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LONDON, continued.

Nearly all London yet built of wood 1600 | Thanksgiving of George III. at St. Paul's 30,578 persons perish by the plague

April 23, 1789 Gunpowder plot, which see 1645 London Missionary Society

1794 New River water brought to London

. 1613
Horse patrol in London

1805 Hackney coaches plied. See Hack

Lord Nelson's neral

Jan. 9, 1806 ney Coaches

1625 Riots on the committal of sir F. Burdett 68,596 persons perish by the great plague.

to the Tower.

April 6, 1810 See Plaques

1665 Civic banquet to the allied sovereigns at Great Fire of London. See article Fires 1666 Guildhall

June 18, 1814 Act for a “ new model of building" of Gas lights used in London, Aug. 1807; the city

16016 Pall Mall lighted in 1809; and the city Monument crected, begun 1671; finished generally lighted

1814 1677. Sec Monument

1677 Queen Caroline's funeral passes through London streets first lighted by lamps 1681 London

Aug. 14, 1821 Charter declared forfeited, 1682; taken London University chartered. See Lonaway, 1688; but restored 1689 don University

Feb. 11, 1826 Awful and devastating storm, called Metropolitan police commenced duty “ the high wind" 1703

Sept. 29, 1829 Act for the erection of 50 new churches Memorable political panic, Nov. 5; and in and near London 1711 no lord mayor's show

Nov. 9, 18:30 South Sea bubble commenced 1710, ex

General Fast on account of the cholera ploded 1720. See South Sea Company. 1720 in England

Feb. 6, 1832 Chelsea water-works formed

1722 The cholera officially announced to exist “ Great Frost," Dec. 25, 1739, to Feb. 8, 1740 in London

Feb. 14, 1832 New Mansion House completed

1753 Queen's feast at Guildhall, Nov. 9, 1837 The lord mayor committed to the Tower Oxford fires at the quocn. See Orford's by the House of Commons for a breach

Attempt, &c. .

June 10, 1840 of privilege

1771 Francis' attempt. (See Francis) May 30, 1842 Lord George Gordon's No-popery mob.

(See England ; and the occurrences not See Gordon's Mob


noticed here, under their respective Memorable storm of rain and thunder

heads.] over London

June 26, 1788 LONDON, BISHOPRIC OF. A most ancient see, archiepiscopal in the time of the

Britons, founded about A.D. 514, when Restitutus was first bishop. Pope Gregory intended London to continue archiepiscopal, but St. Augustin, whom his holiness had sent over to convert the Saxons, was so pleased with his reception from Ethelbert, king of Kent, that he set up his staff at Canterbury, the capital of Ethelbert's dominions, which continues the metropolitan see of England to this day. London, however, remained a bishopric, and bas yielded to the church of Rome five saints, and to the realm sixteen lord chancellors and lord treasurers ; it was valued in the king's

books at 11191. 8s. 4d. per annum. LONDON BRIDGE, OLD. Some kind of structure is said to have existed A.D. 978.

A bridge was built of wood, 1014, which was partly burnt in 1136, and afterwards repaired. The late old bridge was commenced about 1176, and completed in 1209, with houses on each side, connected together by large arches of timber, which crossed the street. This bridge was the scene of an awful catastrophe in 1212. A fire bappened at the Southwark end, which brought immense crowds from London to see, and to extinguish it : but the houses at the north end of the bridge caught fire likewise, which prevented their return, and the fire at the south end prevented their advancing ; several vessels that approached to take them off were sunk by overcrowding, and it is said that upwards of 3000 persons lost their lives, either by being killed, burnt, or drowned. The bridge was restored in 1300, and again suffered by fires in 1471, 1632, and Sept. 1725; and in 1756, all the houses were pulled down. The waterworks were begun in 1582, and caught fire and were destroyed in 1774. The

toll was discontinued March 27, 1782. LONDON BRIDGE, NEw. The first pile was driven 200 feet to the west of the

old bridge, March 15, 1824 ; and the first stone was laid by the lord mayor, alderman Garratt, June 15, 1825. The bridge was opened by William IV. and his queen, going by water, attended by a crowd of nobility, and amid great festivities, Aug. 1, 1831. Its length is 928 feet, and within the abutments, 782 feet ; the span of the centre arch is 152 feet, and of the side arches (of which there are two on each side) 140 and 130 feet; the width of the carriage-way is 33 feet, and of the abutments at

the base, 73 feet. The cost of this great structure was 506,0001. LONDON CITIZENS have been granted many privileges and immunities from the time of William the Conqueror, whose first charter, granted in A.D. 1079, is still preserved in the city archives. This charter is written in beautiful Saxon characters, on a slip of parchment six inches long, and one broad, and is in English as follows :-"William the king greeteth William the bishop, and Godfrey the portreve, and all the burgesses within London, friendly. And I acquaint you, that I will that ye be all there law-worthy, as ye were in king Edward's days. And I will that every child be his father's heir, after his father's days. And I will not suffer that any man do you any wrong. God preserve you." This is the first of nine charters granted to London. The citizens have the privilege of pleading their own cause in the courts of judicature, without employing lawyers or counsel, except in

pleas of the crown, by statute 40 Henry III., 1257.–Stowe. LONDON GATES. The original walls of London were the work of the Romans.

Theodosius, governor of Britain, is said to have raised them a.d. 379; but they are supposed to have been built about 306. There were originally four principal gates ; but in process of time, as new roads were made, the number increased ; and among others were the Prætorian-way, Newgate, Dowgate, Cripplegate (so called from lame beggars that sat there), Aldgate, Aldersgate, Ludgate, Bridgegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate, the Postern on Tower-hill, and Temple-bar, rebuilt 1670.2, the only one of the city boundaries now remaining. Cripplegate was rebuilt by the brewers, in 1244, and was pulled down in July 1760. Aldgate, rebuilt 1608, was taken down 1760; Aldersgate, rebuilt 1716, was taken down April 1661 ; Bishopsgate,

rebuilt 1733, was taken down 1761 ; as was Moorgate, same year. LONDON STONE. A stone placed in Cannon-street by the Romans, the spot being

then the centre of the city, 15 B.c. Cheapside was at this period in the suburbs.Burns. London Stone is one of the greatest antiquities of the city, having been known before the time of William I. It formerly stood on the opposite side of the way ; but the time and purpose of its erection are alike unknown. Some have supposed it to be the spot whence the Romans measured the distance of their several stations. It was against this stone that Jack Cade struck his sword, exclaiming,

“Now is Mortimer lord of London," 1450.-Leigh. LONDON UNIVERSITY obtained its charter, Feb. 11, i826 ; the building was

commenced April 30, 1827, and the college opened by the introductory lectures of professor Bell, Oct. 1, 1828. The plan comprehends lectures with examinations by the professors ; mutual instruction among the pupils ; and the aid of tutors in those parts of knowledge which most require to be minutely and repeatedly impressed on the memory. The professors derive their income principally from the fees paid by their pupils. The course of instruction consists of languages, mathematics, physics, the mental and the moral sciences, together with the law of England, history, and political economy, and the various branches of knowledge which are the

objects of medical education. LONDONDERRY. Mentioned in A.D. 546. An abbey here was burnt by the Danca,

in 783. A charter was granted to the London companies, in 1915. The town was surprised, and sir George Powlett, the governor, and the entire garrison were put to the sword, 1606. Londonderry was besieged in 1641. A grant was made of Londonderry, with 210,000 acres of land, to various companies in London, in 1689. Memorable siege of Londonderry, sustained against the army of James II., who for a time commanded in person. The heroic garrison and inhabitants were, on this memorable occasion, driven to the extremity of famine ; but under the direction of the Rev. George Walker, they defended the place against the enemy until the siege was raised by the force of the duke of Schomberg. James's army, under the French general Rosene, retired with the loss of about 9000 men, after having practised almost unparalleled cruelties upon the inhabitants of the villages around,

April 20, 1689. LONG ISLAND, BATTLE OF, between the British troops, under sir William Howe,

and the revolted Americans, who suffered a severe defeat, after a well-fought action, losing 2000 men in killed and wounded, and 1000 prisoners. The Americans were pursued by the victors in their retreat to New York, but were saved under cover of

a thick fog from further discomfiture, Aug. 27, 1776. LONGEVITY. In these countries the instances of it are remarkable, though rare.

Golour M'Crain, of the Isle of Jura, one of the Hebrides, is said to have kept 180


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Christmases in his own house, and died in the reign of Charles I., being the oldest man on anything approaching to authentic record for upwards of 3000 years. Greig. Thomas Parr, a labouring man of Shropshire, was brought to London by the earl of Arundel, in 1635, and considered the wonder of his time, being then in his 153rd year, and in perfect health ; but the journey and change of air and diet killed him, Nov. 15, the same year. Henry Jenkins, of Yorkshire, died in 1670, and was buried in Bolton church-yard, Dec. 6, in that year, aged 169 years.

1780. Louisa Truxo, a negress, was yet 1656, James Bowles, Killingworth, aged 152

living in this year, at Tucuman, 1691. Lady Eccleston, Ireland

South America

175 1749. A man named Collier, Dublin 137 1782. Evan Williams, Carmarthen • 145 1757. An Englishman named Eccleson 1786. Cardinal de Solis (Phil. Trans.) 144 1787. Mary Brook, of Leck.

148 1759. James Shiel, Irish yeoman .

136 | 1792. Mr. Johnson, of Birminghamı 120 1766. Colonel Thomas Winslow, Ireland 146 1792. Mrs. Judith Scott, Islington 1766. John Mount, Scotland

136 1806. Mr. Creeke, of Thurlow. 1768. Francis Conceist, Burythorpe . 150 1806. Mr. J. Tucker, Ilching-ferry 1772. Mrs. Clun, Lichfield

138 1806. Catherine Lopez, of Jamaica . 124 1774. William Beeby, Dungarvon

130 1806. Sarah Anderson, a free black
(He had been an ensign, and served 1813. Mrs. Meighan, Donoughmore.
at the battles of the Boyne and 1814. Mary Innes, Isle of Skye

137 Aughrim.--Burns.)

1814. Mrs. Judith Crawford, Spanishtown 151 1775. Peter Gordon, Auchterless

131 1840. Mrs. Martha Rorke, of Dromore, 1775. Mary Paton, Lochwinnoch.


County of Kildare, August 27 133 1776. Mr. Movot, surgeon, Dumfries


When James L. visited Hereford1776. Sarah Brookman, Glastonbury 166

shire, a dance called the Morice 1778. Thomas Cockey, Blechingley.

was performed in his presence by 1779. M. Laurence, Orkney


five men and five women, whose 1780. Robert Mac Bride, Herries

united ages amounted to upwards 1780. Mr. William Ellis, Liverpool


of a thousand years. There are some extraordinary instances of great age in Russia ; and at Dantzic a man is said to have died at 184 ; and another to be living in Wallachia, aged 186 years. In Holy Writ, Methuselah is stated to have lived 969 years, the greatest age of any on record, according to the reckoning before the Flood ; but the length of the years of that time is not ascertained; hence there is no fixed principle to

determine the real ages of that epoch. LONGITUDE, determined by Hipparchus at Nice, who fixed the first degree in the

Canaries, 162 b.c. Harrison made a time-keeper, in A.D. 1759, which in two voy. ages was found to correct the longitude within the limits required by the act of parliament, 12th Anne, 1714 ; and in 1763, he applied for the reward of 20,0001. offered by that act, which he received. The celebrated Le Roi of Paris, in 1776, invented a watch that keeps time better; and the chronometers of Arnold, Earnshaw, and Breguet bring the longitude almost to the truth. Philosophers have sought the longitude in vain ; but Newton has said it will yet be discovered by a fool. Maps which reckon the longitude from Ferro require 18° 6' to be added, and from Paris 2' 25'' to be deducted, to reconcile them to British maps. Act repealing the act

relating to the discovery of the longitude at sea, 9 George IV., July 1828. LOOKING-GLASSES. Made only at Venice in 1300. They were made in England, by Venetian artists, some of whom took up their abode in Lambeth, in 1673.-Sal

The French excelled in tbeir manufacture of them in the last century; but the English have brought their factories to great perfection of late years, and now

make looking-glasses to cover, in a single plate, the walls of large rooms. LOOM-ENGINE. The weaver's, otherwise called the Dutch loom, was brought into

use in London from Holland, in or about the year 1676, since when the general principle of the loom has been infinitely varied by mechanical ingenuity. There are about 250,000 hand-looms in Great Britain, and 75,000 power-looms, each being equal to three hand-looms, making twenty-two yards each per day. The steam

loom was introduced in 1807. LORD. In the Old and New Testament, Lord is a particular appeilation for the supreme

majesty of God and Christ, and in that sense cannot be applied to any other being. With us, it is a term of nobility.-See Lords and Baron. The word lord is abbreviated from two syllables : it was originally Hlaford, which, by dropping the aspirate decame Laford, and afterwards by contraction Lord. “The etymology of ihis



word,” a writer observes, “ is worth observing, for it was composed of hlaf, a loaf of bread, and ford, to give or afford ; so that Hlaford, now Lord, implies a giver of bread ; because in those ages, such great men kept extraordinary houses, and fed the poor; for which reason they were called givers of bread."'--See Ladies. The nick name of “ My Lord,” given by vulgar people to hunchbacked persons, is from

the Greek word lordos, crooked. LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD. An office of antiquity and rank.

The title is from the French word Chambellan, and in Latin it is called Camerario Hospitii. He has the oversight of the king's chaplains, notwithstanding he is a layman; also of the officers of the standing and removing wardrobes, beds, tents, revels, music, comedians, hunting, and of all the physicians, apothecaries, surgeons, barbers, messengers, trumpeters, drummers, tradesmen, and artisans, retained in his majesty's service. Sir William Stanley, knt., afterwards beheaded, was lord chamberlain, 1 Henry VII., 1485. A vice-chamberlain acts in the absence of the chief; the offices

are co-existent.-Beatson. LORD DANE. This was a distinction exacted by the Dades, about the time of Ethel.

red II., 991. It was in the reigns immediately subsequent corrupted into Lordan, and given as a name of ignominy to the lazy Danes, who lived on the sweat of the Englishmen's brows ; though in the days of Canute and others, a private fellow quar

tered on your house exacted the title of Lord Dane.Burns. LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN of England. The sixth great officer of state, whose

duties, among others, relate to coronations and public solemnities. The rank appertained for many centuries to the family of De Vere, earls of Oxford, granted to it by Henry I. in 1101. On the death of John de Vere, the 16th earl, Mary, his sole daughter, marrying lord Willoughby of Eresby, the right was established by a judgment of the house of peers in that nobleman's family, 2 Charles I. 1626. On the death of his descendant, unmarried, in July 1779, the house of lords and twelve judges concurred that the office devolved to lady Willoughby of Eresby, and her sister the lady Georgina Charlotte Bertie, as heirs to their brother Robert, duke of Ancaster, deceased ; and that they had powers to appoint a deputy to act for them, not under the degree of a knight, who, if his majesty approved of him, might officiate

accordingly. LORD HIGH ADMIRAL OF ENGLAND. See article Admiral. LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND. See Chancellor, Lord High. LORD HIGH CONSTABLE OF ENGLAND. The seventh great officer of the

crown, and, with the earl marshal, formerly a judge of the court of chivalry, called, in the time of Henry IV. curia militaris, and subsequently the court of honour. It is the fountain of the marshal law; and the power of this officer was so great, and such improper use was made of it, that in the 13th Richard II. a statute passed for abridging it, and also the power of the earl marshal, which see. The office existed before the Conquest, after which it went by inheritance to the earls of Hereford and Essex, and next in line of Stafford. İn 1521, it became forfeited to the king in the person of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, that year attainted for high treason, and has never been since granted to any person, otherwise than pro hac vice, and that to attend at a coronation, or trial by combat. The only instance of a trial by combat being ordered since this office fell into the hands of the crown, was that commanded between lord Reay and sir David Ramsay in November 1631; but the

king afterwards prevented the trial. See Constable of Scotland, and Combat. LORD HIGH CONSTABLE OF SCOTLAND. The office of lord high constable of

Scotland is of great antiquity and dignity, and the nobleman holding it obtained two grand prerogatives, viz. the first, the keeping of the king's sword, which the king, at his promotion, delivers to him naked (and hence the badge of the lord high constable is a naked sword); and secondly, the absolute command of the king's armies while in the field, in the absence of the king. The jurisdiction of this office came at last to be exercised only as to crimes during the time of parliament, which some extended likewise to all general conventions. The office was conferred heritably upon the noble family of Errol, by king Robert Bruce, and with them it still remains, being expressly reserved by the treaty of Union in 1707. It was instituted by king David I. about 1147.

LORD HIGH STEWARD OF ENGLAND. The first great officer of the crown.

This office was established prior to the reign of Edward the Confessor, and was formerly annexed to the lordship of Hinkley, belonging to the family of Montfort, earls of Leicester, who were, in right thereof, lord high stewards of England ; but Simon de Montfort, the last earl of this family, making a bad use of the great power this office gave him, raised a rebellion against his sovereign, Henry III., and was attainted, and his estate forfeited to the king. That prince wisely judging the power too vast, in a great measure abolished the office (as in the hands of an ambitious subject it might be made subservient to the worst purposes), A.D. 1263. It is therefore now revived only pro hac vice to officiate at a coronation, or the trial of a peer. The first afterwards appointed was Thomas, second son of Henry IV. The first for the trial of a peer was Edward, earl of Devon, on the arraignment of the

earl of Huntingdon, in 1400. See Lord Steward. LORD KEEPER. The lord keeper of the great seal differs only from the lord

chancellor in this point, that the latter hath letters patent, whereas the lord keeper has none.

Richard, a chaplain, was the first keeper under Ranulph, in 1116. The lord keeper has the like jurisdiction, and all other advantages, in the same degree as

the lord high chancellor of England, 5 Elizabeth, 1562.-Cowell. LORD LIEUTENANT, OR CHIEF GOVERNOR, OR VICEROY OF IRELAND.

The first formal appointment, as lord justice, was of Hugh de Lacy, lord of Meath, under Henry II. in 1173. Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, was appointed, as lord warden, same year. Raymond le Gros was elected by the council, with the style of procurator, May 1177. John, earl of Moreton, son of the king, was appointed as lord of Ireland soon afterwards. William Fitzadelm de Burgo was appointed, under the title of seneschal, also in 1177. The earl of Morton was appointed as governor in 1185. Peter Pipard was appointed lord deputy by Richard 1. in 1191. Geoffry de Mariscis was appointed governor, under the title of custos, 16 king John, 1215. Piers de Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, was appointed, by the style of lord lieutenant, 2 Edward II. 1308. LORD LIEUTENANTS.

1558. Thomas, earl of Sussex. A.D. 1308. Piers de Gaveston, earl of Cornwall. 1598. Robert, earl of Essex. 1329. James, earl of Ormond.

1599. Sir Charles Blunt, lord Mountjoy. 1331. Sir Anthony Lucy.

1639. Thomas, lord viscount Wentworth, earl 1361. Lionel, duke of Clarence.

of Strafford. 1369. Sir William de Windsor.

1643 James, marquess of Ormond. 1380. Edmund Mortimer, earl of March. 1649. Oliver Cromwell. 1382. Philip Courtney,lord Birmingham, Genl. 1660. James Butler, duke, marquess, and earl 1384. Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford.

of Ormond. 1394. King Richard II, in person.

1669. John Roberts, lord Roberts. 1395. Roger Mortimer, earl of March and 1670. J. Berkeley, lord Berkeley. Ulster.

1672. Arthur Capel, earl of Essex. 1399. King Richard II. in person (second time). 1677. James Butler, duke of Ormond. 1401. Thomas, earl of Lancaster.

1685. Henry Hyde, earl of Clarendon. 1410. John, duke of Bedford.

1686. Richard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnell. 1413. Edward, earl of March.

1690. Henry Sidney, lord Sidney. 1414. Sir John Talbot.

1695. Henry Capel, lord Capel. 1416. Thomas, earl of Lancaster.

1701. Lau. Ilyde, earl of Rochester. 1427. Sir John de Grey.

1703. James Butler, duke of Ormond. 1428. Sir J. Sutton, lord Dudley.

1707. Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 1432. Sir Thomas Stanley.

1709. Thomas, earl of Wharton. 1438. Lion, lord Wells.

1711. James, duke of Orinond, again. 1440. James, earl of Ormond.

1713. Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, 1446. J. Earl of Shrewsbury.

1717. Charles, duke of Bolton.
1449. Richard, duke of York.

1721. Charles, duke of Grafton.
146), Gcorge, duke of Clarence, for life. 1724. John, lord Carteret.
1479. Richard, duke of York.

1731. Lionel, duke of Dorset.
1483. Gerald, earl of Kildare, and in 1496. 1737. William, duke of Devonshire.
1485. John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln.

1745. Philip, earl of Chesterfield.
1490. Jasper, duke of Bedford.

1747. William, earl of Harrington. 1496. Gerald, earl of Kildare, and in 1504. 1751. Lionel, duke of Dorset, again. 1301. Henry, duke of York, afterwards Henry 1755. William, marquess of Hartington. VIII.

1757. John, duke of Bedford. 1504. Gerald, earl of Kildare.

1761, George, earl of Halifax. 1520. Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey.

1763. Ilugh, earl of Northumberland. 1530. Henry, duke of Richmond.

1765. Francis, earl of Hertford.

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