lack of inhabitants. The decree stated that lack of air, lack of room to walk and shoot, &c., arose out of too crowded a city. A proclamation to the same effect was also issued by James I.

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