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GRAMMARIANS. A society of grammarians GRANDMONTINES, a monastic order 'estabwas formed at Rome so early as 276 B.C. Blair. lished in Limousin, in France, by Stephen, a Apollodorus of Athens, Varro, Cícero, Messala, gentleman of Auvergne, about 1076. It came to Július Cæsar, Nicias, Ælius Donatus, Remnius, England in the reign of Henry I. (1100-35). Palemon, Tyrannion of Pontus, Athenæus, and other Tanner. distinguished men, were of this class.' A Greek

GRAND PENSIONARY, a chief state grammar was printed at Milan in 1476; Lily's Latin grammar (Brevis Institutio), 1513; Lindley functionary in Holland, in the 16th century. In Murray's English grammar, 1795; Cobbett's English the Constitution given by France to the Batavian grammar, 1818. --Harris's Hermes was published in republic, previously to the erection of the kingdom 1750, Horne Tooke's “Epea Pteroenta,” or the

of Holland, the title was revived and given to the "Diversions of Purley,” in 1786, treatises on the

head of the government, 29 April, 1805, Rutger philosophy of language and grammar. Cobbett

Jan Schimmelpenninck being made the grand declared Nr. Canning to have been the only purely pensionary; see Holland. grammatical orator of his time; and Dr. Parr,

GRAND REMONSTRANCE, see Remonspeaking of a speech of Mr. Pitt's, said, “We threw

strance. our whole grammatical mind upon it, and could not discover one error.” The science of grammar has GRANICUS (a river N. W. Asia Minor), near been recently much studied with excellent results. which on 22 May, 334 B. C., Alexander the Great

signally defeated the Persians. The Macedonian GRAMMAR SCHOOLS, see Education.

troops (30,000 foot and 5000 horse) crossed the

Granicus in the face of the Persian army (600,000 GRAMME, see Metrical System.

foot and 20,000 horse). Justin. The victors lost GRAMPIAN HILLS (central Scotland). At fifty-five foot soldiers and sixty horse. Sardis Ardoch, near Mons Grampius of Tacitus, the Scots capitulated, Miletus and Halicarnassus were taken and Picts under Galgacus were defeated by the ' by storm, and other great towns submitted to the Romans under Agricola, 84 or 85.

conqueror. GRAMPOUND (Cornwall) was disfranchised

GRANSON, near the lake of Neufchatel, in 1821, for bribery and corrupt practices in 1819. Switzerland, where Charles the Bold, duke of Sir Manasseh Lopez was sentenced by the court of Burgundy, was defeated by the Swiss, 3 March, king's bench to a tine of 10,000l. and two years' 1476. imprisonment.

GRAPES. Previously to the reign of Edward GRAN, (Hungary). Here the Hungarians tities from Flanders, where they were first cultivated

VI. grapes were brought to England in large quandefeated the Austrians, 27 Feb. 1849.

about 1276. The vine was introduced into England GRANADA, a city, S. Spain, was founded by in 1552; being first planted at Bloxhall, in Sutfolk. the Moors in the 8th century, and formed at first In the gardens of Hampton-court palace is a vine, part of the kingdom of Cordova. In 1236, Mo- stated to surpass any in Europe; it is 72 feet by 20, hammed-al-Hamar made it the capital of his new and has in one season produced 2272 bunches of kingdom of Granada, which was highly prosperous grapes, weighing 18 cwt. ; the stem is 13 inches in till its subjugation by the “great captain," Gonsalvo girth; it was planted in 1769. Leigh. de Cordova, 2 Jan. 1492. In 1609 and 1610 the industrious Moors were expelled from Spain, by the

GRAPHIC, illustrated weekly journal estabbigoted Philip III., to the lasting injury' of his lished, 4 Dec. 1869. country. Granada was taken by marshal Soult in

GRAPHITE (from the Greek graphein, to 1810, and held till 1812. See New Granada.

write), a peculiar form of mineral carbon, with a GRANARIES were formed by Joseph in

trace of iron, improperly termed black lead and Egypt, 1715 B.C. (Genesis xli. 48.) There were

plumbago. In 1809 sir Humphry Davy investithree hundred and twenty-seven granaries in Rome. gated into the relations of three forms of carbon, Univ. Hist. Twelve new granaries were built at

the diamond, graphite, and charcoal. A rude kind Bridewell to hold 6000 quarters of corn, and two Interesting results of sir B. C. Brodie's researches

of black lead pencil is mentioned by Gesner in 1565. store houses for seacoal to hold 4000 loads, thereby to prevent the sudden dearness of these articles by bition of 1862.

on graphite appeared in the International Exhigreat increase of inhabitants, 7 James I. 1610. Stow.

GRAPHOTYPE, a new process for obtaining GRAND ALLIANCE between the emperor Witt Clinton Hitchcock in 1860. It was described

blocks for surface-printing, the invention of Mr. De and the Dutch States-General (principally to prevent the union of the French and Spanish by Mr. F'itz-Cook at the Society of Arts, 6 Dec. monarchies in one person), signed at Vienna, 12

1865: Drawings are made on blocks of chalk with May, 1689, to which England, Spain, and the duke brushed away, and the drawing remains in relief;

a silicious ink; when dried, the soft parts are of Savoy afterwards acceded.

stereotypes are then taken from the block. GRANDEES, sce Spanish Grandecs.

GRATES. The Anglo-Saxons had arched GRAND-DUKE, see Duke.

hearths, and chafing-dishes were in use until the GRAND JUNCTION CANAL (central and Stores.

introduction of chimneys about 1200; see Chimneys, England), joins several others, and forms a water communication between London, Liverpool, Bristol, GRAVELINES (N. France). Here the and Hull. The canal commences at Braunston, on Spaniards, aided by an English fleet, defeated the the west borders of Northamptonshire, and enters French on 13 July, 1558. the Thames near London. Executed 1793-1805.

GRAVELOTTE, BATTLE OF, 18 Aug. 1870. GRAND JURIES, see Juries.

See Metz.

• 1773

about 1550

about 1493



about 1103

GRAVITATION, as a supposed innate power, Kingdom of Argos begun by Inachus (Eusebius) 1856 was noticed by the Greeks, and also by Seneca, whó Reign of Ogyges in Baotia (Eusebius)

1796 speaks of the moon attracting the waters, about 38.

Sacrifices to the gods introduced by Phoroneus

1773 Kepler investigated the subject about 1615; and

The Pelasgi hold the Peloponnesus 1700-1550 ; suc

ceeded by the Hellenes Hooke devised a system of gravitation about 1674. Sicyon now begun (Lenglet)

1550-1300 The principles of gravity were demonstrated by Deluge of Oxyges (which sér).

1764 Galileo at Florence, about 1633; but the great law

A colony of Arcadians emigrate to Italy under on this subject, laid down by Newton in his

Enotrus: the country first called Enotria, “ Principia," in 1687, is said to have been proved by

afterwards Magna Grecia (Eusebius)

1710 him in 1670. The fall of an apple from a trec in 1666 | Chronology of the Arundelian marbles commences

The Areopagus established

1504 is said to have directed his attention to the subject. (Eusebius)

1582 On 15 July, 1867, M. Chasles laid before the Paris

Cecrops arrives from Egypt Academy of Sciences some letters alleged to be froin

Deluge of Deucalion (Eusebius)

1503 Newton to Pascal and others tending to show that to

Panathenaan games instituted


Cadmus with the Phænician letters settles in Boeotia, Pascal was due the theory of gravitation. The authen

and founds Thebes, ticity of these letters was authoritatively denied, and Lelex, first king of Laconia, afterwards called their forgery and his own delusion were acknowledged by M. Chasles before the academy 13 Sept. 1869.


1490 Danans said to have brought the first ship into

Greece, and to have introduced pumps (see Argos) 1485 GREAT BETHEL, see Big Bethel.

Reign of Hellen (Eusebius)

1459 GREAT BRITAIN, the name given in 1604 Who are said to have discovered iron

First Olympic games at Elis, by the Idæi Dactyli,

1406 to England, Wales, and Scotland (which see). Corinth re-built and so named


Eleusinian mysteries instituted by Eumolpus (1356) GREAT BRITAIN, EASTERN, &c., see and Isthmian games

1326 under Steam.- The Eastern Counties Railway Kingdom of Mycenze created out of Årgos

1313 assumed the name of GREAT EASTERN in 1862. Pelops, from Lydia, settles in south Greece, The Great NORTHERN RAILWAY Company was


about 1283 incorporated in 1846. Their station at King's-cross,

Argonautic expedition (which see)

1263 London, was opened in Oct. 1852.- The GREAT

The Pythian games begun by Adrastus
War of the seven Greek captains against Thebes

1225 WESTERN RAILWAY, between London and Bristol, The Amazonian war

1213 was opened 30 June, 1841.

Rape of Helen by Theseus
Rape of Helen by Paris

1198 GREAT EXHIBITION, see Exhibition. Commencement of the Trojan war


Troy taken and destroyed on the night of the 7th of GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND. The first the month Thargelion (27th of May, or u1th June) 1184 seal used by Edward the Confessor was called the Æneas said to arrive in Italy

about 1182 broad seal, and affixed to the grants of the crown,

Migration of Eolians who build Smyrna, &c.

1123 1048. Baker's Chron. The most ancient seal with

Return of the Heraclidæ arms on it is that of Richard I. James II., when The Rhodians begin navigation laws

Settlement of the Ionians in Asia Minor

916 fleeing from London in 1688, dropped the great seal Lycurgus flourishes

846 in the Thames. The great seal of England was Olympic games revived at Elis, 884; the first stolen from the house of lord chancellor Thurlow, Olympiad

776 in Great Ormond-street, and carried away, with

The Messenian wars

743-669 other property, 24. March, 1784, a day before the Sea-fight, the first on record, between the Corin. dissolution of parliament; it was never recovered, Byzantium built

thians and the inhabitants of Corcyra

664 and was replaced the next day. A new seal was Seven sages of Greece (Solon, Periander, Pittacus, brought into use on the union with Ireland, 1 Jan. Chilo, Thales, Cleobulus, and Bias) flourish 1801. A new seal for Ireland was brought into use and the old one defaced, 21 Jan. 1832.

Persian conquests in Ionia

544 Sybaris in Magna Grecia destroyed : 100.000

100.000 CroGREECE, anciently termed Hellas. The

tonians under Milo defeat 300,000 Sybarites. Greeks are said to have been the progeny of Javan,

Sardis burnt by the Greeks, which occasions the

Persian invasion, 504; Thrace and Macedonia fourth son of Japheth. Greece was so called from an

conquered ancient king, Græcus, and Hellas from another king, Athens and Sparta resist the demands of the king Hellen, the son of Deucalion. From Hellen's sons, of Persia. Dorus and Æolus, came the Dorians and Æolians;

The Persians defeated at Narathon another son Xuthus was father of Achæus and Ion,

Xerxes invades Greece, but is checked at Thermo

pylae by Leonidas the progenitors of the Achæans and Ionians.

Aug 480

Battle of Salamis (which see) Homer calls the inhabitants indifferently Myrmi- Mardonius defeated and slain at Platæa ; Persian

20 Oct dons, Hellenes, and Achaians. They were also fleet destroyed at Mycale .

22 Sept. 479 termed Danaï, from Danaus, king of Aryos, 1474 B.C. Battle of Eurymedon (end of Persian war) Greece anciently consisted of the peninsula of the

Athens begins to tyrannise over Greece . Peloponnesus, Greece outside of the Peloponnesus,

The sacred war begun Thessaly, and the islands. The principal states of

War between Corinth and its colony Corcyra .


Lends to the Peloponnesian war Greece were Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes,

431-404 Disastrous Athenian expedition to Syracuse

415-413 Arcadia, and afterwards Macedon (all which see). Retreat of the 10,000 under Xenophon The limits of Modern Greece are much more con

Death of Socrates

399 fined. Greece became subject to the Turkish empire The sea-fight at Cnidus in the 15th century. The population of the kingdom,

peace of Antalcidas


Rise and fall of the Theban power in Greece established in 1829, 96,810: in 1861, 1,096,810, with

. 370-300

Battle of Mantinea ; death of Epaminondas the Ionian isles (added in 1864), about 1,348,522; Ambitious designs of Philip of Macedon.


353 in 1870, 1,457,894.

Sacred wars ended by Philip, who takes all the

cities of the Phoceans Siryon founded (Eusebius)

B.C. 2089 Battle of Charonea (which see). Uranus arrives in Greece (Lenglet)

Philip assassinated by Pausanias Revolt of the Titans; War of the Giants

Alexander, his son, subdues the Athenians, and Inachus king of the Argives

1910 destroys Thebes



about 590




28 Sept. 490


466 459 448



348 338






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Alexander conquers the Persian empire B.C. 334-331 University at Athens established, 1837 ; building Greece harassed by his successors ; the Ætolian and


1839 Achaian leagues revived

284-280 A bloodless revolution at Athens is consummated, Greece invaded by the Gauls, 280; they are defeated establishing a new constitution, enforcing minisat Delphi, 279 ; and expelled

277 terial responsibility and national representation, Dissensions lead to Roman intervention

14 Sept. 1843 Greece conquered by Mummius and marle a Roman The king accepts the now constitution 16 March, 1844 province

147-146 Admiral Parker, in command of the British Medi

terranean fleet, blockades the harbour of the Greece visited and favoured by Augustus, 21 B.C. :

Piræus, the Greek government having refused the and by Hadrian

A. D. 122-133 payment of moneys due to British subjects, and Invaded by Alarie


to surrender the islands of Sapienza and Caprera, Plundered by the Normans of Sicily 1146

18 Jan. 1850 Conquered by the Latins, and subdivided into

France interposes her good offices, and the blockade small governments.

is discontinued

1 March, The Turks under Mahomet 11. conquer Athens and Negotiations terminate, and the blockade of Athens part of Greece

is renewed

• 25 April, The Venetians hold Athens and the Morea

1466 Dispute with France accommodated

21 June, All Greece subject to the Turks

1540 Insurrections against Turkey in Thessaly and EpiThe Morea held by Venice

1687-1715 rus, favoured by the Greek court, Jan. and Feb. ; Great struggle for independence with Russian help

lead to a rupture between Greece and Turkey, 1770 et seq., fruitless insurrection of the Suliotes 1803

28 March, 1854 Secret Society, the Hetairia, established

1815 After many remonstrances, the English and French Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia, in which governments send troopis which arrive at the the Greeks join, suppressed

Pireus; change of ministry ensues, and the king Proclamation of prince Alexander to shake off the promises to observe a strict neutrality, 25, 26 May,

Turkish yoke, March, 1821 ; he raised the stan A newspaper in the modern Greek language printed dard of the cross against the crescent and the

in London, beginning

9 July, 1860 war of independence began

6 April, Great Britain, France, and Russia remonstrate The Greek patriarch put to death at Constantinople with the Greek government respecting its debts, 23 April,

18 Oct. The Morea gained by the Greeks

June, Agitation in the Ionian isles for annexation to Missolonghi taken by Greeks.


Greece ; the parliament prorogued . March, 1861 Independence of Greece proclaimed . 27 Jan, 1822 The king retires to Bavaria

July, Siege of Corinth by the Turks

Jan. Attempted assassination of the queen by Darios, an Bombardment of Scio ; its capture; most horrible

insane student.

18 Sept. massacre recorded in moderu history (see Chios) Great earthquake in the Peloponnesus 26 Dec.

11 April,

Leopold of Bavaria proposed as heir to the throne, The Greeks victors at Thermopylæ, &c.

Jan. 1862 Massacre at Cyprus

July, Military revolt begins at Nauplia Corinth taken. 16 Sept. Blockade of the coast decreed

9 March, National congress at Argos

10 April, 1823 The insurgents demand reforms and a new succesVictories of Marco Botzaris, June ; killed 10 Aug.

sion to the throne

April, Lord Byron lands in Greece to devote himself to its The royal troops enter the citadel of Nauplia ; in


surgents removed First Greek loan

25 April, Feb. 1824 Change of ministry : Colocotroni becomes premier, Death of lord Byron at Missolonghi. 19 April,

7 June, Defeat of the capitan pacha, at Sainos

Insurrection begins at Patras and Missolonghi, 17 Provisional government of Greece set up 12 Oct.

Oct. ; a provisional governinent, established at Ibrahim Pacha lands, 25 Feb. ; takes Navarino, 23

Athens, deposes the king 23 Oct ; he and the May ; Tripolitza

30 June, 1825 queen fly; arrive at Corfu, 27 Oct. ; the EuroThe Greek fleet defeats the capitan pacha June,

pean powers neutral ; general submission to proThe provisional government invite the protection

visional government of England

July, Great demonstrations in favour of prince Alfred of Ibrahim Pacha takes Missolonghi by assault, after a Great Britain, who is proclaimed king at Lamia long and heroic defence

23 April, 1826

in Phthiotis, 22 Nov. ; great excitement in his 70,000l. raised in Europe for the Greek's

favour at Athens Reschid Pacha takes Athens

2 June, 1827 The provisional government establish universai Egypto-Turkish fleet destroyed at Navarino, 20 Oct. suffrage Treaty of London, between Great Britain, Russia, The national assembly meets at athens

22 Dec. and France, on behalf of Greece, signed 6 July, The national assembly elects M. Balbis president, Count Capo d'Istria president of Greece 18 Jan. 1828 29 Jan. ; and declares prince Alfred king of The Panhellenion or Grand Council of State estab

Greece by 230,016 out of 241,202 votes 3 Feb. 1863 lished

Military revolt of lieut. Canaris against Bulgaris National bank founded

and others, who resign, 20 Feb. ; a new ministry Convention of the viceroy of Egypt with sir Edward

appointed under Balbis Codrington, for the evacuation of the Morea, and The assembly decides to offer the crown to prince delivery of captives

6 Aug.

William of Schleswig-Holstein, 18 March ; proPatras, Navarino, and Modon surrender to the

claim him as king George I.

30 March, French

6 Oct. Protocol between the three protecting powers, The Turks evacuate the Morea


France, England, and Russia, signed at London, Missolonghi surrendered to Greece 16 May, 1829 consenting to the offer of the crown on condition Greek National Assembly commences its sittings

of the annexation of the Ionian isles to Greece, at Argos 23 July,

5 June, The Porte acknowledges the independence of The king of Denmark accepts from the aged admiral Greece by the treaty of Adrianople

14 Sept.

Canaris the Greek crown for prince William, Prince Leopold declines the sovereignty 21 May, 1830 whom he advises to adhere to the constitution Count Capo d'Istria, president of Greece, assas.

and gain the love of his people

6 June, sinated by the brother and son of Mavromichaelis, Military revolt at Athens, suppressed 30 June a Mainote chief whom he had imprisoned, 9 Oct. 1831

9 July, The assassins immured within close brick walls, The king arrives at Athens, 30 Oct. ; takes the oath built around them up to their chins, and sup

to the constitution plied with food until they died

The Balbis ministry formed


, 1864 Otho of Bavaria made king of Greece by a conven Protocol annexing the Ionian isles to Greece, signed tion signed

7 May, 1832 by M. Zuinis and sir H. Storks, 28 May; the Colocotroni's conspiracy


Greek troops occupy Corfu, 2 June ; the king He is condemned but spared 7 June, 1834 arrives there

6 June, Otho I assumes the governinent i June, 1835 New ministry under Canaris formed

7 Aug.


16 Aug

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9 June,

• 27 Oct.
24 Nov.

14 Dec.


The assembly recognises the debt of 1824 5 Sept. 1864 formation of roads and other improvements. After much delay, and a remonstrance from the king,

(The Laurium mines had been purchased by M. 19 Oct. a new constitution (with no upper-house)

Syngros, a Greek capitalist, supported by the is passed by the assembly, 1 Nov. ; and accepted


25 Feb. 1873 by the king

28 Nov. 52nd anniversary of Greek independence kept in New ministry under Comoundouros 29 March, 1865 London

5 April, The anniversary of the beginning of the war of inde


. pendence (6 April, 1821) kept with enthusiasm, 1832. Otho I., prince of Bavaria ; born, 1 June, 1815:

6 April,

elected king, 7 May, 1832 ; under a regency till The king visits the eastern provinces; general

I June, 1835; married, 22 Nov. 1836, to Maria tranquillity

20 April,

Frederica, daughter of the grand-uluke of OldenThe king opens chamber of depuities

bury; deposed, 23 Oct. 1862; died in Bavaria, 26 Deat of Alexander Mavrocordato, one of the early

July, 1867 patriots


1863. George I. (son of Christian IX. of Denmark), king The king gives up one-third of his civil list to re

of the Hellenes ; born 24 Dec. 1845; accepted the lieve the treasury

25 Sept.

(rown, 6 Jwe, 1863; declared of age, 27 June, An economical financial policy proposed ;'a new

1863 ; married grand-duchess Olga of Russia, 27 ministry formed .


Oct. 1867. Brigandage prevails ; frequent ministerial changes

Heir: Constantine, duke of Sparta, born 2 Aug. under Deliyeorges, Conjoundouros, Bulgaris, and

1868. Roufos

Oct. 1865-June, 1866 New ministry under Bulgaris and Roufos, 23 Jan. GREEK ARCHITECTURE, see ArchitecChambers vote payments to themselves ; suddenly ture. dissolved by the king

Feb. Great agitation in favour of the Cretan insurrection GREEK CHURCH, or Eastern church, (see Candia):

Aug.- Dec. established in Russia and Greece, disowns the New ministry headed by Comoundouros Jan. 1867 supremacy of the pope, and is strongly opposed to Manifesto of the so-named “Greek nation," issued

many of the doctrines and practices of the Roman at Paris

19 April,

church. The Greek orthodox confession of faith Great sympathy with the insurrection in Candia'; the blockade run by Greek vessels with volun

appeared in 1643 ; see Fathers of the Church. teers, arms, and provisions

April, et sell. Catechetical school at Alexandria (Origen, Clemens, Marriage of the king with the grandduchess Olya

&c.) of Russia

180-254 Rise of monachism

about Their cordial reception at Athens


Foundation of the churches of Armenia, about 300 ; New ministry under Moraitinis, 1 Jan. ; under Bul

of Georgia or Iberia garis Feb. 1868

318 Constantine, duke of Sparta, heir to the crown,

First council of Nice (see Councils).


Rivalry between Rome and Constantinople begins born.

2 Aug Greek vessei Enosis fires on Turkish vessels and


340 Ulphilas preaches to the Goths

about 376 enters port of Syra Rupture between Turkey and Greece in conse

Nestorius condemned at the council of Ephesus

Monophysite controversy : churches of Egypt, quence of Greek armed intervention in Candia (which see)

Syria, and Armenia, separate from the church of

Dec, After a conference of representatives of the Western


Close of the school of Athens; extinction of the powers at Paris, Jan., their requisitions were

Platonic theology

529 accepted, and diplomatic relations between

The Jacobite sect established in Syria by Jacobus Turkey and Greece reswned 26 Feb. 1869 Baradæus

541 Prince and princess of Wales visit Athens, 19 April,

The struggle with the Mahometans begins

634 Law authorising the cutting the isthmus of Corinthi

The Marouite sect begins to prevail passed.

The Paulicians severely persecuted New ministry under M. Zaïmis .

690 Jan. 1870 9

Iconoclastic controversy begins Concession to cut a canal through the isthmus of

Pope Gregory II. excommunicates the emperor Leo, Corinth granted to a French company April,

which leads to the separation of the Eastern Lord and lady Muncaster and a party of English

(Greek) and Western (Roman) churches . travellers seized by brigands at Oropos, near

729 Image worship condemned

734 Marathon ; lord Muncaster and the ladies sent to

Foundation of the church in Russia: conversion of treat; 25,00ol. demanded as ransom, with free

princess Oga, 955 ; of Vladimir pardon

: 11 April.

The Maronites join the Roman church The brigands retreating, and surrounded by troops,


Re-union of Eastern and Western churches at the kill Mr. Vyner, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Herbert, and the

council of Lyons, 1274 ; again separated count de Boyl

1277 21 April,

Proposed union with the Church of England Great excitement; the king shows great liberality;


The patriarchate of Moscow established, 1582 ; supbut inany influential persons are charged with connivance at brigandage

pressed in May, June,

The archimandrite Nilos, representing ConstantiSeveral brigands killed ; seven captured, tried and condemned, 23 May ; five executed , 20 June,

pople and 4 patriarchates, visits London on be

half of the Greek clergy in the Danubian princiA new ministry under M. Deligeorges


1863 Greek college opened at Bayswater, London, W. The pope's invitation to an cecumenical council, 8

1 Oct. Decree for suppression of brigandage issued

Dec. 1869, firinly declined by the patriarch of
Constantinople .

. about 3 Oct. 1868 Two gentlemen carried off

11 Oct.

Letter from the patriarch Gregory to the archbishop A new ministry under M. Cómoundoros

22 Dec. Comoundoros ministry resigns

6 Nov. 1871

of Canterbury acknowledging receipt of English

prayer-book, and objecting to some of " Succeedled by Zaimis 8 Nov.

39 Articles,"

dated 8 Oct. 1869 Bulgaris minister, 7 Jan. ; resigns; Deligeorges Greek church at Liverpool consecrated by an archagain minister

26 July, 1872 The Laurium mines of lead, zine, &c., were pur


16 Jan. 1870 chased by MM. Roux and Serpieri and a company, GREEK EMPIRE, see Eastern Empire. 1863; and worked profitably; roads being made and a village built. The mines having been heavily

GREEK FIRE, a combustible composition taxed and scoriæ claimed by the government, (now unknown, but thought to have been princiloss ensued ; the company's offer to sell the inines

pally naphtha), thrown from engines, said to have to the government was accepted, but payinent been invented by Callinicus, an engineer of Helioevaded by the legislature. Hence arose disputes with France and Italy, and ministerial changes

polis, in Syria, in the 7th century, to destroy the in Greece


Saracens' ships, which was effected by the general Speech of the king to the legislature, announcing

of the fleet of Constantine Pogonatus, and 30,000


7 Nov.

about 676 about 726




19 July,

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men were killed. A so-called “Greek fire,” pro- ships till the following year, when the company's bably a solution of phosphorus in bi-sulphide of ships brought them home. Tindal. The Greenland carbon, was employed at the siege of Charleston, Fishing company was incorporated in 1693.-Hans U.S., in Sept. 1863.

Egede, a Danishi missionary, founded a new colony, GREEK LANGUAGE. The study was re

called' Godhaab, or Good Hope, in 1720-3; and vived in western Europe about 1450; in France, Scoresby surveyed Greenland in 1821 ; and captain

other missionary stations have been since established. 1473; William Grocyn, or Grokeyn, an English Graah, by order of the king of Denmark, in 1829-30. professor of this language, introduced it at Oxford, about 1491, where he taught Erasmus, who himself taught it at Cambridge in 1510. Wood's Athen.

GREENOCK (W. Scotland). Charters were Oxon. England has produced many eminent Greek granted in 1635 and 1760 to John Shaw, of the scholars, of whom may be mentioned Richard Bent- barony of Greenock. It was a fishing station till ley, died 1742; professor Richard Porson, died 1808; 1697, when the Scottish Indian and African comDr. Samuel Parr, died 1825; and Dr. Charles pany resolved to erect salt-works in the Frith, and

thus drew the attention of sir John Shaw, its Burney, died 1817.

superior, to its maritime advantages. It was made Homer flourishol.

about B.C. 962-927 a burgh of barony in 1757, and a parliamentary Hesiod

about 850 burgh in 1832. The erection of the new quay was Æsop

572 Anacreon


entrusted, about 1773, to James Watt, who was born

559 Æschylus

bere in 1736. The East India harbour was built

525-456 Herodotus


1805-19, and Victoria harbour 1846-50. Pindar Aristophanes

GREEN PARK (near Buckingham Palace, Euripides

480-406 London) forms a part of the ground enclosed by Sophocles.

495-405 Henry VIII. in 1530, and is united to St. James's Thueyalides

470-404 and Hyde-parks by the road named ConstitutionXenophon.

hill. Over the arch at the entrance, the Wellington Plata)

429-347 Isocrates


statue was placed in 1846. On the north side was 384-322

a reservoir of the Chelsea water-works, filled up in Demosthenes

382-322 1856. Menander

about Eschines

389-314 Theocritus


GREENWICH (Kent), anciently Grenawic,

an ancient manor, near which the Danes murdered Epicurus

342-270 Theophrastus


the archbishop Elphege, 1012. The Hospital Archimetles


stands on the site of a royal residence erected in the Polybius

207-122 reign of Edward I. and much enlarged by bis sucDiodorus

B.C. 50-A.D.

Here were born Henry VIII., his daughStrabo

about Dionysius Halicarnassus

ters Mary and Elizabeth, and here his son Edward

VI. died. Charles II. intended to build a new Plutarch

about Epictetus .

about 118 palace here, but erected one wing only. Appian.

about Arrian


13 10 30




William III. and Mary converted the palace into a

148 Atheneus


hospital for seamen, 1694, and added new build

194 Lucian

about 120-200
ings, erected by Wren

1696 Herodian

100 disabled seamen admitted


The estates of the attainted earl of Derwentwater Longinus

dies Julian, emperor

(beheaded in 1716) bestowed upon it 331-363

1735 (See Fathers, and Philosophy.)

A charter granted to the commissioners

The chapel, the great dining-hall, and a large portion GREENBACKS, a name given, from the of the buildings appropriated to the pensioners colour of some notes, to the paper currency first

destroyed by fire issued by the United States government, in 1862.

The chapel rebuilt

1789 Sums as low as itd., 21.d., and 5d., &c. were repre

Sixpence per month to be contributed by every sea

man ; the payment advanced to one shilling, from sented - the precious metals being exceedingly scarce.

The payment abolished in 1829, and that of "the merchant seamen's " sixpence also in

1834 GREEN-BAG INQUIRY took its name The hospital had loulging for 2710 seamen and a from a Green Bag, full of documents of alleged revenue of about 150,000l. per annum

1853 seditions, laid before parliament by lord Sidmouth, Greenwich Fair was discontinued.

April, 1857 3 Feb. 1817. Secret committees presented their

The office of the commissioners was abolished 1805 reports, 19 Feb.; and bills were brought in on the

Reported annual income, 155,5321.

1867 21st to suspend the Habeas Corpus act, and prohibit | By an act of parliament, about 200 indoor pensioners

received additions to their pensions, quitted the seditious meetings then frequent.

hospital, 1 Oct. 1865 ; henceforth to be used as an GREEN CLOTH, BOARD OF, in the depart

intirmary. All the remaining inmates except 31 ment of the lord-steward of the household, included

bedridden persons had left the place i Oct. 1869

The patients of the Dreadnought seamen's hospital an ancient court (abolished in 1849), which had

removeel here

13 April, 1870 jurisdiction of all offences committed in the verge of Acts for the application of the revenues were passer the court.

in 1869-1872

A part of the buildings appropriated for a naval col. GREENLAND, an extensive Danish colony

lege, opened

1 Feb. 1873 in north America, discovered by Icelanders, under Eric Raude, about 980, and named from its verdure. GREENWICH OBSERVATORY, built at It was visited by Frobisher in 1576. The first ship the solicitation of sir Jonas Moore and sir Christofrom England to Greenland was sent for the whale- pher Wren, by Charles II., on the summit of Flamtisbery by the Muscovy company; 2 James I. 1604. steed-hill, so called from the first astronomer-royal. In a voyage performed in 1630, eight men vere left The building was founded, 10 Aug. 1675, and Flambehind by accident, who suffered incredible hard- steed commenced his residence, 10 July, 1676. In

204 273

6 Dec. 1775

2 Jan. 1779

June, 1797

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