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Leipsic, 30 Oct. 1813. The French suffered very severely, ity to have been on the side of the English, was not subthough the allies were compelled to retire. The county stantiated. of Hanau was made a principality in 1803 ; seized by the

Hanover (N.W. Germany), successively an electorFrench in 1806; incorporated with the duchy of Frank- ate and a kingdom, chiefly composed of territories which fort in 1809; restored to Hesse in 1813; which was an

once belonged to the dukes of Brunswick (which see). nexed to Prussia in 1866.

Population in 1859, 1,850,000; in 1861, 1,888,070; in Handel's Commemorations. The first was 1875, 2,017,393. It was annexed to Prussia, 20 Sept. held in Westminster abbey, 26 May, 1784; king George 1866. III. and queen Charlotte, and above 3000 persons, being Hanover became the ninth electorate.

19 Dec. 1692 present. The band contained 268 vocal and 245 instru- Suffered much during the Seven Years' war.. 1756-63 mental performers, and the receipts of three successive Seized by Prussia

.3 April, 1801

.5 June, 1803 days were 12,7461. These concerts were repeated in 1785, Occupied and hardly used by the French.


1805 1786, 1787, and 1791.

Retaken by the French.

1807 Second great commemoration, in the presence of king William

Part of it annexed to Westphalia.

..6 Nov. 1813 IV. and queen Adelaide, when there were 644 performers, Regained for England by Bernadotte 24, 26, 28 June, and 1 July, 1834.

Erected into a kingdom..

.12 Oct. 1814 Great Handel fitival (at the Crystal Palace) on the centenary The duke of Cambridge appointed viceroy, and a repre. of his death, projected by the Sacred Harmonic Society.

sentative government established..

Nov. 1816 Grand rehearsal at the Crystal Palace, 15, 17, 19 June, 1857, Visited by George IV.

..Oct. 1821 and 2 July, 1859.

Ernest, duke of Cumberland, king

.20 June, 1837 Performances: Messiah, 20 June; selections, 22 June; Israel He granted a constitution with electoral rights, 1848; in Egypt, 24 June, 1859, when the prince consort, the king

which was annulled in obedience to the decree of the

federal diet.. of the Belgians, and 26,827 persons were present. There

...12 April, 1855 were 2765 vocal and 393 instrumental performers, and the king claims from England crown jewels which be the performance was highly successful. The receipts

longed to George III. (value about 120,000l.), 1857; by amounted to about 33,0001., from which there were deduct.

arbitration, the jewels given up...

Jan. 1858 ed 18,0001, for expenses; of the residue (15,0001.), two parts Stade dues given up for compensation .....12 June, 1861 accrued to the Crystal Palace Company, and one part to the In the war the king takes the side of Austria; and the Sacred Harmonic Society. Handel's harpsichord. original

Prussians enter and occupy Hanover..13 June et seq. 1866 scores of his oratorios, and other interesting relics were ex

The Hanoverians defeat the Prussians at Langensalza, 27 hibited.

June; but are compelled to surrender .....29 June, Handel festivals (at the Crystal palace): 4000 performers, Hanover annexed to Prussia by law, 20 Sept.; promul highly successful, 23, 25, 27 June, 1862; again, 26, 28, 30

gated. ..

6 Oct. June, 1865; again, 15, 17, 19 June, 1868 (about 25,000 pres

Protest of the king of Hanover addressed to Europe, enti; also, 19, 21, 23 June, 1871 (about 84,000 persons sub

23 Sept. scribed); also, 22, 24, 26 June, 1874 (total present, 78,839); Arrangement with Prussia by a treaty ratified ...18 Oct. 1867 also, 25, 27, 29 June, 1877 (present, 74, 124); 18, 21, 23, 25 The king celebrates his "silver wedding" at Hietzing, June, 1880 (present, 70,613).

near Vienna, expressing hopes of recovering his king. dom, etc..

.18 Feb. 1868 Handel Societies, for publication of Handel's Part of his property sequestrated by Prussia..... March, works :

Still further, in consequence of his maintaining a Hano

verian legion (the king protested against it)......Feb. 1869 Founded in London, 1843; first volume issued 1813-4; society dissolved, 1818; work continued by Cramer & Co. completed,


1692. Ernest Augustus, youngest son of George, that son of Founded at Leipsic in 1856; publications began 1858.

William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who obtained Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, U. S., for performances by lot the right to marry (see Brunswick). He beonly; founded 1815.

came bishop of Osnaburg in 1662, and in 1679 inherHandkerchiefs, wrought and edged with gold,

ited the possessions of his uncle John, duke of Calen.

berg; created ELECTOR of Hanover in 1692. used to be worn in England by gentlemen in their hats,

[He married, in 1659, the princess Sophia, daughter as favors from young ladies, the value of them being of Frederick, elector-palatine, and of Elizabeth, the from five to twelve pence for each in the reign of Eliza

daughter of James I. of England. In 1701 Sophia was

declared next heir to the British crown, after William beth, 1558.–Stow's Chron. Paisley handkerchiefs were III., Anne, and their descendants. ] first made in 1743.

1698. George Lewis, son of the preceding; married his cousin

Sophia, ne heiress of the duke of Brunswick-Zell; Hands, imposition of, was first performed by Moses became king of Great Britain, 1 Aug. 1714, as GEORGE I. in setting apart his successor Joshua (Numb. xxvii. 23); 1727. George Augustus, his son (George II. of England), 11 in reception into the church, and in ordination, by the 1760. George William Frederick, his grandson (GEORGE III.

June. apostles (Acts viii. 17; 1 Tim. iv. 14).

of England), 25 Oct. Hanging, DRAWING, AND QUARTERING, said to have been first intlicted upon William Marise, a pirate, a no- 1814. George William Frederick (the preceding sovereign), blemau's son, 25 Hen. III. 1241. Five gentlemen at

first king of Hanover, 12 Oct. tached to the duke of Gloucester were arraigned and 1820. George Augustus Frederick, his son (George IV. of

England), 29 Jan. condemned for treason, and at the place of execution 1830. William Henry, his brother (William IV. of England), were hanged, cut down alive instantly, stripped naked, 26 June; died 20 June, 1837. and their bodies marked for quartering, and then par

(Hanover separated from the crown of Great Britdoned, 25 Hen. IV. 1447.–Stow. The Cato-street con- 1837. Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, brother to Will:

ain.) spirators (which see) were beheaded after death by hang- iam IV. of England, on whose demise he succeeded ing, 1 May, 1820. Hanging in chains was abolished in (as a distinct inheritance) to the throne of Hanover,

20 June. 183t; see Deuth.

1851. George V. (born 27 May, 1819), son of Ernest; ascended Hanging Rock, BATTLE AT. A few miles east

the throne on the death of his father, 18 Nov. His ward of Rocky Mount (which see), on the Catawba river,

states annered to Prussia, 20 Sept. 1866; visited Eng.

land, May, June, 1876; died 12 June, 1878. is a large boulder on the verge of a high bank, called 1878. Ernest Augustus II., son, born 21 Sept. 1845; main. Hanging Rock. It gives the name to the place. There

tained his claims in a circular to the sovereigns of a large body of British and tories were attacked and

Europe, dated 11 July, 1878; married princess Thyra

of Denmark, 20 Dec. 1878. dispersed by gen. Sumter on 6 Aug. 1780. There was an engagement of about four hours, and Sumter lost 12 men Hanover Square, built about 1718; the concert killed and 41 wounded. It was one of the most desperate rooms opened by John Gallini, 1 Feb. 1775; the house battles of the war, considering the number engaged.

taken for a club, Dec. 1874; rebuilt, 1875. Hango Bay (Finland). On 5 June, 1855, a boat Hanse Towns. The Hanseatic League (from commanded by lieut. Geneste left the British steamer hansa, association), formed by port towns in Germany Cossack with a flag of truce to land some Russian pris- against the piracies of the Swedes and Danes : began oners. They were fired on by a body of riflemen, and about 1140; the league signed 1241. At first it consisted five were killed, several wounded, and the rest made only of towns situate on the coasts of the Baltic sea, but prisoners. The Russian account, asserting the irregular- . in 1370 it was composed of sixty-six cities and forty





four confederates. The league proclaimed war against known of their tenets, but they held their property in Waldemar, king of Denmark, about the year 1348, and common, and considered marriage a civil coutract. They against Eric in 1428, with forty ships and 12,000 regular emigrated to America, and built New Harmony, in Inditroops, besides seamen. On this several princes ordered ana, in 1815. Robert Owen purchased this town about the merchants of their respective kingdoms to withdraw 1823, but failed in his scheme at establishing a "social" their effects. The Thirty Years' war in Germany (1618– community, and returned to England; see Socialists. 48) broke

up the strength of the association, and in 1630 The Harmonists removed to Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, the only towns retaining the name were Lübeck, Ham- in 1822. burg, and Bremen. The league suffered also by the rise of the commerce of the Low Countries in the tif- accordion, the tones being generated by the action of

Harmonium, a keyed instrument, resembling the teenth century. Their privileges by treaty in Eng. wind upon metallic reeds. "The Chinese were well acland were abolished by Elizabeth in 1578.

quainted with the effects produced by vibrating tongues Hanwell Lunatic Asylum, for Middlesex, es- of metal. M. Biot stated, in 1810, that they were used tablished 1831.

musically by M. Grenié; and in 1827-9 free reed-stops Hapsburg (HABSBURG, or HABICHTSBURG), House were employed in organs at Beauvais and Paris. The OF, the family from which the imperial house of Austria best-known harmoniums in England are those of Alexsprang in the eleventh century, Werner being the first- andre and Debain, the latter claiming to be the original named count of Habsburg, 1096. Hapsburg was an an- maker of the French instrument. In 1841, Mr. W. E. cient castle of Switzerland, on a lofty eminence near Evans, of Cheltenham, produced his English harmoSchintznach. Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, became nium, then termed the “organ-harmonica,” and by sucarchduke of Austria and emperor of Germany, 1273; see cessive improvements he produced a fine instrument, Austria and Germany.

with diapason quality, and great rapidity of speech, with

out loss of power. Harbors. England has many fine natural harbors: the Thames (harbor, dock, and depot), Portsmouth,

Harmony, the combination of musical notes of difPlymouth, etc. Acts for the improvement of harbors, ferent pitch, appears not to have been practised by the etc., were passed in 1847, 1861, and 1862.

Greeks. Hares and Rabbits Act, see Game.

Hucbald, a Flemish monk, published combinations in his

"Enchiridion Musicæ," ninth century. Harfleur, seaport, N.W. France, taken by Henry V., Harmony greatly promoted by Palestrina, and especially by

Monteverde. 22 Sept. 1415.

Jean de Muris wrote “Ars Contrapuncti,” in fourteenth cenHarlaw (Aberdeenshire), the site of a desperate, indecisive battle between the earl of Mar, with the royal Beethoven greatly enlarged the range of harmonic bases.

Francis of Cologne described “descant," 1600. army, and Donald, the lord of the Isles, who aimed at independence, 24 July, 1411. This conflict was very

Harness, chariots, and the leathern dressings used disastrous to the nobility, some houses losing all their for horses to draw them, are said to have been the inmales.

vention of Erichthonius of Athens, who was made a Harleian Library, containing 7000 manuscripts,

constellation after his death, under the name of Boötes besides rare printed books, bought by Edward Harley, (Greek for ploughman), about 1487 B.C. afterwards earl of Oxford and Mortimer, 1705 et seq., is Haro, CRY OF (Clameur de Haro), traditionally denow in the British Museum. A large portion of his life rived from Raoul, or Rollo, of Normandy, ancestor of our and wealth was spent on the collection. lle died 21 Norman princes of England. Rollo administered justice May, 1724. The “Harleian Miscellany," a selection so well that injured persons cried " à Raoul!The cry from the manuscripts and tracts of his library, was pub- was raised in a church in Jersey in 1859. lished in 1744 and 1808.

Harp. Invented by Jubal, 3875 B.C. (Gen. iv. 21). Harlem Plains, BATTLE OX. This was a severe David played the harp before Saul, 1063 B.C. (1 Sam. xvi. skirmish. It occurred on 16 Sept. 1776, between Ameri- 23). The Cimbri, or English Saxons, had this instrucan troops under col. Knowlton and major Leitch, and ment. The celebrated Welsh harp was strung with gut; detachments of the British army, which was then in and the Irish harp, like the more ancient harps, with possession of New York city and the lower part of Man- wire. Erard's improved harps were first patented in hattan island. Knowlton and Leitch were killed, but 1795. the Americans were victorious. Of Knowlton, Wash- One of the most ancient harps existing is that of Brian Boington said, “Ile was an honor to any country.”

roimhe, monarch of Ireland: it was given by his son Donagb Harley Administration, see Oxford.

to pope John XVIII., together with the crown and other re

galia of his father, in order to obtain absolution for the murHarley Street, London, W. At No. 139, the house der of his brother Teig. Adrian IV. alleged this as being inhabited by Mr. Henriques, the decomposed body of a

one of the principal titles to the kingdom of Ireland in his

bull transferring it to Henry II. This harp was given by woman, stabbed in the breast and covered with chloride

Leo X. to Henry VIII., who presented it to the first earl of of lime, was found 3 June; verdict of coroner's inquest, Clanricarde; it then came into possession of the family of wilful murder by person unknown, 14 June, 1880.

De Burgh; next into that of MacMahon of Clenagb, county

of Clare; afterwards into that of MacNamara of Limerick; Harmonic Strings, said to have been invented and was at length deposited by the right hon. William by Pythagoras about 510 B.C., through hearing four

Conyngham in the College Museum, Dublin, in 1782. blacksmiths working with hammers, in harmony, whose Harper's Ferry (Virginia), IN THE War of the weights he found to be six, eight, nine, and twelve.—The AMERICAN REBELLION. This place is situated at the HARMONICA, or musical glasses (tuned by regulating the outlet of the Shenandoah Valley, at the junction of the amount of water, and played by a moistened finger on Shenandoah with the Potomac. The town in 1800 had the rim), were played on by Gluck in London, 23 April, a population of 10,000. On 18 April, 1861, the day after 1746; " arranged” by Puckeridge and Delaval, and im- the secession of Virginia, a confederate force marched proved by Dr. Franklin in 1760. Mozart, Beethoven, upon the town. Lient. Roger Jones, unable to hold the and others composed for this instrument; see Copophone. post, abandoned it, after destroying the arsenal and work

_“ HARMONICON," an excellent musical periodical, edited shops. The place was held by gen. Patterson just beby W. Ayrton, Jan, 1823-Sept. 1833.

fore nd during the battle of Bull Run. On 15 Sept Harmonichord, a keyed instrument, in which 1862, it was surrounded and captured by "Stonewall” sounds are produced by friction, invented by Th. Kauff- Jackson. Gen. Miles, commanding the post, was killed; mann in 1810.

about 10,000 men fell into the hands of the Confederates; Harmonists, a sect founded in Würtemberg by sec United States, 1859–62. George and Frederick Rapp, about 1780. Not much is Harpsichord, see Piano-forte, note.


Harrison, Fort, DEFENCE OF. Fort Harrison, in Boston, on 28 Oct. 1636. It derived its name from Indiana, under the command of captain Zachary Taylor, John Harvard, who bequeathed to it his library and a was attacked by 300 Indians on 4 Sept. 1812. Taylor sum of money in 1638. The institution is the oldest had only 15 effective men, but defended the fort and university in the United States; it is now one of the drove off the Indians, after losing 2 killed and 2 wounded. best endowed and most celebrated of American institu

Harrison's Timepiece, made by John Harrison, tions of learning, and has long been especially known of Foulby, near Pontefract. In 1714, the government as a chief seat of literary activity.

1638 offered rewards for methods of determining the longi- The first college class began study.

First class was graduated..

1642 tude at sea. Harrison came to London, and produced

College incorporated... his first timepiece in 1735; his second in 1739; his The connection between college and commonwealth disthird in 1749; and his fourth, which procured him the

solved, and the control of the institution vested in its alumni....

1865 reward of 20,0001. offered by the Board of Longitude, a few years after. He obtained 10,0001, of his reward in Hastings, a Cinque - port, Sussex; said to owe its 1764 ; and other sums, more than 24,0001. in all, for fur- name to the Danish pirate Hastinge, who built forts ther improvements in following years.

here, about 893; but Mr. Kemble thinks it was the seat In the Patent Museum at South Kensington is an eight-day of a Saxon tribe named Hastingas. At Senlac, now Bat

clock made by Harrison in 1715. It strikes the hour, indi- tle, near Hastings, more than 30,000 were slain in the cates the day of the month, and with one exception (the es conflict between Harold II. of England and William, capement) its wheels are entirely made of wood. The clock duke of Normandy, the former losing his life and kingwas going in 1871.

Harrogate (Yorkshire). The first or old spa in dom, 14 Oct. 1066, his birthday. He and his two brothKnaresborough forest was discovered by captain Slings- ers were interred at Waltham abbey, Essex. The new

A new by in 1571: a dome was erected over the well by lord town, St. Leonard's-on-Sea, was begun in 1828. Rosslyn in 1786. Two other chalybeate springs are the pier here was inaugurated by earl Granville, 5 Aug. 1872. Alum well and the Towit spa. The sulphureous well was

Hastings's Trial. Warren Hastings, governor-gendiscovered in 1783. The theatre was erected in 1788. eral of India, was tried by the peers of Great Britain for The Bath hospital was erected by subscription in 1825. high crimes and misdemeanors. Among other charges Harrow-on-the-Hill School (Middlesex), nabob of Oude; see Chunar, Treaty of. The trial occu

was his acceptance of a present of 100,0001. from the founded and endowed by John Lyon in 1571. To encourage archery, the founder instituted a prize of a silver commencing 13 Feb. 1788, terminating in his acquittal,

pied 145 days, and lasted seven years and three months; arrow to be shot for annually on 4 Aug.; but the custom 23 April, 1795. Mr. Sheridan's speech on the impeachhas been abolished. Lord Palmerston, sir R. Peel (the statesman), and lord Byron (the poet) were educated Hastings was born in 1732; went to India as a writer in 1750;

ment excited great admiration. here. The school building suffered by fire, 22 Oct. 1838. became governor-general of Bengal in 1772; of India, 1773; The school arrangements were modified by the Public- governed ably, but, it is said, unscrupulously and tyrannischools act, 1868. Charles II. called Harrow church cally, till he resigned in 1785. The expenses of his trial

(70,0001.) were paid by the East India Company, and a pen"the visible church."

sion was granted to him. He died a privy-councillor in Hartford Convention. Delegates from the sev- 1818. eral New England states politically opposed to the ad- Hately Field, see Shrewsbury. ministration of president Madison, and deprecating the then existing war between the United States and Great

Hatfield's Attempt. On 11 May, 1800, during a Britain, assembled at Hartford in Dec. 1814, to take into review in Hyde park, a shot from an undiscovered hand consideration the state of public affairs. Peace that soon

was fired, which wounded a young gentleman who stood followed made further action on their part unnecessary.

near king George III. In the evening, when his majesThe purpose of the convention has been the subject of ty was at Drury-lane theatre, Hattield fired a pistol at much acrimonious discussion. It has been alleged that him. Hatfield was confined as a lunatic till his death,

23 Jan. 1841, aged 69 years. the secession of the New England states, or some other form of obstruction to the National government in its

Hatherley's Act, see Bankrupt. prosecution of the war, was contemplated; but this has Hats, first made by a Swiss at Paris, 1404. When been stoutly denied.

Charles VII. made his triumphal entry into Rouen, in Hartley Coal-mine (Northumberland). On 16 1449, he wore a hat lined with red velvet, and surmountJan. 1862, one of the iron beams, about 20 tons weight, ed with a rich plume of feathers. Henceforward, hats at the mouth of the ventilating shaft, broke and fell, de- and caps, at least in France, began to take the place of stroyed the brattice, divided the shaft, and carried down chaperons and hoods.--Henault. Hats were first manusufficient timber to kill five men who were ascending the factured in England by Spaniards, in 1510.--Stow. Very shaft, and buried alive 202 persons, men and boys. Sey- high-crowned hats were worn by queen Elizabeth's courteral days elapsed before the bodies could be removed. iers, and high crowns were again introduced in 1783. A Much sympathy was shown by the queen and the pub- stamp-duty laid upon hats in 1784 and in 1796, was relic, and about 70,0001. were collected for the bereaved pealed in 1811. Silk hats began to supersede beaver families. The coroner's verdict asserted the necessity about 1820. of two shafts to coal-mines, and recommended that the None allowed to sell any hat for above 200. nor cap for above beams of colliery engines should be of malleable instead

28. 8d., 5 Hen. VII. 1439. Every person above seven years

of age to wear on Sundays and holidays a cap of wool, knit, of cast iron.

made, thickened, and dressed in England by some of the Hartwell (Buckinghamshire), the retreat of Louis

trade of cappers, under the forfeiture of three farthings for XVIII., king of France, 1807-14. He landed in Eng

every day's neglect, 1571. Excepted: maids, Indies, and

gentlewomen, and every lord, knight, and gentleman, of land at Yarmouth, 6 Oct. 1807; took up his residence at twenty marks of land, and their heirs, and such as had Gosfield Hall, in Essex; and afterwards came to Hart- borne oflice of worship in any city, town, or place, and the well, as the count de Lille. His consort died here in

wardens of London companies, 1571. 1810. On his restoration, he embarked at Dover for Hatteras Expedition, see United States, Aug. France, 24 April, 1814; see France.

1861. Haruspices, priests or soothsayers, of Etruscan

Hau-hau Fanatics, see New Zealand, 1865. origin, who foretold events from observing entrails of Havana, capital of Cuba, West Indies, founded by animals. They were introduced in Rome by Romulus Velasquez, 1511; taken by lord Albemarle, 14 Aug. 1762 ; (about 750 B.C.), and abolished by Constantine, A.D. 337, restored, 1763. The remains of Columbus were brought at which time they were seventy in number.

from St. Domingo and deposited in the cathedral here, Harvard College ( Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1795. United States) was founded by the general court at Havre-de-Grâce (N.W. France) was defended for



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the Huguenots by the English in 1562, who, however, Military insurrection under Salnave against Geffrard, 7 were expelled in 1563. It was bombarded by Rodney, 6 Cabral provisional president of St. Domingo, Sept. 1865;

May; Cape Haytien seized. ...

9 May, 1865 to 9 July, 1759; by sir Richard Strachan, 25 May, 1798; B. Baez proclaimed president..

14 Nov. and blockaded, 6 Sept. 1803. The attempts of the Brit- Valdrogue, a rebel vessel, tres into British Jamaica ish to burn the shipping here failed, 7 Aug. 1804. The

packet, near Acul, St. Domingo, 22 Oct.; Capt. Wake,

H.M.S. Bulldog, threatens Valdrogue ; Salnave orders International Maritime Exhibition here opened, 1 June,

the removal of refugees from British consulate at Cape 1868. The volunteers visited Havre: began to shoot, Haytien, shoots them, and destroys the building. The 26 May; 50 British received prizes, 29 June, 1874. The Bulldog, failing to obtain satisfaction, shells the fort, French Association for Science met here, 30 Aug. 1877.

sinks the Valdrogue, but gets on a reef; the crew is

taken out, and she is blown up. H.M.S. Galatea and Havre-de-Grace (Maryland), ravaged by the

Lily take the other forts and give them up to Geffrard; the rebels flee inland......

9 Nov. British under admiral Cockburn, 3 May, 1813.

Capt. Wake censured by court-martial for losing his ship, Hawaii, see Owhyhee.

Jan. 1866

Hayti-another revolt against Geffrard suppressed, Hawkers and Peddlers were first licensed in

5-11 July, 1698. Licensing commissioners were appointed in 1810. Revolution; Geffrard flies; banished forever; Salnave The expense of licensing was reduced in 1861, and regu- New constitution

president of Hayli...

......27 March, 1867

...June, lated by the Peddlers' act, 1871.

Revolution caused by Pimentel; Baez flies; Cabral beHawking, see Falconry.

comes president of St. Domingo.

June, Revolt against Salpave...

.Sept. Hay. Average value of the produce of the United The ex-emperor Faustin (born a slave, 1791), died.. Aug. Kingdom in 1874, 48,000,0001. Hay-making machin-City of St. Domingo nearly destroyed by the hurricane,

So Oct. ery exhibited at Taunton, July, 1875. Mr. William A. B. Baez, president of Dominican republic........ March, 1868 Gibbs's apparatus, with artificial heat, tried at his place Insurrection against Salnave, 10 May; said to be sucat Chingford, Essex, reported successful, 3 July, 1875;

cessful, 26 May; English consul protecting foreigners,

June, at other places in July, 1880.

Salnave defeats insurgents, and kills his prisoners, Hayman Case, see Rugby.

3 June,

Salnave proclaims himself emperor, Aug. ; offers an amHaymarket (Westminster), opened in 1664, was nesty.

.. Oct. removed to Cumberland market, 1 Jan. 1831. The Hay- Civil war continued; Saget and Dominguez proclaimed market theatre was opened in 1702 ; see Theatres.

president by their respective followers..


Salnave, finally defeated, flies to the woods, 18 Dec. 1868; Hayti, or Haiti, Indian name of a West Indian sale of Samana bay to the United States discussed, Jan.

captured, tried, and shot,

15 Jan. 1870 island discovered by Columbus in Dec. 1492, and named Gen. Nissage Sagei elected president of Hayti for four Hispaniola, and afterwards St. Domingo. Before the years (from 15 May)

.19 March, Spaniards fully conquered it, they are said to have de- Baez supports an insurrection against Hayti... .... Aug. 1871

.9 May, 1872 stroyed, in battle or cold blood, three million of its in- Tranquillity of Hayti reported by Saget.....

Gen. Ganier Aton, president of St. Domingo. .....Oct. 1873 habitants, including women and children, 1495. It now Michel Domingue elected president of Hayti (from 15 comprises the republics of St. Domingo in the east, and


..14 June, 1874 Hayti in the west. Population (1877) of Hayti, about Insurrection in St. Domingo in favor of Baez... 30 Aug 1,75

Insurrection headed by Louis Tanis...... about 7 March, 1876 550,000; of St. Domingo, about 136,500.

Cruel executions of suspected persons by president DoHayti seized by the filibusters and French buccaneers.. 1630


20 March The French government took possession of the whole col

Insurrection successful; Domingue flies to St. Thomas, ony...


middle of April, The negroes revolt against France. .....23 Aug. 1791 Election of Boisrond Canal as president of Hayti, 19 July, And massacre nearly all the whites. 21-23 June, 1793 Peaceful revolution in St. Domingo; president Espaillat The French Directory recognize Toussaint l'Ouverture as

replaced by Gonzales...

...Oct. general in-chief..

1794 Insurrection in St. Domingo; city surrounded by GuilThe castern part of the island ceded to France by Spain, 1795

lermo and Bellini; Bacz almost powerless, Toussaint establishes an independent republic in St. Do.

about 22 Feb. 1877 mingo.. ..9 May, 1801 Guillermo declared president....

. March, He surrenders to the French

..7 May, 1802 Revolution; hard lighting; Boisrond Canal resigns; Is conducted to France, where he dies..


about 17 July, 1879 A new insurrection, under the command of Dessalines;

Gen. Salmon elected president of Hayti.. the French quit the island.

.. Nov.
Hayti reported tranquil..

..1 Jan. 18.0 Dessalines proclaims the massacre of all the whites, 29

Don Fernando Arturo de Marino, a priest, president of March; crowned emperor of Hayti, as Jacques I... Oct. 1804

St. Domingo, Oct. 1880; said to become dictator, He is assassinated, and the isle divided. 17 Oct. 1806

June, 1981 Henry Christophe, a man of color, president in Feb. 1807; Head Act, see note to Ireland, 1465.

crowned emperor by the title of Henry I., while Pe-
thion rules as president at Port-au-Prince.. March, 1811

Health, GENERAL BOARD OF, was appointed by the Numerous black nobility and prelates created.

act for the promotion of the public health, passed in Pethion dies; Boyer elected president..

. May, 1818 1818; see Sanitary Legislation. This board was reconChristophe commits suicide, Oct. 1820; the two states united under Boyer as regent for life, Nov. 1820; who

structed in Aug. 1854, and sir Benjamin Hall was placed is recognized by France..

1825 at its head, with a salary of 2000l.; succeeded by W. F. Revolution; Boyer deposed...

1843 Cowper, Aug. 1855, and by Ch. B. Adderley in 1858. The St. Domingo and the eastern part of Hayti proclaim the Dominican republic,Feb. 1844; recognized by

expenses for the year 1856-7 were 12,3251. In 1858 this France, 1848; Buenaventura Baez, president....... 1849-53 board was incorporated into the privy council establishHayti proclaimed an empire under its late president, So. ment; Dr. Simon being retained as a medical officer; sec

louque, who takes the title of Faustin I., 26 Aug. 1849; crowned..

... 18 April, 1852

Hygeiopolis, Sanitary Legislation, etc. Santana, president of the Dominican republic, 1853-6; Health, NATIONAL BOARD OF, in the United succeeded by B. Baez.......

1856-8 Faustin attacking the republic of St. Domingo, repulsed,

States, was established by act of congress approved

1 Feb. 1856 March 3, 1879. National law of quarantine was passed Revolution in Hayti: gen. Fabre Geffrard proclaims the June 3, 1879. republic of Hayti....

....22 Dec. 1858 Faustin abdicates.

15 Jan. 1859 Hearth, or Chimney, Tax, on every fireplace or Geffrard takes oath as president of Hayti.. .23 Jan.

hearth in England, was imposed by Charles II. in 1662, Sixteen persons executed for a conspiracy against Geffrard...

when it produced about 200,0001. a year. It was abol

Oct. José Valverde elected president of the republic of St.

ished by William and Mary at the Revolution in 1689; Domingo, or Dominican republic...


ch, 1858 imposed again, and again abolished. Spanish emigrants laud: a declaration for reunion with

Spain signed 18 March, decreed by the queen..20 May. 1861 Heat (called by French chemists Caloric). Liitle Insurrection against Spain in St. Domingo.. 14 Aug 1863 progress had been made in the study of the phenomena A Spanish force sent; the insurgents generally defeated, 1864 of heat till about 1757, when Joseph Black put forward Great fire at Port-au-Prince; 600 houses destroyed,

23 Feb. 1805 his theory of latent heat (heat, he said, being absorbed St. Domingo renounced by Spain..

..5 May, by melting ice), and of specific heat. Cavendish, La

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In London 94.1°

voisier, and others continued Black's researches. Sir castle was ruined, and the elector removed his residence John Leslie put forth his views on radiant heat in 1804. to Mannheim. It was annexed to Baden in 1802. Here Count Rumford put forth the theory that heat consists was the celebrated tun, constructed in 1343, when it conin motion among the particles of matter; which view tained twenty-one pipes of wine. Another was made in he supported by experiments on friction (recorded in 1664, which held 600 hogsheads. It was destroyed by 1802). This theory (now called the dynamical or me- the French in 1688; but a larger one, fabricated in 1751, chanical theory of heat, and used to explain all the phe- which held 800 hogsheads, and was formerly kept full nomena of physics and chemistry) has been further sub- of the best Rhenish wine, is said to be mouldering in a stantiated by the independent researches of Dr. J. Meyer damp vault, empty since 1769. of Heilbronn and of Mr. Joule of Manchester (about

Helder Point (Holland). The fort and the Dutch 1840), who assert that heat is the equivalent of work fleet lying in the Texel surrendered to the British under done. In 1854, professor William Thomson of Glasgow the duke of York and sir Ralph Abercromby, for the published his researches on the dynamical power of the prince of Orange, after a conflict. 540 British were

Thermo - electricity, produced by heating killed, 30 Aug. 1799. The place was left in Oct.; see pieces of copper and bismuth soldered together, was dis

Bergen. covered by Seebeck in 1823. A powerful thermo-electric battery was constructed by Marcus of Vienna in

Helena, St., an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1865. Professor Tyndall's “ Heat, a Mode of Motion," discovered by the Portuguese under Juan de Nova Casfirst published Feb. 1863; third edition, 1868.

tilla, on St. Helena's day, 21 May, 1502. The Dutch searches of philosophers are still devoted to this sub- afterwards held it until 1600, when they were expelled ject; see Calorescence. Greatest heat in the hot sum- by the English. The British East India Company setmer of 1868: at Nottingham, in sun, 122.4°; in shade, tled here in 1651; and the island was alternately pos92.20, 22 July, 1 P.m.; 14 Aug. 1876, 95.7° in the shade; sessed by the English and Dutch until 1673, when 147° in sun; 26 June, 1878, 95° in the shade.

Charles II., on 12 Dec., assigned it to the company once

more. St. Helena was the place of Napoleon's captivity, Sir George Cayley invented a heated-air engine in 1807, and

16 Oct. 1815; and here he died, 5 May, 1821. His reMr. Stirling applied it to raising water in Ayrshire in 1818. One invented by Mr. Wenham was described in 1873.

Im: mains were removed in 1840, and interred at the Hôtel provements have been made by Mr. C. Wm. Siemens. des Invalides, Paris; see France, 1840. The house and Capt. Ericsson constructed a ship, in which caloric, or heat, tomb have been purchased by the French government.

was the motive power. On 4 Jan. 1853, it sailed down the bay of New York at the rate of 14 miles an hour, it is said The bishopric was founded in 1859. Governor, adm. sir at a cost of 80 per cent. less than steam. Although caloric Charles Elliot, 1863-9; adm. Charles George Edward engines were not successful, capt. Ericsson continued his Patey, 1869; Hudson Ralph Janisch, 1873. Population,

experiments, and patented an improved engine in 1856. Mr. C. Prince states that on 14 July, 1817, the temperature

1871, 6241. was 98° in the shade at Ucktield, Sussex.

Heligoland, an island in the North Sea, taken from in the shade, 15 July, 1881.

the Danes by the British, 5 Sept. 1807; made a depot for Hebrews, see Jews.

British merchandise; confirmed to England by the treaty Hebrides (the Ebudæ of Ptolemy and the lebudes of Kiel, 14 Jan. 1814. In a naval engagement off Heliof Pliny), western isles of Scotland, long subject to Nor- goland, between the Danes and the Austrians and Prusway; ceded to Scotland in 1264; and annexed to the sians, the allies were compelled to retire, 9 May, 1864. Scottish crown in 1540 by James V. The heritable juris- Governor, col. Henry F. B. Maxse, 1863. Population, dictions were abolished in 1747.

1877, about 2000. Hebron (in Palestine). Here Abraham resided,

Heliography (from soc, the sun, and ypaow, to 1860 B.C.; and here David was made king of Judah, 1048 describe). B.C. On 7 April, 1862, the prince of Wales visited the A system of telegraphing by mirrors flashing the rays of the reputed cave of Machpelah, near Hebron, said to con

sun said to have been employed by the ancients in the time

of Alexander, about 333 B.C. tain the remains of Abraham and his descendants. A portable heliograph, invented by Mr. H. Mance, of the Per. Hecatomb, an ancient sacrifice of a hundred oxen,

sian telegraph department, was announced in 1875.

employed in India, 1877-8; and in the Afghan and Zulu particularly observed by the Lacedæmonians when they

campaigns, 1879–80; see also Photography. possessed a hundred cities. The sacritice was subsequently reduced to twenty-three oxen, and goats and

Heliometer, an instrument for measuring the dilambs were substituted.

ameters of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, invented

by Savary in 1743; applied by M. Bouguer in 1744. A Hecla, Mount (Iceland). Its first recorded erup- fine heliometer, by Repsold of Hamburg, was set up at tion is 1004. About twenty-two eruptions have taken the Radcliffe observatory, Oct. 1849. place, according to Olasson and Paulson. Great convulsions of this mountain occurred in 1766, since when a for observing the sun so as not to affect the eye, was

Helioscope, a peculiar sort of telescope prepared visit to the top in summer is not attended with great invented by Christopher Scheiner in 1625. difficulty. Perhaps the most awful volcanic eruption on record took place in 1781–5, when rivers were dried up,

Heliostat, an instrument invented to make a sunand many villages overwhelmed or destroyed. The beam stationary, or apparently stationary; invented by mount was in a state of violent eruption from 2 Sept. 'sGravesande about 1719, and greatly improved by Ma1815, to April, 1846. Three new craters were formed, lus and others. One constructed by MM. Foucault and from which pillars of fire rose to the height of 14,000 Duboscq was exhibited at Paris in Oct. 1862. English feet. The lava formed several hills, and pieces Hellas, in Thessaly, the home of the Hellenes and of pumice-stone and scoriæ of 2 cwt. were thrown to a the Greek race, which supplanted the Pelasgians from distance of a league and a hall; the ice and snow which the fifteenth to the eleventh century B.C., derived its had covered the mountain for centuries melted into pro- name from Hellen, king of Phthiotis, about 1600 B.C. digious floods.

The Hellenes separated into the Dorians, Æolians, JoniHegira, Era of Tue, dates from the flight (Arabic ans, and Achaians. The present king of Greece is called hejra) of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina on the night “ king of the Hellenes;see Greece. of Thursday, 15 July, 622. The era commences on the Hellenic Society, to promote Hellenic studies, 16th. Some compute this era from the 15th, but Can- formed at a meeting, 16 June, 1879, by Mr. C. T. Newton temir proves that the 16th was the first day. 33 of its and others. lunar years are equal to 32 of those of the vulgar era.

Hellespont (now the Strait of the Dardanelles) Heidelberg (Germany) was the capital of the was named after Helle, daughter of Athamas, king of Palatinate, 1362–1719. The Protestant electoral house Thebes, who was drowned here. It is celebrated for the becoming extinct in 1693, a war ensued, in which the story of the loves of Hero of Sestos, and Leander of

It was

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