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GRAMMARIANS. A society of grammarians was formed at Rome so early as 276 B.C. Blair. Apollodorus of Athens, Varro, Cicero, Messala, Julius Cæsar, Nicias, Elius Donatus, Remmius, Palemon, Tyrannion of Pontus, Athenæus, and other distinguished men, were of this class. A Greek grammar was printed at Milan in 1476; Lily's Latin grammar (Brevis Institutio), 1513; Lindley Murray's English grammar, 1795; Cobbett's English grammar, 1818.-Harris's Hermes was published in 1750, Horne Tooke's "Epea Pteroenta," or the "Diversions of Purley," in 1786, treatises on the philosophy of language and grammar. Cobbett declared Mr. Canning to have been the only purely grammatical orator of his time; and Dr. Parr, speaking of a speech of Mr. Pitt's, said, "We threw our whole grammatical mind upon it, and could not discover one error." The science of grammar has been recently much studied with excellent results.
GRAMMAR SCHOOLS, see Education.
GRAMME, see Metrical System.
GRAMPIAN HILLS (central Scotland). At Ardoch, near Mons Grampius of Tacitus, the Scots and Picts under Galgacus were defeated by the Romans under Agricola, 84 or 85.
GRAMPOUND (Cornwall) was disfranchised in 1821, for bribery and corrupt practices in 1819. Sir Manasseh Lopez was sentenced by the court of king's bench to a fine of 10,000l. and two years' imprisonment.
GRAN, (Hungary). Here the Hungarians defeated the Austrians, 27 Feb. 1849.
GRANADA, a city, S. Spain, was founded by the Moors in the 8th entury, and formed at first part of the kingdom of Cordova. In 1236, Mohammed-al-Hamar made it the capital of his new kingdom of Granada, which was highly prosperous till its subjugation by the "great captain," Gonsalvo de Cordova, 2 Jan. 1492. In 1609 and 1610 the industrious Moors were expelled from Spain, by the bigoted Philip III., to the lasting injury of his country. Granada was taken by marshal Soult in 1810, and held till 1812. See New Granada.
GRANARIES were formed by Joseph in Egypt, 1715 B. C. (Genesis xli. 48.) There were three hundred and twenty-seven grauaries in Rome. Univ. Hist. Twelve new granaries were built at Bridewell to hold 6000 quarters of corn, and two store houses for seacoal to hold 4000 loads, thereby to prevent the sudden dearness of these articles by great increase of inhabitants, 7 James I. 1610. Stow.
GRAND ALLIANCE between the emperor and the Dutch States-General (principally to prevent the union of the French and Spanish monarchies in one person), signed at Vienna, 12 May, 1689, to which England, Spain, and the duke of Savoy afterwards acceded.
GRANDEES, see Spanish Grandees. GRAND-DUKE, see Duke.
GRAND JUNCTION CANAL (central England), joins several others, and forms a water communication between London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull. The canal commences at Braunston, on the west borders of Northamptonshire, and enters the Thames near London. Executed 1793-1805.
GRAND JURIES, see Juries.
GRANDMONTINES, a monastic order 'established in Limousin, in France, by Stephen, a gentleman of Auvergne, about 1076. It came to England in the reign of Henry I. (1100-35). Tanner.
GRAND PENSIONARY, a chief state functionary in Holland, in the 16th century. In the Constitution given by France to the Batavian republic, previously to the erection of the kingdom of Holland, the title was revived and given to the head of the government, 29 April, 1805, Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck being made the grand pensionary; see Holland.
GRAND REMONSTRANCE, see Remonstrance.
GRANICUS (a river N. W. Asia Minor), near which on 22 May, 334 B. C., Alexander the Great signally defeated the Persians. The Macedonian troops (30,000 foot and 5000 horse) crossed the Granicus in the face of the Persian army (600,000 foot and 20,000 horse). Justin. The victors lost fifty-five foot soldiers and sixty horse. Sardis capitulated, Miletus and Halicarnassus were taken by storm, and other great towns submitted to the
GRANSON, near the lake of Neufchatel, Switzerland, where Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, was defeated by the Swiss, 3 March, 1476.
GRAPES. Previously to the reign of Edward tities from Flanders, where they were first cultivated VI. grapes were brought to England in large quanabout 1276. The vine was introduced into England in 1552; being first planted at Bloxhall, in Suffolk. In the gardens of Hampton-court palace is a vine, stated to surpass any in Europe; it is 72 feet by 20, and has in one season produced 2272 bunches of grapes, weighing 18 cwt.; the stem is 13 inches in girth; it was planted in 1769. Leigh.
GRAVITATION, as a supposed innate power, was noticed by the Greeks, and also by Seneca, who speaks of the moon attracting the waters, about 38. Kepler investigated the subject about 1615; and Hooke devised a system of gravitation about 1674. The principles of gravity were demonstrated by Galileo at Florence, about 1633; but the great law on this subject, laid down by Newton in his "Principia," in 1687, is said to have been proved by him in 1670. The fall of an apple from a tree in 1666 is said to have directed his attention to the subject.
On 15 July, 1867, M. Chasles laid before the Paris Academy of Sciences some letters alleged to be from Newton to Pascal and others tending to show that to Pascal was due the theory of gravitation. The authenticity of these letters was authoritatively denied, and their forgery and his own delusion were acknowledged by M. Chasles before the academy 13 Sept. 1869. GREAT BETHEL, see Big Bethel.
GREAT BRITAIN, the name given in 1604 to England, Wales, and Scotland (which see).
GREAT BRITAIN, EASTERN, &c., see under Steam.-The Eastern Counties Railway assumed the name of GREAT EASTERN in 1862.The GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY Company was incorporated in 1846. Their station at King's-cross, London, was opened in Oct. 1852.-The GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY, between London and Bristol, was opened 30 June, 1841.
GREAT EXHIBITION, see Exhibition.
GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND. The first seal used by Edward the Confessor was called the broad seal, and affixed to the grants of the crown, 1048. Baker's Chron. The most ancient seal with arms on it is that of Richard I. James II., when fleeing from London in 1688, dropped the great seal in the Thames. The great seal of England was stolen from the house of lord chancellor Thurlow, in Great Ormond-street, and carried away, with other property, 24 March, 1784, a day before the dissolution of parliament; it was never recovered, and was replaced the next day. A new seal was brought into use on the union with Ireland, 1 Jan. 1801. A new seal for Ireland was brought into use and the old one defaced, 21 Jan. 1832.
GREECE, anciently termed Hellas. The Greeks are said to have been the progeny of Javan, fourth son of Japheth. Greece was so called from an ancient king, Græcus, and Hellas from another king, Hellen, the son of Deucalion. From Hellen's sons, Dorus and Æolus, came the Dorians and Eolians; another son Xuthus was father of Achæus and Ion, the progenitors of the Achæans and Ionians. Homer calls the inhabitants indifferently Myrmidons, Hellenes, and Achaians. They were also termed Danai, from Danaus, king of Argos, 1474 B.C. Greece anciently consisted of the peninsula of the Peloponnesus, Greece outside of the Peloponnesus, Thessaly, and the islands. The principal states of Greece were Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, Arcadia, and afterwards Macedon (all which see). The limits of Modern Greece are much more confined. Greece became subject to the Turkish empire in the 15th century. The population of the kingdom, established in 1829, 96,810: in 1861, 1,096,810, with the Ionian isles (added in 1864), about 1,348,522; in 1870, 1,457,894.
Kingdom of Argos begun by Inachus (Eusebius)
A colony of Arcadians emigrate to Italy under
Argonautic expedition (which see)
1582 Cecrops arrives from Egypt about 1550 Deluge of Deucalion (Eusebius) 1503 Panathenaan games instituted 1495 Cadmus with the Phoenician letters settles in Boeotia, and founds Thebes, about 1493
Lelex, first king of Laconia, afterwards called
Danaus said to have brought the first ship into Greece, and to have introduced pumps (see Argos) 1485 Reign of Hellen (Eusebius)
Who are said to have discovered iron
Corinth re-built and so named
Kingdom of Mycenae created out of Argos
1550-1300 . 1773 1764
1326 1313 Greece, about 1283 1263
Persian conquests in Ionia Sybaris in Magna Græcia destroyed: 100,000 Crotonians under Milo defeat 300,000 Sybarites. Sardis burnt by the Greeks, which occasions the Persian invasion, 504; Thrace and Macedonia conquered
Rape of Helen by Theseus
Rape of Helen by Paris
Troy taken and destroyed on the night of the 7th of
The Rhodians begin navigation laws
Sea-fight, the first on record, between the Corin-
thians and the inhabitants of Corcyra
Seven sages of Greece (Solon, Periander, Pittacus. Chilo, Thales, Cleobulus, and Bias) flourish about
The sea-fight at Cnidus
Rise and fall of the Theban power in Greece
Battle of Charonea (which see).
Philip assassinated by Pausanias Alexander, his son, subdues the Athenians, and destroys Thebes
Athens and Sparta resist the demands of the king of Persia. The Persians defeated at Marathon 28 Sept. 490 Xerxes invades Greece, but is checked at Thermopyle by Leonidas Aug. 480 Mardonius defeated and slain at Platea; Persian Battle of Salamis (which see) 20 Oct. 99 fleet destroyed at Mycale. Battle of Eurymedon (end of Persian war) Athens begins to tyrannise over Greece The sacred war begun.
22 Sept. 479
War between Corinth and its colony Corcyra.
Death of Socrates
435 431-404 415-413 400 399 394 387 370-300 362 353
The Turks evacuate the Morea Missolonghi surrendered to Greece
Great struggle for independence with Russian help;
the Greeks join, suppressed. Proclamation of prince Alexander to shake off the Turkish yoke, March, 1821; he raised the standard of the cross against the crescent and the war of independence began 6 April, The Greek patriarch put to death at Constantinople 23 April, June, Nov. 27 Jan. 1822 Jan.
The Morea gained by the Greeks
The Greeks victors at Thermopylæ, &c.
Massacre at Cyprus
massacre recorded in modern history (see Chios) 11 April, 13 July, July, 16 Sept. National congress at Argos 10 April, 1823 Victories of Marco Botzaris, June; killed 10 Aug. Lord Byron lands in Greece to devote himself to its Aug. Feb. 1824 19 April, Defeat of the capitan pacha, at Samos 16 Aug. Provisional government of Greece set up 12 Oct. Ibrahim Pacha lands, 25 Feb. ; takes Navarino, 23 30 June, 1825 The Greek fleet defeats the capitan pacha June, .. The provisional government invite the protection of England July,
First Greek loan
Death of lord Byron at Missolonghi.
Ibrahim Pacha takes Missolonghi by assault, after a long and heroic defence 23 April, 1826
70,000l. raised in Europe for the Greeks Reschid Pacha takes Athens 2 June, 1827 Egypto-Turkish fleet destroyed at Navarino, 20 Oct. Treaty of London, between Great Britain, Russia,
and France, on behalf of Greece, signed 6 July, Count Capo d'Istria president of Greece 18 Jan. 1828 The Panhellenion or Grand Council of State established 2 Feb. National bank founded 14 Feb. Convention of the viceroy of Egypt with sir Edward Codrington, for the evacuation of the Morea, and delivery of captives 6 Aug. Patras, Navarino, and Modon surrender to the French
6 Oct. Oct. 16 May, 1829 Greek National Assembly commences its sittings at Argos 23 July, The Porte acknowledges the independence of Greece by the treaty of Adrianople 14 Sept. Prince Leopold declines the sovereignty 21 May, 1830 Count Capo d'Istria, president of Greece, assassinated by the brother and son of Mavromichaelis,
a Mainote chief whom he had imprisoned, 9 Oct. 1831 The assassins immured within close brick walls, built around them up to their chins, and supplied with food until they died 29 Oct. Otho of Bavaria made king of Greece by a convention signed 7 May, 1832 Sept.
7 June, 1834
I June, 1835
University at Athens established, 1837; building commenced
A bloodless revolution at Athens is consummated, establishing a new constitution, enforcing ministerial responsibility and national representation, 14 Sept. 1843 The king accepts the now constitution 16 March, 1844 Admiral Parker, in command of the British Mediterranean fleet, blockades the harbour of the Pireus, the Greek government having refused the payment of moneys due to British subjects, and to surrender the islands of Sapienza and Caprera, 18 Jan. 1850 France interposes her good offices, and the blockade is discontinued 1 March, "3 Negotiations terminate, and the blockade of Athens is renewed . 25 April,
Dispute with France accommodated 21 June,
Insurrections against Turkey in Thessaly and Epi-
The king retires to Bavaria
Jan. 1862 Military revolt begins at Nauplia 13 Feb. Blockade of the coast decreed 9 March, The insurgents demand reforms and a new succession to the throne
April, The troops enter the citadel of Nauplia; insurgents removed 25 April, Change of ministry: Colocotroni becomes premier, June, Insurrection begins at Patras and Missolonghi, 17 Oct.; a provisional government, established at Athens, deposes the king, 23 Oct.; he and the queen fly arrive at Corfu, 27 Oct.; the European powers neutral; general submission to provisional government 31 Oct. Great demonstrations in favour of prince Alfred of Great Britain, who is proclaimed king at Lamia in Phthiotis, 22 Nov.; great excitement in his favour at Athens
23 Nov. The provisional government establish universal suffrage
. 4 Dec. The national assembly meets at Athens 22 Dec. The national assembly elects M. Balbis president, 29 Jan; and declares prince Alfred king of Greece by 230,016 out of 241,202 votes 3 Feb. 1863 Military revolt of lieut. Canaris against Bulgaris and others, who resign, 20 Feb. ; a new ministry appointed under Balbis 23 Feb.
The assembly decides to offer the crown to prince
9 July, 39 The king arrives at Athens, 30 Oct. ; takes the oath to the constitution
31 Oct. The Balbis ministry formed 28 April, 1864 Protocol annexing the Ionian isles to Greece, signed by M. Zaunis and sir H. Storks, 28 May; the Greek troops occupy Corfu, 2 June; the king arrives there 6 June, 7 Aug.
New ministry under Canaris formed
The assembly recognises the debt of 1824 5 Sept. 1864 After much delay, and a remonstrance from the king, 19 Oct. a new constitution (with no upper-house) is passed by the assembly, i Nov.; and accepted by the king. 28 Nov. New ministry under Comoundouros 29 March, 1865 The anniversary of the beginning of the war of independence (6 April, 1821) kept with enthusiasm, 6 April, The king visits the eastern provinces; general tranquillity 20 April, The king opens chamber of deputies 9 June, Deat of Alexander Mavrocordato, one of the early patriots 18 Aug. The king gives up one-third of his civil list to relieve the treasury 25 Sept. An economical financial policy proposed; a new ministry formed. Nov. Brigandage prevails; frequent ministerial changes under Deligeorges, Conioundouros, Bulgaris, and Roufos Oct. 1865-June, 1866 New ministry under Bulgaris and Roufos, 23 Jan. Chambers vote payments to themselves; suddenly dissolved by the king 3 Feb. Great agitation in favour of the Cretan insurrection (see Candia). Aug.-Dec. New ministry headed by Comoundouros Jan. 1867
Manifesto of the so-named 'Greek nation," issued at Paris 19 April, Great sympathy with the insurrection in Candia; the blockade run by Greek vessels with volunteers, arms, and provisions. April, et seq. Marriage of the king with the grandduchess Olga of Russia. . 27 Oct. Their cordial reception at Athens 24 Nov. New ministry under Moraitinis, 1 Jan. ; under Bulgaris Feb. 1868
Constantine, duke of Sparta, heir to
the crown, 2 Aug. Greek vessel Enosis fires on Turkish vessels and enters port of Syra 14 Dec. Rupture between Turkey and Greece in consequence of Greek armed intervention in Candia (which see) Dec. After a conference of representatives of the Western powers at Paris, Jan., their requisitions were accepted, and diplomatic relations between Turkey and Greece resumed 26 Feb. 1869 Prince and princess of Wales visit Athens, 19 April, Law authorising the cutting the isthmus of Corinth passed. 7 Nov. New ministry under M. Zaïmis. 9 Jan. 1870 Concession to cut a canal through the isthmus of Corinth granted to a French company April, Lord and lady Muncaster and a party of English travellers seized by brigands at Oropos, near Marathon; lord Muncaster and the ladies sent to treat; 25,000l. demanded as ransom, with free pardon . 11 April, The brigands retreating, and surrounded by troops, kill Mr. Vyner, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Herbert, and the count de Boyl 21 April, Great excitement; the king shows great liberality; but many influential persons are charged with connivance at brigandage May, June, Several brigands killed; seven captured, tried and condemned, 23 May; five executed 20 June, A new ministry under M. Deligeorges 19 July, Greek college opened at Bayswater, London, W. 1 Oct. Oct. 11 Oct. A new ministry under M. Comoundoros 22 Dec. Comoundoros ministry resigns 6 Nov. 1871 Succeeded by Zaïmis 8 Nov. Bulgaris minister, 7 Jan.; resigns; Deligeorges again minister 26 July, 1872 The Laurium mines of lead, zinc, &c., were purchased by MM. Roux and Serpieri and a company, 1863; and worked profitably; roads being made and a village built. The mines having been heavily taxed and scoriæ claimed by the government, loss ensued; the company's offer to sell the mines to the government was accepted, but payment evaded by the legislature. Hence arose disputes with France and Italy, and ministerial changes in Greece autumn, ""
Decree for suppression of brigandage issued
Speech of the king to the legislature, announcing
KINGS OF GREECE.
1832. Otho I., prince of Bavaria; born, 1 June, 1815: elected king, 7 May, 1832; under a regency till I June, 1835; married, 22 Nov. 1836, to Maria Frederica, daughter of the grand-duke of Oldenburg; deposed, 23 Oct. 1862; died in Bavaria, 26 July, 1867.
1863. George I. (son of Christian IX. of Denmark), king of the Hellenes; born 24 Dec. 1845; accepted the crown, 6 June, 1863; declared of age, 27 June, 1863; married grand-duchess Olga of Russia, 27 Oct. 1867. Heir: Constantine, duke of Sparta, born 2 Aug. 1868.
GREEK ARCHITECTURE, see Architec
GREEK CHURCH, or Eastern church, established in Russia and Greece, disowns the supremacy of the pope, and is strongly opposed to many of the doctrines and practices of the Roman church. The Greek orthodox confession of faith appeared in 1643; see Fathers of the Church.
Catechetical school at Alexandria (Origen, Clemens, &c.) 180-254 about 300
Rise of monachism
Foundation of the churches of Armenia, about 300; of Georgia or Iberia
First council of Nice (see Councils). Rivalry between Rome and Constantinople begins about 376
325 about 340
The Maronites join the Roman church
council of Lyons, 1274; again separated Proposed union with the Church of England The patriarchate of Moscow established, 1582; suppressed in
The archimandrite Nilos, representing Constantinople and 4 patriarchates, visits London on behalf of the Greek clergy in the Danubian principalities. The pope's invitation to an oecumenical council, 8 Dec. 1869, firmly declined by the patriarch of Constantinople. about 3 Oct. 1868 Letter from the patriarch Gregory to the archbishop of Canterbury acknowledging receipt of English prayer-book, and objecting to some of " 39 Articles," dated 8 Oct. 1869 Greek church at Liverpool consecrated by an archbishop 16 Jan. 1870
1277 . 1723
GREEK EMPIRE, see Eastern Empire. GREEK FIRE, a combustible composition (now unknown, but thought to have been principally naphtha), thrown from engines, said to have been invented by Callinicus, an engineer of Heliopolis, in Syria, in the 7th century, to destroy the Saracens' ships, which was effected by the general of the fleet of Constantine Pogonatus, and 30,000
men were killed. A so-called "Greek fire," probably a solution of phosphorus in bi-sulphide of carbon, was employed at the siege of Charleston, U.S., in Sept. 1863.
GREEK LANGUAGE. The study was revived in western Europe about 1450; in France, 1473; William Groeyn, or Grokeyn, an English professor of this language, introduced it at Oxford, about 1491, where he taught Erasmus, who himself taught it at Cambridge in 1510. Wood's Athen. Oxon. England has produced many eminent Greek scholars, of whom may be mentioned Richard Bentley, died 1742; professor Richard Porson, died 1808; Dr. Samuel Parr, died 1825; and Dr. Charles Burney, died 1817.
GREENOCK (W. Scotland). Charters were granted in 1635 and 1760 to John Shaw, of the barony of Greenock. It was a fishing station till 1697, when the Scottish Indian and African comPany resolved to erect salt-works in the Frith, and thus drew the attention of sir John Shaw, its superior, to its maritime advantages. It was made a burgh of barony in 1757, and a parliamentary about 850 burgh in 1832. The erection of the new quay was
about B.C. 962-927
559 525-456 443 522-439
GREEN PARK (near Buckingham palace, 480-406 London) forms a part of the ground enclosed by 495-405 Henry VIII. in 1530, and is united to St. James's 470-404 and Hyde-parks by the road named Constitution443-359 hill. Över the arch at the entrance, the Wellington statue was placed in 1846. On the north side was 384-322 a reservoir of the Chelsea water-works, filled up in 382-322 1856. about 321
GREENWICH (Kent), anciently Grenawic.
272 342-270 287 287-212 207-122 13 10
an ancient manor, near which the Danes murdered the archbishop Elphege, 1012. The Hospital stands on the site of a royal residence erected in the reign of Edward I. and much enlarged by bis successors. Here were born Henry VIII., his daughters Mary and Elizabeth, and here his son Edward VI. died. Charles II. intended to build a new 118 palace here, but erected one wing only.
204 273 331-363
ships till the following year, when the company's ships brought them home. Tindal. The Greenland Fishing company was incorporated in 1693.-Hans Egede, a Danish missionary, founded a new colony, called Godhaab, or Good Hope, in 1720-3; and Scoresby surveyed Greenland in 1821; and captain other missionary stations have been since established. Graah, by order of the king of Denmark, in 1829-30
(See Fathers, and Philosophy.)
GREENBACKS, a name given, from the colour of some notes, to the paper currency first issued by the United States government, in 1862. Sums as low as 1d., 2d., and 5d., &c. were represented the precious metals being exceedingly
GREEN-BAG INQUIRY took its name from a Green Bag, full of documents of alleged seditions, laid before parliament by lord Sidmouth, 3 Feb. 1817. Secret committees presented their reports, 19 Feb.; and bills were brought in on the 21st to suspend the Habeas Corpus act, and prohibit seditious meetings then frequent.
GREEN CLOTH, BOARD OF, in the department of the lord-steward of the household, included an ancient court (abolished in 1849), which had jurisdiction of all offences committed in the verge of the court.
entrusted, about 1773, to James Watt, who was born here in 1736. The East India harbour was built 1805-19, and Victoria harbour 1846-50.
William III. and Mary converted the palace into a
1oo disabled seamen admitted
The estates of the attainted earl of Derwentwater
6 Dec. 1775
A charter granted to the commissioners
A part of the buildings appropriated for a naval col-
GREENLAND, an extensive Danish colony in north America, discovered by Icelanders, under Eric Raude, about 980, and named from its verdure. It was visited by Frobisher in 1576. The first ship from England to Greenland was sent for the whale-pher Wren, by Charles II., on the summit of Flamfishery by the Muscovy company, 2 James I. 1604. steed-hill, so called from the first astronomer-royal. In a voyage performed in 1630, eight men were left The building was founded, 10 Aug. 1675, and Flambehind by accident, who suffered incredible hard-steed commenced his residence, 10 July, 1676. In
GREENWICH OBSERVATORY, built at the solicitation of sir Jonas Moore and sir Christo
1 Feb. 1873