Page images
PDF
EPUB

the church of Scotland, published "The Testimony of the King of Martyrs, concerning his Kingdom (John xviii. 36)," in which he opposed national churches, and described the original constitution of the Christian church, its doctrines, ordinances, officers, and discipline, as given in the New Testament. Having been deposed in 1728, he and others established several churches formed upon the primitive models. The publication of a series of letters on Hervey's "Theron and Aspasio," by Robert Sandeman, in 1755, led to the establishment of churches in London and other places in England, and also in North America. The meeting-house at Barnsbury, London, N., was erected in 1862.

GLASS. The Egyptians are said to have been taught the art of making glass by Hermes. The discovery of glass took place in Syria. Pliny. Glass-houses were erected in Tyre. It was in use among the Romans in the time of Tiberius; and we know, from the ruins of Pompeii, that windows were formed of glass before 79.

[ocr errors]

Glass is said to have been brought to England by
Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, in
The glass manufacture established in England at
Crutched-friars, and in the Savoy (Stow)

1830

Great improvements have been made in the manufacture, through the immense increase of chemical knowledge in the present century. Professor Faraday published his researches on the manufacture of glass for optical purposes in The duties on glass, first imposed 1695; repealed, 1698; re-enacted, 1745; finally remitted, 24 April, 1845 GLASS-PAINTING was known to the ancient Egyptians. It was revived about the roth century, and is described in the treatise by the monk Theophilus; was practised at Marseilles in a beautiful style, about 1500, and attained great perfection about 1530. Specimens of the 13th century exist in England; C. Winston's work is the best on the subject, 1846, new edition GLASS-PLATE, for coach-windows, mirrors, &c., made at Lambeth by Venetian artists, under the patronage of Villiers, duke of Buckingham. The manufacture was improved by the French, who made very large plates; and further improvements in it were made in Lancashire, when the British Plate Glass company was established 1773 Manufacture of British sheet glass introduced by Messrs. Chance, of Birmingham, about

1868

1673

1832

GLASTONBURY (Somerset), said to have been the residence of Joseph of Arimathea, and the site of the first Christian church in Britain, about 60. A church was built here by Ina about 708. The town and abbey were burnt, 1184, and an earthquake did great damage in 1275. Richard Whiting, the last abbot, who had 100 monks and 400 domestics, was hanged on Tor-hill in his pontificals for refusing to take the oath of supremacy to Henry VIII., 14 Nov. 1539. The monastery was suppressed 1540.

.

GLENDALOUGH, or "Seven Churches," an ancient Irish bishopric, said to have been founded by St. Keven in 498; united with Dublin, 1214.

676

1557

five zones, some of the principal circles of the GLOBE. The globular form of the earth, the sphere, the opacity of the moon, and the true causes of lunar eclipses, were taught, and an eclipse predicted, by Thales of Miletus, about 640 B.C. Pythagoras demonstrated, from the varying altitudes of the stars by change of place, that the earth must be round; that there might be antipodes on the opposite part of the globe; that Venus was the morning and evening star; that the universe consisted of twelve spheres the sphere of the earth, the sphere of the water, the sphere of the air, the sphere of fire, the spheres of the moon, the sun; Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the spheres of the stars; about 506 B.C.-Aristarchus, of Samos, maintained that the earth turned on its trine was held by his contemporaries as so absurd, own axis, and revolved about the sun, which docthat the philosopher nearly lost his life, 280 B.C.; see Circumnavigators.

To determine the figure of the earth, a degree of latitude has been measured in different parts of the world; by Bouguer and La Condamine in Peru, and by Maupertuis and others in Lapland, 1735.

France and Spain measured by Mechain, Delambre, Biot, and Arago, between 1792 and 1821. Measurements made in India by col. (afterwards sir George) Everest, published in 1830. Experiments made by pendulums to demonstrate the rotation of the earth by Foucault in 1851; and to determine its density by Maskelyne, Bailly, and others; and in 1826, 1828, and 1854, by Mr. (now sir) G. B. Airy, the astronomer royal. ARTIFICIAL GLOBES. It is said that a celestial globe was brought to Greece from Egypt, 368 B.C., and that Archimedes constructed a planetarium about 212 B.C. The globe of Gottorp, a concave sphere, eleven feet in diameter, containing a table and seats for twelve persons, and the inside representing the visible surface of the heavens, the stars and constellations all distinguished according to their respective magnitudes, and being turned by means of curious mechanism, their true position, rising and setting, are shown. The outside is a terrestrial globe. The machine, called the globe of Gottorp, from the original one of that name, which, at the expense of Frederick II. duke of Holstein, was erected at Gottorp, under the direction of Adam Olearius, and was planned after a design found among the papers of the celebrated Tycho Brahe. Frederick IV. of Denmark presented it to Peter the Great in 1713. It was nearly destroyed by fire in Coxe. 1757; but it was afterwards reconstructed.

The globe at Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, erected by Dr. Long (master, 1733), is eighteen feet in diameter. In 1851 Mr. Abrahams erected in Leicester-square, for Mr. Wyld, a globe 60 feet 4 inches in diameter, lit from the centre by day, and by gas at night. It was closed in July, 1861; the models were sold, and the building eventually taken down.

GLOBE THEATRE, BANKSIDE (London), see Shakespeare's Theatre.-The Globe "Theatre,' erected on the site of Lyon's-inn, Strand, was opened 28 Nov. 1868, Mr. Sefton Parry, manager. Globe evening newspaper; formerly whig, now conservative; established 1803.

GLOIRE, French steam frigate, see Navy, French.

GLORY, the nimbus drawn by painters round the heads of saints, angels, and holy men, and the circle of rays on images, adopted from the Cæsars and their flatterers, were used in the 1st century. The doxology, "Gloria Patri," is very ancient, and originally without the clause "as it was in the beginning," &c. In the Greek it began with "doxa," glory.

GLENCOE MASSACRE of the Macdonalds, a Jacobite clan, for not surrendering before I Jan. 1692, the time stated in king William's proclama-The mation. Sir John Dalrymple, master (afterwards earl) of Stair, their enemy, obtained a decree "to extirpate that set of thieves," which the king is said to have signed without perusing, Every man under 70 was to be slain. This mandate was treacherously executed by 120 soldiers of a Campbell regiment, hospitably received by the Highlanders, 13 Feb. 1692. About 60 men were slain; and many women and children, turned out naked in a freezing night, perished. This exited great indignation; and an inquiry was set on foot, May, 1695, but no capital punishment followed.

GLOUCESTER (Roman Glevum), submitted to the Romans about 45, and to the Saxons 577The statutes of Gloucester, passed at a parliament held by Edward I. 1278, relate to actions at law. This city was incorporated by Henry III.; and was fortified by a strong wall, which was demolished after the Restoration, in 1660, by order of Charles II., as a punishment for the successful resistance of the city to Charles I., under col. Massey, Aug., Sept. 1643. The Gloucester and Berkeley canal was completed in April, 1827. Gross bribery took place here at the election for the parliament in 1859.-The BISHOPRIC was one of the six erected by Henry VIII. in 1541, and was formerly part of Worcester. It was united to Bristol in 1836. The church, which belonged to the abbey, and its revenues, were appropriated to the maintainance of the see. The abbey, which was founded by king Wulphere about 700, was burnt in 1102, and again in 1122. In it are the tombs of Robert, duke of Normandy, and Edward II. In the king's books, this bishopric is valued at 3157. 178. 2d. per annum. Present income, 5000l.

RECENT BISHOPS OF GLOUCESTER AND BRISTOL.

1802. George Isaac Huntingford, translated to Hereford,

June, 1815.

1815. Hon. Hen. Ryder, translated to Lichfield, 1824. 1824. Christopher Bethell, translated to Exeter, 1830. 1830. James Henry Monk, died.

1856. Charles Baring, translated to Durham, Sept. 1861. 1861. Wm. Thomson, translated to York, 1862. 1862. Charles John Ellicott (present bishop).

GLOVES. Woodstock and Worcester leather gloves are of ancient celebrity. In the middle ages, the giving a glove was a ceremony of investiture in bestowing lands and dignities; and two bishops were put in possession of their sees by each receiving a glove, 1002. In England, in the reign of Edward II. the deprivation of gloves was a ceremony of degradation. The Glovers' company of London was incorporated in 1556. Embroidered gloves were introduced into England in 1580, and are still presented to judges at maiden assizes. The importation of foreign gloves was not permitted till 1825.

GLUCINUM (from glukus, sweet). In 1798 Vauquelin discovered the earth glucina (so termed from the sweet taste of its salts). It is found in the beryl and other crystals. From glucina Wöhler and Bussy obtained the rare metal glucinum in 1828. Gmelin.

GLUCOSE, see Sugar.

GLUTEN, an ingredient of grain, particularly wheat, termed the vegeto-animal principle (containing nitrogen). Its discovery is attributed to Beccaria in the 18th century.

GLYCERINE, discovered by Scheele, about 1779, and termed by him the "sweet principle of fats," and further studied by Chevreul, termed the "father of the fatty acids." It is obtained pure by saponifying olive oil or animal fat with oxide of lead, or litharge. Glycerme is now much employed in medicine and the arts.

GLYOXYLINE (invented by Mr. F. A. Abel, the chemist of the war department, in 1867), an explosive mixture of gun-cotton, pulp and saltpetre saturated with nitro-glycerine. It was abandoned for compressed gun-cotton.

GNOSTICS (from the Greek gnosis, knowledge), a sect who, soon after the preaching of Christianity, endeavoured to combine its principles with the Greek philosophy. Among their teachers

[blocks in formation]

Lor

GODOLPHIN ADMINISTRATIONS (see Administrations), 1684 and 1690. Godolphin became prime minister to queen Annc, 8 May, 1702. The cabinet was notified in 1704. The earl resigned 8 Aug. 1710, and died 1712. Sidney, lord (afterwards earl) Godolphin, treasury. Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, lord preJohn Sheffield, marquis of Normanby (afterwards duke sident.

Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer. of Normanby and Buckingham), privy seal.

Sir Charles Hedges and the earl of Nottingham (the latter succeeded by Robert Harley, created earl of Oxford in 1704), secretaries of state.

GODWIN'S OATH. "Take care you are not swearing Godwin's oath." This caution, to a

*Born 1782; held various inferior appointments from 1809 to 1818, when he became president of the board of trade; was chancellor of the exchequer from 1818 to office he held in the Grey cabinet, Nov. 1830; created earl April, 1827, when he became colonial secretary, which of Ripon, 1833; died 28 Jan. 1859.

person taking a voluntary and intemperate oath, or making violent protestations, had its rise in the following circumstance related by the monks: Godwin, earl of Kent, was tried for the murder of prince Alfred, brother of Edward the Confessor, and pardoned, but died at the king's table while protesting with oaths his innocence of the murder; supposed by the historians of those times to have been choked with a piece of bread, as a judgment from Heaven, having prayed it might stick in his throat if he were guilty of the murder; 1053.

GODWIN SANDS, sand-banks off the east coast of Kent, occupy land which belonged to Godwin, earl of Kent, the father of king Harold II. This ground was afterwards given to the monastery of St. Augustin at Canterbury; but the abbot neglecting to keep in repair the wall that defended it from the sea, the tract was submerged about 1100, leaving these sands, upon which many ships have been wrecked. Salmon.

GOLD (mentioned Gen. ii. 11), the purest, and most ductile of all the metals, for which reason it has been considered by almost all nations as the most valuable. It is too soft to be used pure, and to harden it it is alloyed with copper or silver: our coin consists of twenty-two carats of pure gold, and two of copper. By 17 & 18 Viet. c. 96 (1854), gold

wares are allowed to be manufactured at a lower standard than formerly;-wedding rings excepted, by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 60 (1855). The present stated price is 31. 178. 10d. per oz.; see Coin of England, and Guineas.

The Amalgamation of Gold is described by Pliny (about The alchemist Basil Valentine (in the 15th century) was acquainted with the solution of the chloride of gold and fulminating gold. Andreas Cassius, in 1685, described the preparation of gold purple, which was then adapted by Kunkel to make red glass, and to other purposes. Gmelin Gold has been subjected to the researches of eminent chemists, such as Berzelius and Faraday. GOLD MINES. Gold was found most abundantly in Africa, Japan, and South America. In the last it was discovered by the Spaniards in 1492, from which time to 1731 they imported into Europe 6000 millions of pieces of eight, in register gold and silver, exclusively of what were unregistered.

Peter the Great re-opened ancient gold mines in Russia, 1699.

A piece of gold weighing ninety marks, equal to sixty pounds troy (the mark being eight ounces), was found near La Paz, a town of Peru, 1730.

Gold discovered in Malacca in 1731; in New AndaInsia in 1785; in Ceylon, 1800; 2887 oz. of gold, value 99911., obtained from mines in Britain and Ireland in 1864; it has been found in Cornwall, and in the county of Wicklow in Ireland,

The Ural or Oural mountains of Russia long produced gold in large quantity.

Gold discovered in California, Sept. 1847; and in Australia, 1851. On 28 April, 1858, a nugget, said to weigh 146 pounds, was shown to the queen. It is estimated that between 1851 and 1859 gold to the value of 88,889,435 was exported from Victoria alone (see California and Australia severally).

Gold discovered in what is now termed New Columbia in 1856: much emigration there in 1858.

Gold discovered in New Zealand, and in Nova Scotia in 1861.

Gold discovered in South Africa (Transvaal republic, &c.), and discovered in Sutherlandshire; much excitement, Oct. 1868; in West Australia, reported Sept. 1870; in the Bendigo fields, Victoria, Nov. 1871.

Gold obtained in United Kingdom; value in 1861, 10,8164.; in 1862, 20,390l.; in 1863, 1747.; in 1864, 99914.; in 1865, 58944; in 1868, 3522l. GOLD WIRE was first made in Italy about 1350. ounce of gold is sufficient to gild a silver wire above 1300 miles in length; and such is its tenacity that a

An

wire the one-eighteenth part of an inch will bear the weight of 500 lb. without breaking. Foureroy. GOLD LEAF. A single grain of gold may be extended into a leaf of fifty-six square inches, and gold leaf can be reduced to the 300,000 part of an inch, and gilding to the ten-millionth part. Kelly's Cambist. GOLD ROBBERY. Three boxes, hooped and sealed, containing gold in bars and coin to the value of between 18,000l. and 20,000l. were sent from London, 15 May, 1855. On their arrival in Paris, it was found that ingots to the value of 12,000l. had been abstracted, and shot substituted, although the boxes bore no marks of violence. Many persons were apprehended on suspicion; but the police obtained no trace till Nov. 1856. Three men named Pierce, Burgess, and Tester, were tried and convicted 13-15 Jan. 1857, on the evidence of Edward Agar, an accomplice. They had been preparing for the robbery for eighteen months previous to its perpetration.

GOLD COAST, West Africa; settlements made by the Dutch; transferred to Great Britain by treaty, signed 2 Feb. 1872.

GOLD FISH (the golden carp, cyprinus auratus), brought to England from China in 1691; but not common till about 1723.

GOLDEN BULLS, ROSE, see Bulls, Rose,

note.

GOLDEN FLEECE (see Argonauts). Philip riage, instituted the military order of "Toison d'or" the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1429, at his mar

66

it was said on account of the

or

golden fleece; profit he made by wool. The number of knights was thirty-one. The king of Spain, as duke of Burgundy, afterwards became grand master of the order. The knights wore a scarlet cloak lined with ermine, with a collar opened, and the duke's cipher, in the form of a B, to signify Burgundy, together with flints striking fire, with the motto "Ante ferit, quam flamma micat." At the end of the "Pretium non rile laborum." The order afterwards collar hung a golden fleece, with this device, became common to all the princes of the house of Austria, as descendants of Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, last duke of Burgundy, who married Maximilian of Austria in 1477, and now belongs to both Austria and Spain, in conformity with a treaty made 30 April, 1725.

[ocr errors]

GOLDEN HORDE, a name given to the Mongolian Tartars, who established an empire in Kaptchak (or Kibzak), now S.E. Russia, abot.c 1224, their ruler being Batou, grandson of Gengis Khan. They invaded Russia, and made Alexander Newski grand-duke, 1252. At the battle of Bielawisch, in 1481, they were crushed by Ivan III. and the Nogai Tartars.

GOLDEN LEGEND, "Legenda Aurea." The lives of our Lord and the saints, written by Giacomo Varaggio, or Jacobus de Voragine, a Dominican monk about 1260; first printed 1470; a translation printed by Caxton, 1483.

GOLDEN WEDDING, see Wedding.

GOLDEN NUMBER, the cycle of nineteen years, or the number that shows the years of the moon's cycle; its invention is ascribed to Meton, of Athens, about 432 B.C. Pliny. To find the golden number or year of the lunar cycle, add one to the date, and divide by 19; the quotient is the number of cycles since Christ, and the remainder the golden number. The golden number for 1871, 10; 1872, 11; 1873, 12; 1874, 13.

GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY (London) began about 1327, and incorporated 16 Rich. II., 1392. The old hall was taken down in 1829, and

the present magnificent edifice by Philip Hardwick, was opened 15 July, 1835; see Assay, and Standard. The first bankers were goldsmiths.

Goldsmiths' hall marks on gold and silver plate are five :1. The sovereign's head; 2, lion passant (the standard mark, probably introduced between 1538 and 1558; 2, the price mark, fixed 8 & 9 Will. III. 1696-7; 4, leopard's head, the hall mark; 5, the maker's mark (an old custom).

[The date-letter, is one of an alphabet of 20 letters: A to U or V, J being omitted. The letter is changed on 30 May annually, and the shape of the letter every 20 years; thus 1796-1816, A, &c.; 1816-36, a, &c. ; 1836-56, a, &c.; 1856-76, a, &c. The earliest known alphabetical series

began 1438-9.]

GOMARISTS, see Arminians.

GONFALONIER, or STANDARD BEARER OF JUSTICE, originally a subordinate officer in Florence; instituted 1292; became paramount in the 15th century, and was suppressed, 27 April, 1532, when the constitution was changed and Alexander de Medicis made duke.

GOOD FRIDAY (probably God's Friday), the Friday before Easter day, on which a solemn fast has long been held, in remembrance of the crucifixion of Christ on Friday, 3 April, 33, or 15 April, 29. Its appellation of good appears to be peculiar to the church of England; our Saxon forefathers denominated it Long Friday, on account of the length of the offices and fastings enjoined on this day. Good Friday, 1873, 13 April; 1874, 3 April; 1875, 26 March.

GOODMAN'S FIELDS THEATRE, London, opened 1729. Here David Garrick made his début as Richard III., 19 Oct. 1741. The new theatre erected about 1746, was burnt down, June, 1802. The Garrick Theatre here was opened in 1830; burnt, 4 Nov. 1846; and since rebuilt.

GOODWIN, see Godwin.

GOODWOOD RACES, see Races.
GOOJERAT (N. India), see Guzerat.
GOOSE, see Michaelmas.

GORDIAN KNOT, is said to have been made of the thongs that served as harness to the waggon of Gordius, a husbandman, afterwards king of Phrygia. Whosoever loosed this knot, the ends of which were not discoverable, the oracle declared should be ruler of Persia. Alexander the Great cut away the knot with his sword until he found the ends of it, and thus, in a military sense at least, interpreted the oracle, 330 B.C.

GORDON'S "NO POPERY" RIOTS, occasioned by the zeal of lord George Gordon, June 2-9, 1780.

died afterwards in the hospitals, and many were tried, convicted and executed.

The loss of property was estimated at 180,000l. Lord George was tried for high treason and acquitted, 5 Feb. 1781. He died a prisoner for libel, 1 Nov. 1793Alderman Kennett was found guilty of a dereliction of duty, 10 March, 1781.

On

4 Jan. 1780, he tendered the petition of the Protestant Association to lord North.

On Friday, 2 June, he headed the mob of 40,000 persons who assembled in St. George's Fields, under the name of the Protestant Association, to carry up a petition to parliament for the repeal of the act which granted certain indulgences to the Roman Catholics. The mob proceeded to pillage, burn, and pull down the chapels and houses of the Roman Catholies first, but afterwards of other persons, for nearly six days. The Bank was attempted, the gaols opened (the King's Bench, Newgate, Fleet, and Bridewell prisons). On the 7th, thirty-six fires were seen blazing at one time. length by the aid of armed associations of the citizens, the horse and foot guards, and the militia of several counties, then embodied and marched to London, the riot was quelled on the 8th. 210 rioters were killed and 248 wounded, of whom 75

At

GOREE, a station near Cape Verd, W. coast of Africa, planted by the Dutch, 1617. It was taken by the English admiral Holmes in 1663; seized by the French, 1677; and ceded to them by the treaty of Nimeguen in 1678; taken by the France, 1814. Governor Wall was hanged in LonBritish in 1758, 1779, 1800, and 1804; ceded to don, 28 Jan. 1802, for the murder of sergeant Armstrong, committed while governor at Goree in 1782.

GOREY (S. E. Ireland). Near here the king's troops under colonel Walpole were defeated, and their leader slain, by the Irish rebels, 4 June, 1798.

GORGET, the ancient breast-plate, was very large, varying in size and weight. The present diminutive breast-plate came into use about 1660; see Armour.

GORHAM CASE, see Trials, 1849-50.

GORILLA, a powerful ape of W. Africa, about five feet seven inches high. It is a match for the lion, and attacks the elephant with a club. It is considered to be identical with the hairy people Periplus, about 400 B.C. called Gorullai by the navigator Hanno, in his In 1847 a sketch of a gorilla's cranium was sent to professor Owen by Dr. Savage, then at the Caboon river, and preserved specimens have been brought to Europe, and a living one died on its voyage to France. In 1859 professor Owen gave a summary of our knowledge of this creature at the Royal Institution, London; and in 1861 several skins and skulls were there exhibited by M. Du Chaillu, who stated that he killed 21 of them in his travels in Central Africa. The gorilla was not known to Cuvier.

GOSPELLERS, a name given to the followers of Wickliffe, who attacked the errors of popery, about 1377. Wickliffe opposed the authority of the pope, the temporal jurisdiction of bishops, &c., and is called the father of the Reformation.

GOSPELS (Saxon god-spell, good story). Matthew's and Mark's are conjectured to have been written between A.D. 38 and 65; Luke's 55 or 65; John's, about 97. Irenæus in the 2nd century refers to each of the gospels by name. Dr. Robert Bray was one of the authors of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Countries, Associates," still exists; its object being to assist incorporated in 1701. A body termed "Bray's in forming and supporting clerical parochial libraries.

GOSPORT (Hampshire), contains the Royal Clarence victualling yard. The great Haslar hospital, near Gosport, was built in 1762.

GOTHA, capital of the duchy of Saxe CoburgGotha. Here is published the celebrated Almanach de Gotha, which first appeared in 1764, in German.

GOTHARD, see Gotthard.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE began about the 9th century after Christ, and spread over Europe. Its great feature is the pointed arch; hence it has been suggested to call it the pointed style. "Gothic" was originally a term of reproach given to this style by the renaissance architects of the 16th century. Its invention has been claimed for several nations,

particularly for the Saracens. The following list is from Godwin's Chronological Table of English Architecture :

ANGLO-ROMAN-B. C. 55 to about A.D. 250-St. Martin's church, Canterbury. ANGLO-SAXON—A.D. 800 to 1066-Earl's Barton church;

St. Peter's, Lincolnshire.

GOTHIC ANGLO-ROMAN-A.D. 1066 to 1135-Rochester cathedral nave: St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield; St. Cross, Hants, &c.

EARLY ENGLISH, OR POINTED-A.D. 1135 to 1272-Temple church, London; parts of Winchester, Wells, Salisbury, and Durham cathedrals, and Westminster Abbey. POINTED, called Pure Gothic-A. D. 1272 to 1377-Exeter cathedral, Waltham Cross, &c., St. Stephen's, West

minster.

FLORID POINTED A.D. 1377 to 1509- Westminster Hall; King's College, Cambridge; St. George's Chapel, Windsor; Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster. ELIZABETHAN-A.D. 1509 to 1625-Northumberland House, Strand; part of Windsor Castle; Hatfield

House, Schools at Oxford. Revival of Grecian architecture about 1625. Banqueting House, Whitehall, &c.

The revival of Gothic architecture commenced about 1825, mainly through the exertions of A. W. Pugin. The controversy as to its expediency was rife in 1860-1.

GOTHLAND, an isle in the Baltic sea, was conquered by the Teutonic knights, 1397-8; given up to the Danes, 1524; to Sweden, 1645; conquered by the Danes, 1677, and restored to Sweden, 1679.

GOTHS, a warlike nation that inhabited the

country between the Caspian, Pontus, Euxine, and Baltic seas. They entered Moesia, took Philippopolis, massacring thousands of its inhabitants; defeated and killed the emperor Decius, 251; but were defeated at Naissus by Claudius, hence surnamed Gothicus, 320,000 being slain, 269. Aurelian ceded Dacia to them in 272; but they long troubled the empire. After the destruction of the Roman western empire by the Heruli, the Ostrogoths, under Theoderic, became masters of the greater part of Italy, where they retained their dominion till 553, when they were finally conquered by Narses, Justinian's general. The Visigoths settled in Spain, and founded a kingdom, which continued until the country was subdued by the Saracens.

GOTTHARD, ST., near the river Raab, Hungary. Here the Turks, under the grand vizier Kupriuli, were totally defeated by the Imperialists and their allies, commanded by Montecuculi, 1 Aug. 1664. Peace followed this great victory.

GÖTTINGEN (Hanover), a member of the Hanseatic league about 1360. The university "Georgia Augusta," founded by George II. of England in 1734, was opened 1737. It was seized by the French, 1760, and held till 1762. In 1837 several of the most able professors were dismissed for their political opinions.

GOVERNESSES' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION, was established in 1843, and incorporated in 1848. It affords to aged governesses annuities and an asylum; and to governesses in distress a temporary home and assistance.

GOVERNMENT ANNUITIES ACT, see Annuities. The building of the new GOVERNMENT OFFICES began in 1861.

GOWRIE CONSPIRACY. John Ruthven, earl of Gowrie, in 1600, reckoning on the support of the burghs and the kirk, conspired to dethrone James VI. of Scotland, and seize the government. For this purpose the king was decoyed into Gowrie's house in Perth, on 5 Aug. 1600. The plot was frustrated, and the earl and his brother, Alexander,

were slain on the spot. At the time, many persons believed that the young men were rather the victims than the authors of a plot. Their father, William, was treacherously executed in 1584 for his share in the raid of Ruthven, in 1582; and he and his father, Patrick, were among the assassins of Rizzio, 9 March, 1566.

GRACE, a title assumed by Henry IV. of England, on his accession, in 1399. Excellent Grace was assumed by Henry VI. about 1425. Till the time of James I. 1603, the king was addressed by that title, but afterwards by the title of Majesty only. "Your Grace" is the manner of addressing an archbishop and a duke in this realm.-The term "Grace of God" is said to have been taken by bishops at Ephesus, 431 (probably from I Cor. xv. 10), by the Carlovingian princes in the 9th century, by popes in the 13th century; and about 1440 it was assumed by kings as signifying their divine right. The king of Prussia's saying, that he would reign "by the grace of God," gave much offence, 18 Oct. 1861.

GRACE AT MEAT. The ancient Greeks would not partake of any meat until they had first offered part of it, as the first fruits, to their gods. after meat, in Christian countries, is in conformity The short prayer said before, and by some persons with Christ's example, John vi. II, &c.

Greeks, 974-748 B.C.; see Italy.
GRÆCIA MAGNA, colonies planted by the

GRAAL, Holy (Sangreal). The publication of Tennyson's poem with this title, Dec. 1869, led to much discussion. Tennyson treats it as the cup in which Christ drank at the Last Supper. The medieval romances treat it as the dish which held the paschal-lamb. The word is probably old French, gréal, from the old Latin gradalis, a dish.

GRAFFITI, a term given to the scribblings found on the walls of Pompeii and other Roman ruins; selections were published by Wordsworth in 1837, and by Garrucci in 1856.

GRAFTON ADMINISTRATION, succeeded that of lord Chatham, Dec. 1767. The duke resigned, and lord North became prime minister, Jan. 1770; see North's Administration.

Augustus Henry, duke of Grafton, first lord of the trea-
sury [born, 1735; died 1811]
Frederick, lord North, chancellor of the exchequer.
Earl Gower, lord president.
Earl of Chatham, lord privy seal.

Earl of Shelburne and Viscount Weymouth, secretaries of

state.

Sir Edward Hawke, first lord of the admiralty.

Marquis of Granby, master-general of the ordnance.

Lords Sandwich and Le Despencer, joint postmastersgeneral.

Lords Hertford, duke of Ancaster, Thomas Townshend, &c.

Lord Camden, lord chancellor, succeeded by Charles Yorke (created lord Morden), died (it is said by his own hand) 20 Jan. 1770.

GRAHAM'S DIKE (Scotland), a wall built in 209 by Severus Septimus, the Roman emperor, or, as others say, by Antoninus Pius. It reached from the Firth of Forth to the Clyde. Buchanan relates that there were considerable remains of this wall in his time, and vestiges of it are still to be seen.

GRAIN. Henry III. is said to have ordered a grain of wheat gathered from the middle of the ear to be the original standard of weight: 12 grains to be a pennyweight; 12 pennyweights one ounce, and 12 ounces a pound Troy. Lawson.

« PreviousContinue »