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earth. I well remember, when a boy, my father lived in a cabin with an earthen floor, which was as hard as it could be made with clay mortar, thro' this they came in abundance, and seemed to arrive as soon at the face of the earth, as those that came through a softer soil: they were all covered with a brown shell. Being young, I was curious to observe their motion-in the evening, my brother and I stepped a few paces from the cabin, and saw them crawling up the bushes, where they fastened themselves and began to creep out of their shells, which opened on their back, between their wings; when they came out of their shell, they were as white as tallow, and in the morning the bushes were hanging full of them by the two fore feet, as much like candles on rods, when dripping, as any thing I have ever seen, and as white and soft, as when they came out of their shell; but nearly as large as ever they grew, being swelled to about double the size that they were while confined. In this situation they hung all that day in the sun, and against evening were turned nearly to their natural color; and the day following, were able to creep about, and began to fly; they were very plenty that season, more so than I ever remember to have seen them, though it is about fifty years since, and I have seen at least three years of the locusts since. As to the precise number of years between their appearance, it seems a little uncertain, but the time within the last fifty years has been about 13, 14, or 15 years between each time of their return. Now to return to the progress that they make when they come to maturity; the only loss we sustained, though the grain was almost covered with them, was in destroying a great many branches of young apple trees, as they do with other tender branches, by depositing their eggs in them, which in a few weeks disappear, but in what way I know not; this I know, that the next time they came, they rose out of the ground, no other where than about the place that trees or bushes stood when they had formerly been here, and you might nearly know the space the tree covered, by the holes the locusts came out of. After they deposit their eggs, many of them rot away in their hinder parts, so as to making holes in the ground at this time, is out of the question; but from the eggs disappearing in a short time, and the locusts coming out of the ground only where they had trees or bushes to deposit their eggs in, I am inclined to believe, that like all other insects they are produced from the seed of the former generation. Many things have been said as to their depth in the earth, one thing is certain, they have been dug out of cellars, the year before they came out, several feet below the surface, in the same form and size, as when they come out of the ground.





The Elementary Principles of Education;
"To teach the young idea how to shoot :”

By the munificence of the corporate body of the

And many worthy, liberal-minded citizens thereof.


Are taught on the most moderate terms;


The foundation stone is laid by the President and
Trustees of the Institution, this 27th June,


(On the reverse.)

The Worshipful SAMUEL JONES,
Master of the Lodge No. 10,

No. 36, and No. 54,
Attended by the Lodges No. 10, No. 14, No. 19,


June 27, A. L. 5816-A. D. 1816.


Thursday evening, June 27, was a proud one for Richmond, says the Enquirer. The corner stone of the Lancastrian school house was laid amidst an immense concourse of citizens, accompanied by the free masons and a fine band

of music.

Before the procession marched to the ground, William Munford, Esq. delivered an appropriate oration, in the capitol-and the Rev. John D. Blair put up a prayer to the Throne of Grace, for blessings on this amiable institution.

The following was the order of the procession:
The Band.

The plate embedded in the corner stone, bears the following inscription on the one side:

The Society of Free Masons.
The Orator of the day.

The President of the Lancastrian Institution.
The Trustees.

The President of the Common Hall.
The Common Councilmen.
The Mayor of the City.
The Aldermen.

The Subscribers to the Institution. The Teacher.

The Citizens at large.


At a late sale of Portraits in England, Sir R. Chambers 80, Mr. Garrick 175, for 35 guineas, That of lord Sondes sold Mr. Barretu 82, Dr. Burney 80, Lord Lyttleton 40, Mr. Murphy, 83, Mr. Burke 240 Dr. Goldsmith 127, Dr. Johnson 360, Sir J. Reynolds 122, They were all painted by Sir J. Reynolds.

BOSTON, June 26,

Of the fifty-seven worthies whose names are attached to the original Declaration of Independence, we are informed that not more than six or seven now remain alive; and they probably, in a short time, will be numbered with the deceased. These facts will render the information interesting, that there is now under the graver of an American artist in this town (Mr. S.) a large HISTORICAL PLATE, representing the Act of signing that Magna Char ta, in the hall of Congress in Philadelphia, on the memorable 2d of July, 1776; with correct LIKENESSES of between 30 and 40 of the signers,

SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1816.

We have seen a proof of part of the plate, and as | A SMALL TREAT FOR THE GRAMMARIANS. far as our knowledge of the originals extend, we Can safely pronounce the likeness to be exact, and

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will be one mean to transmit to a grateful posteri-land and America spoke generally uncorrupted
y the features of the founders of the nation.
About 50 years ago all men of education in Eng-

English. A foreigner, Sheridan, published a dic-
tionary. He was connected with the stage-In his
dictionary, dukes were jukes, tunes chunes, tues-
was no turning without churning. The actors
day chuesday, tutors chutors, the dews of heaven
the jews of heaven, a duel was a jewel, and there
into chumult. It was quite the ton for ignorance
and affectation thus to murder the king's English.
were instructed how to put the whole language
a murderer, whose name is Walker, published
another dictionary, prefaced with abundance of
In process of time a mangler, but not so absolute-
rules, some drawn from analogy, some from cus-
tom, some from whim, and some from no one
knows where.
in many instances. Attention will now be paid
He pretended to correct Sheridan
to the sound of d and t before x, ua, uo, eu, ie, ia,



This is known to have been once a flourishing
colony; but for the space of three centuries past
no vestige of the country has been found, though
great search has been made for it: "The loss of
this colony one of the most singular events in
human history; their loss, it may be literally cal-ly
led, for to use the words which Montgomery has
so well applied to a different occasion,

"This sole memorial of their lot

Remains; they were-and they are not."

The last authentic accounts of their existence are towards the close of the fourteenth century. The pestilence which, under the name of the Black Death, devastated Europe in the middle of that century, is supposed to have reached this remotest region of the north. In Iceland two-thirds of the population were cut off by it-It is, therefore, scarcely to be imagined, that their neighbors should have escaped the same dreadful visitation, especially as, unlike other pestilence, the farther north it proceeded the more destructively it But the room made by such ravages would soon have been filled up, and there is reason to attriraged. bute the loss of East Greenland to a more permanent evil. During the winter of 1348, the whole of the coast of Iceland was frozen, so that a horseman might have ridden from cape to cape round the island. Such a circumstance never occurred before, since the country was discovered; and it seems probable that in this winter the accumulation of the ice began, which has blocked up the coast of East Greenland.

Conn. Courant.


tor for tutor, saying that sound should not be usWalker does not justify juty for duty, nor chupet-tchulent, nat-tchural, ob-jurate, &c. He appears ashamed, however, in many cases, to use the ed unless the preceding syllable be accented, as rule he himself proposed as invariable. Thus nat-chural, but not sat-churday, obejient but not come-jian, for hence would come tra-jejiam.

Having a commo-je-ous opporchunity I shall which is really most hid-je-ous. I know not what ventchure to give you a compen-je-ous account are its ingre-je-ents, but love is certainly an imof my o-je-ous and unfor-chunate sitchuation, pet-tchu-ous passion. When your ra-ge-ant eyes and gran-jure of deportment caused a fix-chure in my nat-churally fluc-tchuating heart, I con-gratchulated myself with the hope of being even-tchually the most for-tchunate of individuals, though perhaps not imme-je-ately. And that if there was nothing in-sid-juous in the constit-chuant parts of my na-tchure, if your heart was not ob-ju-rate but of a pit-cheous make, by being obe-ji-ent and asless you were a pet-chulant crea-tchure, I might sid-juous, stu-jeous and se-julant to please, and gradually gain your heart. But your present colddu-tcheous and court-cheous in my behaviour, unopi-sorrow. Oh most vir-tchuous miss, let me entreat you, Oh most fair fea-tchured miss, let me beg of ness swells me up with all the flat-tchulency of less I can find a cor-je-al in the rit-chual, or the you to be pit-cheous towards me, or I may take spirit-chuality of the scrip-tchures. to being pet-chulent with spirit-chous liquors, un


Caucus. I find a great dispute exists among etymologists about the orgin of this word. The most plausible opinion is, that it is derived from the thief Caucus who lived in a den. This nion is ably supported by a correspondent of the Columbian, but I flatter myself, that I can give a more plain and satisfactory derivation of the word than any hitherto presented to the public. Caucus was at first spelt caulk us, as I will presently demonstrate. A state has been called metaphorically a ship, time out of mind Horace addresses a whole ode to his country under the title of a ship, and we constantly speak of the helm of government and the vessel of state. Whenever our ancestors discovered the vessel of state to be out of repair, they cried out to their wise men and rulers of the land-" Caulk us! Caulk us," until the convention of their rulers was so called. Hence it is evident, that the body in Congress is so called for the same reason, and we find that whenever we, the vessel of state, become crazy, they began to caulk us. never more crazy than at present, there was never Now as the vessel of state was greater necessity for them to caulk us-so, pray let them caucus.N. Y. Courier.

who by some has been recommended as a stan-
Such is exactly the pronunciation of Walker,
was English. A few literary fops in England and
America, have adopted Walker's plan, a few still
dard. But such pronunciation is not and never
follow it, from affectation of superior accuracy,
but neither the scholar nor the great body of the
people, will ever
tongue, as to follow the precepts of Walker. The
love of novelty has had much effect in spreading
this vicious, this disgusting, this nauseous manner
so far forget their mother
of utterance, but the fashion of it will soon pass
submit to it. Not one in a thousand, of the Eng-
away. Neither the learned nor the illiterate will
lish or Americans, speak in this manner; and ne-
ver ought to do so; and never will.

NY. Courier.

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A churn has been for some time in use in Wales, which saves both time and labour. It is called the cradle churn, being made upon the principles of a common rocking cradle; and can, with ease, be worked by a child five or six years old. Sir Robert Vaughan, member for the county of Morioneth, is well convinced of the superiority of this churnover every other, that he has had many made, and distributed among his tenants. The shape is of no consequence, provided it may be made considerably wider at top than at bottom, that it may churn either a large or small quantity of milk equally well. The usual form is that of a canoe.

Mock Moons.

On the 12th ult. there were seen from the observatory at Prague two Paraselines, or mock Moons. The moon was at an elevation of 17 or 18 sec. and had a pale halo of 30 deg. in diameter.The first Parasaline appeared to the west of the Moon, on the circumference of the halo; on the second a little later on the east. The elevation of each was the same as that of the moon, the side turned next the moon shewed prismatic colors, and on the opposite side they threw out each a cone of light, about 2 degrees in length, and parallel to the horrizon. The whole of the phe-rienced in this country. An unexampled dearth nomenon lasted about 50 minutes, but neither of extends from Calabria to the Tyrol, and several the mock Moons obtained such a degree of splen-persons have died of hunger.

Italy-A great scarcity of corn has been expe


dor as to have been mistaken for the real moon.-The cones of light were like the tail of a Comet, but more defined and tapering.

The Macedonian, Capt. Warrington, has arriv ed at Annapolis from South America, and has brought all the American prisoners found at Carthagena-they released also several English and French prisoners, whom they found in confinement there, and who state that they were treated with great cruelty--the Spaniards refused to return their property. The Secretaries of State and War are at preset absent from the city. Thomas Gholson, member of congress from Virginia, and Paul Hamilton, former secretary of the navy, are both no more. A severe hurricane has been experienced in Pennsylvania-a hail stone was picked up in Chambersburg which after being carried in the hand 20 paces, weighed 132 grains-near 1000 acres of wheat and rye were totally destroyed near Berlin, Pa. on the 4th of June-the hail was generally as large as hens eggs. Thomas Burnside, Esq. member from Pennsylvania, has been appointed judge of the 11th judicial district. A very rich mine of copper has been discovered in Mifflin, Pa.

To prevent Divorces.

One of the Paris Journals has published the following anecdote, to which the law for suppressing divorce gives a certain appropriateness. "In Zurich, the husband and wife who applies for a divorce on the ground of incompatibility of humour, are shut up together for a fortnight in a Tower on the Lake. They have only one apartment, one chair, one knife, &c. so that for sitting or sleeping, eating or resting, they are completely dependent on each other's complaisance. It seldom happens that they are not reconciled before the fortnight expires."


English Artizans.

The London Gazette of May 11th, contains a notice, that if any person is convicted of enticing the artificers of this kingdom to go into foreign countries, he will be fined 1001. and imprisoned three months; and for the second offence fined at the discretion of the court, and imprisoned twelve months; also for seducing any person connected with the manufactures of Great Britain to settle abroad, 5001. and twelve months for the first of fence, and for the second 10001. and two years imprisonment.

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cleared, by a contract with his government, 5,400,000 florins.

England. The Prince Regent has officially reprimanded Messrs. Bruce, Wilson, and Hutchinson, who assisted Lavalette to escape-Lavalette is said to be still on the continent. The prince's lady, the princess of Wales, sen. has lately paid a visit to the dey of Algiers and has been gratified by a view of all his curiosities. She is said to have purchased an elegant Villa at Come, in Italy, where she intends residing-500 men have been at work on it. English and American vessels have been put on the same footing in relation to the transportation of passengers. It seems from the Journal de la Belgique, that lord Byron has taken French leave of his coach maker, to whom he was indebted 1,035 francs.

Russia-The emperor Alexander has published a declaration alledging that the alliance of the three continental powers is not directed against the Otterman Porte- Russian merchant has

France. The national income of France, it appears by the budget is 570,464,940 francs, and the expenses 548,252,529. Gen. Drouet has devoted the remainder of his days to the service of his God. Massena was dangerously ill on the 9th of May.

Sweden.-Bernadotte has sent an ambassador to the court of some German prince in order it is said to ask the hand of some German princessfor his son Oscar.

Alterations. We understand that Mr. Lowndes is to be the secretary of the treasury, vice Mr. Dallas, who retires in October next. It is also understood that Mr. R. J. Meigs, postmaster general, will retire at the expiration of Mr. Madison's term


The following errors in our last number excaped correction in the proof: In the article headed Fourth of July, the first word in the fifth line, for Roman read Nemean. In the ninth line from the bottom of the same column, for restrain read sustain. In the first line of the second column, same page, for sense read source: and in the eighth line from top of same column, for cross read Cerss.

No. 21. VOL. I.]

[WHOLE NO. 21.




the sensations of Smollet, if he had been a wit ness of this conversation, and have heard his pen Our attention has been often turned towards censured for its indecency by one of the savages the aborigines of this country. Various attempts of North-America. In the course of his turning have been made, and with various success, to reduce these rude sons of nature to the yoke of over the leaves of the book, he discovered a civilization. How far this experiment is prac-culty, and with elegance. He informed us that Latin passage, which he translated without diffi

ticable, we do not presume to determine. One

no book seemed to come home to his feelings on

fact, however, scems indisputable-that a practical acquaintance with agriculture must precede

the blessings of civilization. If these tribes of savages still retain their attachment for the woods, vory little progress can be expected to be made in the inculcation of any truths, moral, political, or divine. Confine these wanderers to the soil in

the perusal, as the poems of Ossian. Fired by the recollection of his paternal wig-wam, he recited, with great emphasis, sundry passages descriptive of battles and of victory. At these moments the lady was forgotten, his civilized manners were thrown aside, and his eyes flashed with all their native and terrible energy. After, this ebullition of his feelings had subsided, he would recite some tender and affecting passage, in a delicate and silvery tone, and assume the character of the timid lady again.

the first instance, and all the other blessings of

civilization will follow. Mankind cannot exist in social communities protected by no other law than that of physical force. When municipal regulations are once established, when property is once protected, a great and fundamental point We ventured to remark to our Indian friend, is gained. Property is the pedestal on which still that his admiration of Ossian must be a very higher gradations of civilization may be built; limited admiration indeed; that he could be deeach advancing, like a spiral stair-case, more lighted with such passages only as revived the lofty, until the last round, like the ladder of memory of his early associations; that we gave Jacob, terminates in the heavens. But we refrain him full credit for the delight which he manifrom considering a subject no less copious than fested in the recital of the songs of battle, or in delightful. We once enjoyed an acquaintance those passages that celebrated a victory. Here with one of those sons of nature who had received he was perfectly at home: but it was observed an education at the expense of our government. that the pages of Ossian were likewise replete His conversation was sprightly, interesting, and with the most tender and delicate sentiments; full of anecdote; his manners were soft and enall the fond and endearing affections of the gaging, and almost bordering on feminine deli- heart, to which the poetry of his native forests cacy. Afraid of displaying to the eye of civilized bore no sort of resemblance. He surprized us humanity the rough asperities of his native cha-by a declaration, that we were mistaken in all racter, he assumed an unusual softness of manner, points, that the bards of the wilderness breathed far beyond the usual medium allotted to social the same tender strains; that their songs were reThis constrained and artificial delicacy plete with the same images as pervaded the powould, in an unguarded moment, give way, and ems of Ossian; he declared, moreover, that the his eyes would flash with all their native and ter-images and the sentiments were in many points so nearly allied, that many passages of Ossian might be taken as translations from the poems of


our native bards.

The object of this address is to stimulate public curiosity to the investigation of this interest

rible wildness. Suddenly recollecting his trespass, his voice would assume a soft and gentle tone, like the language of a diffident and retiring girl. He was at every moment a simpering miss or a frowning and indignant savage; and this play of the two characters gave to his manners aing subject. What is there incredible in the tale strange and ludicrous incongruity. A volume of of this Indian? We are not driven now to conSmollet laid upon the table, and he entered into tend for a principle so absurd as this, that man, a critical analysis of the merits of that author. however diversified by habit, does not inherit the He censured very freely the licentiousness of the same feelings from the great and beneficient ideas of that novelist, and found much fault with parent of nature. These feelings are equally ne-, the indelicacy of his language. We were then cessary for the support and preservation of the endeavouring to imagine what would have been human race, whether considered in a social, or VOL. I. Y

We have been drawn aside from our immediate

savage state. We know that by their songs they derived from an acquaintance with the civilized animate their countrymen to battle, and is it in-mode of warfare, it would be difficult to imagine Much credible that love and affection, in all their neces- a race of men more truly formidable. sary modifications, likewise should animate the ridicule has been thrown upon our attempts to poetry of the wilderness? Figurative language civilize this rude people; but if motives of huis prone to a savage state. The Indian employs manity did not influence us to make the trial, his rocks, his streams, his hills, and his vallies, motives of the soundest policy should. To attach as the sailor uses the phraseology of his art to them to the United States by other bonds than illustrate his meaning, and on the same principle those of fear; to cultivate their confidence by precisely, because they are both acquainted with fair dealing and a frank intercourse; to teach nothing else. That the natives of the forest have them to look to our countrymen as their natural a bold and vigorous imagination is abundantly friends and protectors is no less a dictate of policy proved by the speeches of their orators. Does it than of benevolence. They would be then stanot follow from hence, that we have been hitherto tioned by the hand of nature as centinels on our but very imperfectly acquainted with the abori- frontiers, always upon the watch, always ready gines of this country! Our intercourse with the to communicate intelligence, and always ready Indians has been hitherto unpropitious to this to act on the offensive against our enemies. kind of investigation. It appears to us every way probable, that there are, in the depths of our forests, abundance of objects still remaining to tempt curiosity and enterprize; objects that would amply reward the labour of investigation. This information we derived from a native of the wilderness, who has now returned once more to explore the glooms of his paternal forests. He stated, that when he returned to his father on a visit, he was contemplated with. jealousy by the eye of the aged chief. He stated that he was prescribed the severest exercises, and doomed to undergo all the austerities of an Indian life, by way of probation. During his vacation, as he termed it, he was compelled to hunt the deer; to lie upon the cold snows; to deny himself any species of repose; to endure all sorts of priva-various tion; to encounter hunger and thirst, without complaint, before his parent could be brought to believe that he had not degenerated from the hardy spirit of his ancestors. In short, we regarded this man as a curiosity. It would be difficult to conceive of a more formidable race than our Indians, if they were, one and all, impressed with this character. In a state of war, what examples they would afford us of patient endurance-with what fortitude would they endure the most long and painful marches, either in retreat or while preparing to attack. The cold earth would serve them for a bed, and their covering would be the canopy of heaven. How valuable would such a body of men be in scouting parties! How competent to obtain and communicate the earliest intelligence of the strength and force of an advancing or of a retreating enemy! With their knowledge of all the recesses of their native woods, how competent would they be to annoy or to elude an invading army. If we join to these properties of the Indian all the advantages to be

object, by contemplating the character of our Indian friend, which is this-to endeavour to make ourselves more intimately acquainted with Indian literature. To preserve and to record their traditions, manners, customs, and habits, may throw a blaze of light on the dark and benighted history of man. In this point of view alone, it becomes every hour more important. Again, the language of the different tribes differs from each other as much as the language of civilized life. The Indians have their interpreters, as well as social man. Of these various dialects, which is the most copious, which the most ancient, which bears the clearest affinity to the language of civilized nations? The customs, the religion, the laws of the

tribes display the same variety as their language. Of these various customs, again, which bears the nearest resemblance to those of other nations, civilized or savage, ancient or modern? Language and tradition are testimonials invaluable in discussing questions appertaining to the origin of nations. Mounds of earth, such as have been discovered in the depths of our wildernesses, only serve to perplex inquiry, and to elude investigation. We despise that childish impertinence, nicknamed philosophy, that, in opposition to all fact and all history, cither sacred or profane, declares that America is the oldest nation on the globe, and cites a mud bank in proof of the assertion.

Still we admit it to be a subject worthy of a manly and of philosophical inquiry. If these banks were connected with a tradition, we should have a key to unlock the recesses of this mystery at once. Tradition is the great link which connects the flecting generations of man-it is the link between the dead, the living, and those who are to be born. All history, even inspired his

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