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Horse-shoes. Goodenough's American horse-shoes, made HOSPITAL SATURDAYS IN LONDON for workmen be

by machinery, put on cold (patented 1860), were used by the London General Omnibus Company, Oct. -Dec.

gan 17 Oct. 1874, the movement being greatly promoted 1868.

The international horse - shoe company for by capt. Charles Mercier and lord Brabazon; about adopting the patent was established early in.. 1870 64631. said to have been collected : Horse epidemic (“' epizoöty'), from Canada, at New

1875. 31 July.. 53431. 1878. 7 Sept.

65281. York, Boston, etc., caused much inconvenience... Oct. 1872

1876. 2 Sept..
55251. 1879. 6 Sept.

61521. Reported scarcity of horses in Britain; a commission of

1877. 1 Sept..
45001. 1880. 4 Sept..

66044 inquiry appointed, Feb. ; reported (no result).....Aug. 1873

Total distributed up to Jan. 1881, 33, 251l. Stud Company, to improve the breed of horses, held first annual meeting

20 Sept.

Hospitallers, see Malta, Horse duty taken off..

1874 British Empire Horse - supply Association established,

Hospitals, originally Hospitia for the reception of

spring, 1878 travellers. That at Jerusalem, built by the Knights of English Cart - horse Society established, earl of Elles- St. John, 1112, was capable of receiving 2000 guests, and mere president....

.3 June, included an infirmary for the sick. The richly endowed Horse Guards. The regiment is said to have “five royal hospitals " under the pious care of the lord been instituted in the reign of Edward VI., 1550, and re- mayor of London,” etc., are St. Bartholomew's, St. Thomvived by Charles II. 1661. The first troop of Horse as's

, Bridewell

, Bethlehem, and Christ's; which see, and Grenadier Guards was raised in 1693, and was com- Infirmaries and Dispensaries. Benjamin Atwood, who manded by gen. Cholmondeley; and the second troop, gave anonymously about 250,0001. in checks of 10001. to commanded by lord Forbes, was raised in 1702. There hospitals, etc., died in 1874. was a reduction of the Horse and Grenadier Guards; and Bethlehem (oldest lunatic asylum in Europe except one Life Guards, as now established, were raised in their at Granada), founded. ....

1547 room, 26 May, 1788.- Philips. The present edifice called Charing Cross, founded 1818; new hospital built.

Cancer, Brompton..


1831 the Horse Guards was erected about 1758. In the front Consumption, Brompton...

1841 are two small arches, where horse-soldiers, in full uni- Dental..


1821 form, daily mount guard. In the building was formerly Preadnought ship (seaman's)..

Evelina (baron Rothschild's).

1869 the office of the commander-in-chief, now in Pall Mall. Fever...

1802 Horse-racing, see Races.

Free Royal, Gray's Inn lane..

1828 German, Dalston

1845 Hortensian Law, passed by Q. Hortensius, dic- Great Northern

1856 tator, 286 B.C., after the secession of the plebeians to the Guy's (see Guy's)...

1721 Hahnemann (homeopathic)...

1850 Janiculum, affirmed the legislative power granted them


1847 by previous laws in 446 and 336 B.C.


1850 Horticulture (from hortus and cultura), the art of Jews :

1747 King's College

1839 cultivating gardens; see Gardening.


1746 The (now royal) Horticultural Society of London founded London.

1740 by sir Joseph Banks and others in 1804; incorporated, London Ophthalmic, Royal, Finsbury.

1804 17 April, 1809; transactions first published.. 1812 London Ophthalmic, Central, Gray's Inn road.

1843 Planting the garden at Chiswick begun.. 1822 | Lying-in, British.

1749 Annual exhibitions......

City of London..

1750 The library sold. ..

General, Lambeth.

1765 Proposal for laying out a garden for the society on the

Queen Charlotte's..

1752 Brompton estate, belonging to the Crystal Palace Com

Queen Adelaide's..

1824 missioners, July, 1859; received the support of the Middlesex.

1745 queen, nobility, etc., and Mr. Nesfield's design was Orthopædic

1838 adopted, May, 1860; the new gardens opened by the Samaritan, Free, for women and children.

1847 prince consort, who planted a Wellingtonia gigantea Sick Children, 1851; new building opened

...Nov. 1875 (which see), 5 June. The queen planted one...24 July, 1861 Small-pox...

1746 Dr. John Lindley (who “raised horticulture from an em- St. Bartholomew's (see Bartholomew, St.)

.1102, 1546 pirical art to a developed science”) secretary, 1822-62, St. George's..

1733 died 1 Nov. 1865 St. John's, Leicester square (skin).

1863 The Albert memorial uncovered in the presence of the St. Luke's (lunatics)

1751 prince and princess Wales... .10 June, 1863 St. Mark's.

1835 An International Horticultural Exhibition was opened in St. Mary-le-bone.

1871 the gardens.. .23-31 May, 1866 St. Mary's, Paddington.,

1843 Horticultural societies established at Edinburgh, 1809; St. Thomas's (removed 1862 and 1871)..

1553 at Dublin... 1817 Temperance Hospital, opened

Oct. 1873 The oldest existing Horticultural Society in the United Throat and Ear Diseases, Gray's Inn road. March, 1874 States is the Massachusetts State Horticultural Society, University College..

1833 established. 1829 Westminster

1719 Westminster Ophthalmic, Royal..

1816 Hosiery, see Stockings and Cotton.

Women's, Soho square...

1843 Hospital Sundays are said to have begun at Women and Children (superintended by women), Craw

ford street........

1866 Birmingham, 13 Nov. 1859. Glasgow began hospital Sundays about 1844. It is said the present system of

HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES. The list of hospital Sunday began at Manchester in 1870. Near hospitals in the United States is a very long one. Folthe end of 1872, it was proposed that collections for the lowing is a list of some of the most important: benefit of hospitals and dispensaries in London should be Bellevue (800 beds), New York

1826 annually made on one Sunday in the year at all places Brooklyn City, Brooklyn.


1845 of worship. A committee for effecting this met at the Charity Hospital, New Orleans (700 beds).

1784 Mansion House, 31 Jan. 1873; and, soon after, 15 June Cincinnati Hospital, Cincinnati..

1864 was appointed as the day for the collection. The hos- City Hospital, Boston..

Massachusetts General, Boston,

1821 pital Sunday system was adopted in the United States New York Hospital, New York, founded

1770 in 1874.

New York Dispensary, New York


Northern Dispensary..

1817 1873. 15 June.

1750 About 25,5111. received on the day from Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia.. about 1200 places of Worship, including Jews; 18591. St. Luke's, New York...

1846 received afterwards (July). 24,5711. awarded to 54 Host, ELEVATION OF THE, introduced into Roman hospitals; 21851. to 53 dispensaries.

Catholic worship, and prostration, said to have been en1874. 14 June, about 29,8171. received. 1875. 13 June. About 26,7031. received.

joined about 1201. Pope Gregory IX. was the first 1876. 18 June. About 27,0421. received. (23,9431. awarded to pontiff who decreed a bell to be rung as a signal for the 73 hospitals: 23361. to 45 dispensaries, 9 Aug. 1876.)

people to adore the host, 1228.-Rees. 1877. 17 June 26,0831. received; 25,8701, distributed. 1878. 30 June. About 24,9041. received, 25 July.

Hot Blast, see Blowing-machine. 1879. 15 June 26,5011. received; 24,9611. distributed. 1880. 13 June. 12,0001 . received, 16 June; 29,0001..5 July; magistrate, the prefect of the Seine, was begun in 1533,

Hôtel de Ville, Paris, the residence of the chief 30,000l. 12 July; 30,4111. 31 Oct.; total, 30,4231. Nov. 1881. 19 June. Received up to 29 June, 25,0001.

and completed, after his own desigu, by Dominico da Cortona, 1628. Here La Fayette introduced Louis Philippe, Howitzer, a German piece of ordnance, ranking the citizen-king, to the people, Aug. 1830; and here the between a cannon and a mortar, came into use early in republic was proclaimed, 26 Feb. 1848. The commu- the eighteenth century. nists, who had established themselves here, set fire to

Huascar, see Peru, 1877 and 1879. the building, 24 May, 1871, after their total defeat. The Hótel was ordered to be rebuilt, April, 1873.

Hubbardton (Vermont), BATTLE AT, 7 July, 1777. Hôtel Dieu, see Paris, 656, 1877.

Hubertsburg (Saxony). The treaty between the Hour. The early Egyptians divided the day and empress, the king of Prussia, and the elector of Bavaria, night each into twelve hours, a custom adopted by Jews signed here 15. Feb. 1763, ended the Seven Years' war,

whereby Prussia gained Silesia. or Greeks probably from the Babylonians. The day is said to have been first divided into hours from 293 B.C.,

Huddersfield, a manufacturing town, W.R. Yorkwhen L. Papirius Cursor erected a sun-dial in the temple shire, chiefly the property of the Ramsden family. Sir of Quirinus at Rome. Previously to the invention of John Ramsden built the town-hall, 1765. The theatre water-clocks (which see), 158 B.C., the time was called at was burned 15 Feb. 1880; the new market-ball opened Rome by public criers." In England, the measurement 31 March, 1880. of time was, in early days, uncertain: one expedient was Hudibras. The first three cantos of this political by wax-candles, three inches burning an hour, and six satire, by Samuel Butler, appeared in 1663; the other wax-candles burning twenty-four hours— said to have parts in 1664 and 1678. been invented by Alfred, A.D. 886; see Day. For Hours

Hudson's Bay, discovered by Sebastian Cabot, of Prayer, see Breviary.- The Hour, daily conservative 1512, and rediscovered by capt. Henry Hudson when in newspaper, first appeared 24 March, 1873 ; last time, 11 search of a northwest passage to the Pacific Ocean, 1610, Aug. 1876.

had been visited by Frobisher. The “governor and House Duty was imposed in 1695. Its rate was company of adventurers of England trading to Hudson's frequently changed till its repeal. It was reimposed as Bay” obtained a charter from Charles II. in 1670. The a substitute for the window-tax in 1851. In the year "fertile belt” was settled by lord Selkirk in 1812. For 1872-3 it produced 1,243,818l.; in 1875 – 6, 1,421,0521.; these territories the bishopric of Rupert's Land was see Taxes.

founded, 1849. The charter having expired, the chief House of Commons, Lords, etc., see Parliament, part of the company's territories, on the proposition of Lords, and Commons.

earl Granville, the colonial secretary (9 March. 1869), Household Suffrage, after one year's residence, and a right to claim a certain portion of land within fifty

were transferred to the Dominion of Canada for 300,0001., was introduced into parliamentary elections for boroughs by the reform act passed 15 Aug. 1867. Attempts have years, and other privileges; the company having conbeen frequently made to extend household suffrage to sented to this 9 April, 1869. A portion of the people counties, and have failed: Mr. G.O. Trevelyan's propos independence and seized the company's treasury, Jan.

resisted the annexation, and gen. Louis Riel proclaimed sal lost in the commons (287 to 173), 13 May, 1874; (268 1870. On 3 or 4 March he tried and shot Thomas Scott, to 166), 7 July, 1875; (264 to 165), 30 May, 1876; (276 to 220), 29 June, 1877; (271 to 219), 22, 23 Feb. 1878; (afterwards sir) Garnet J. Wolseley conducted a Cana

a Canadian, who had escaped from his custody. Col. (291 to 226), 4 March, 1879.

dian expedition to the territories (now named Manitoba), Houseless Poor Act (Metropolitan), passed 1864; and issued a proclamation to the loyal inhabitants, 23 made perpetual, 1865; see Poor.

July, saying “our mission is one of peace.” Riel was Howard Association, instituted in 1866, under unsupported and offered no resistance. The lieut.-govthe patronage of the late lord Brougham, for the im- ernor, Adams George Archibald, arrived 3 Sept.; see provement of prison discipline and prevention of crime;

Manitoba. see Prisons. The annual award of a Howard medal was Hue and Cry, the old common-law process of purdetermined on by the Statistical Society of London, Dec. suing “with horn and with voice," from hundred to 1873.

hundred, and county to county, all robbers and felons. Howard Association, United States. This Formerly the hundred was bound to make good all loss voluntary organization distinguished itself for coura- occasioned by the robberies therein committed, unless geous self-sacrifice in caring for the sick of Southern the felon were taken; but by subsequent laws it is made cities during the yellow-fever epidemics of 1878-9. The answerable only for damage committed by riotous assemmembers nursed 24,000 patients in New Orleans alone blies. The pursuit of a felon was aided by a description between 17 Aug. and 26 Oct. 1868, and expended in of him in the Hue and Cry, a gazette established for adcharity during the same time $380,185.83. The asso-vertising felons in 1710.– A she. ciation makes no distinction among sufferers on account

Huguenots, a term (derived by some from the Gerof race or religion, and not the least of its services is the

man Eidgenossen, confederates; by others from Hugues, judicious dispensation of funds contributed by the char- a Genevese Calvinist) applied to the Reformed party in itable throughout the country.

France, followers of Calvin. They took up arms against Howard Family. John Howard, son of Marga- their persecutors in 1561. After a delusive edict of tolret, the heiress of the Mowbrays, was created earl mar- eration, a great number were massacred at Vassy, 1 shal and the seventh duke of Norfolk in 1483. He was March, 1562, when the civil wars began, which lasted, slain with his master, Richard III., at Bosworth, 22 with some intermission, till the edict of Nantes in 1598 Aug. 1485. His son was restored to the earldom of Sur- (revoked in 1685). On the revocation of the edict of rey in 1489; in reward for having gained the victory of Nantes many Huguenots fled to the United States, setFlodden, 9 Sept. 1513, he was created the eighth duke tling in South Carolina, Virginia, and New York. The of Norfolk in 1514. Thomas, the tenth duke, was be- massacre of St. Bartholomew's day, 24 Aug. 1572, ocheaded for conspiracy against queen Elizabeth on behalf curred during a truce; see Calvinists, Protestants, Barof Mary queen of Scots, in 1572. Henry Fitzalan How-tholomew, Edict, and Camisard. S. Smiles’s “ History ard, now the twenty-first duke of Norfolk, and the fif- of the Huguenots” appeared in 1867. Baird's “Rise of teenth of the Howard family, premier duke and earl of the Huguenots” was published in 1879. The crypt in England and hereditary earl marshal, was born in Canterbury cathedral assigned to French Protestants in 1847.

1550 is still used by them for divine worship. Howard Medal. One was awarded by the Sta- Hull (E. Yorkshire), a rising commercial place in tistical Society to the best essay “On the Improvements 1200, was named Kingston-upon-Hull in 1296 by Edward in Education during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Cen- I., who purchased the town, formed the port, and granted turies" in Nor. 1879.

a charter. Great fire, damage about 100,0001., 15 Aug.






1864. Royal Albert dock opened by the prince of Wales, till their destruction by Charlemagne in 799. About 21 July, 1869.

890 the country was settled by a Scythian tribe named Hulse's Foundations. The rev. John Hulse, Vingours, or Ungri (whence the German name Ungarn), who died in 1790, bequeathed his estates in Cheshire to and the Magyars, of Finnish origin. The cbief of the the university of Cambridge for the advancement of re- latter, Arpad (889), was the ancestor of a line of kings ligious learning: by the maintenance of two scholars; (see below). The progress of the Magyars westward the payment of a prize of 401. annually for a theological was checked by their defeat by the emperor Henry the dissertation; the establishment of the office of Christian Fowler, 934. Population of the kingdom, including advocate (made a professorship of divinity 1 Aug. 1860); Transylvania, Fiume, Croatia, and Slavonia, 31 Dec. 1869, and the payment of lecturer, to be chosen annually. 15,509,455; see Austria. The first Hulsean lectures were given by the rev. Chris Stephen, founder of the monarchy of Hungary, embraces topher Benson in 1820.

and establishes Christianity and subdues the Slavs,

etc., receives the title of the Apostolic king from the Humaitá, a strong post on the river Paraguay, for

pope... tified at a great cost with a battery of 300 cannon by The Poles overrun Hungary.


.1174, etc. Lopez, the president of Paraguay, and believed to be im- Bela III. introduces the Greek civilization. pregnable, was passed by the Brazilian iron-clads 17 Feb. Ravages of the Tartars under the sons of Genghis Khan,

throughout Hungary, Bohemia, and Russia.....1241 et seq. 1868. On the 19th Caxias, the Brazilian general, stormed Golden bull of Andrew 'II. granting personal rights...... a work to the north of Humaitá, and captured many Death of Andrew III., end of the Arpad dynasty... 1301 Humaitá itself, after a severe siege, was aban- | Victories of Louis the Great in Bulgaria, Servia, and


.1344-82 doned, 24 July, 1868.

He marches into Italy and avenges the murder of his Humane Society, Royal (London), for the re

brother Andrew, king of Naples....

1348 covery of persons apparently drowned, was founded in Sanguinary, anarchy; Elizabeth, queen of Louis, is

drowned; and king Mary, the daughter, marries Sig1774 by Drs. Goldsmith, Heberden, Towers, Lettsom, ismond of Brandenburg; they govern with great seHawes, and Cogan, but principally by the last three. verity...

1382 The society has above 280 depots supplied with appara

[The Hungarians had an aversion to the name of

queen; and whenever a female succeeded to the throne, tus. The principal one was erected in 1794 on a spot of she was termed king. ) ground given by George III. on the north side of the Sigismond's atrocious cruelties compel his subjects to Serpentine river, Hyde park. The motto of this society Battle of Nicopolis; Bajazet vanquishes Sigismond and is appropriate: Lateat scintillula forsun, A small spark a large army..

28 Sept. 1396 may perhaps lie hid;" see Drowning.

Sigismond obtains the crown of Bohemia, and is elecied

1410 Humanism, a name given to the philosophical Albert of Austria succeeds to the throne of Hungary.. study of man's personality as distinguished from a class, Victories of the great John Hunniades (reputed illegitiespecially advanced by Petrarch and other energetic mate son of Sigismond) over the Turks...

1442-4 advocates of the revival of the study of ancient classic Broken by Ladislas, king of Hungary (at the pope's in. literature, termed the “new learning," and ("literæ hu

stigation); he is defeated and slain, with the papal maniores ") the age of the renaissance, in the fourteenth, legate, at Varna....

.10 Nov. fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, whereby freedom of John Hunniades escapes; becomes regent. .......1444-53

Raises siege of Belgrade, 14 July; dies.. .10 Sept. 1456 thought and language was greatly promoted.

Hungarians insult Turkish ambassadors; war ensues; Humanitarians, a small sect in London, founded Disastrous battle of Mohatz (which see)..

Solyman II. takes Buda.

..29 Aug. by Mr. Kaspary, a German Jew. Their moral principles Hungary subject to Austria... are set forth in "The Fifteen Doctrines of the Religion Peace of Vienna, granting toleration to Protestants, of God," written in 1866. These include pantheism and John Sobieski defeats the Turks in several battles, and

23 June, 1606 the transmigration of souls.

raises the siege of Vienna...

..12 Nov. 1683 Humanity, RELIGION OF, see Positive Philosophy The duke of Lorraine retakes Buda (which see)...

...... 1686 and Secularism.

Prince Louis of Baden defeats the Turks at Salencke

19 Aug. 1691 Humiliati, a congregation of monks said to have Prince Eugene defeats them at Zenta. ...11 Sept. 1697 been formed by some Milanese nobles who had been Peace of Carlowitz..

.26 Jan. 1699 imprisoned by Frederick I., 1162. The order had more Pragmatic sanction, authorizing female succession to

1722-3 than ninety monasteries, but was abolished for luxury Servia and Wallachia ceded to Turkey at the peace of and cruelty by pope Pius V., and the houses were given Belgrade...

1739 to the Dominicans, Cordeliers, and other communities in The Hungarians enthusiastically support Maria Theresa

against France and Bavaria.

1740 1570.

The Protestants permitted to have churches. Humming-birds. Mr. Gould's beautiful collection Independence of Hungary guaranteed.. of the skins of these birds exhibited at the Zoological The diet meets; Hungarian academy established.

The people, long discontented with the Austrian rule, Gardens, London, in 1851, was bought, with other birds, break out into rebellion......... .........11 Sept. 1848 for the British Museum for 30001., April, 1881. His elab- Murder of the military governor, count Lamberg, by a orate work on them in fire folio volumes, with richly

mob at Pesth; the Hungarian diet appoint a provi.

sional government under Kossuth and Louis Batthy. colored plates, was completed in 1862.

any, 28 Sept.; Hungarians defeat the ban of Croatia, Hundred, a Danish institution, was a part of a shire,

29 Sept. so called, as is supposed, from its having been composed The diet denounces as traitors all who acknowledge the of a hundred families at the time the counties were the insurgents defeated by the Austrians at Szaikszo, originally divided, about 897. The hundred-court is a 21 Dec.; at Mohr by the ban Jellachich.....

5 Jan. 1849 court-baron held for all the inhabitants of a hundred in- Buda-Pesth taken by Windischgrätz..... stead of a manor.

Bem defeats the Austrians at Hermannstadt.....21 Jan.

Hungary declares itself a free state; Kossuth supreme Hundred Days, a term given to Napoleon's res- governor...

..14 April, toration, dating from his arrival in Paris, 20 March, to

The Hungarians defeat the imperialists before Gran,

18 April, his departure on 29 June, 1815.

March of the Russian army through Galicia to assist the Hundred Years' War, in French history, com


.1 May,

The Austro-Russian troops defeat the Hungarians at menced with the English invasion in 1337.


......20 June, Hungary, part of the ancient Pannonia and Dacia, Battles of Acs between the Hungarians and Austrians; was subjected to the Romans about 106, and retained by Hungarians defeat Jellachich.

..2, 10 July,

14 July, them till the third century, when it was seized by the The Hungarians defeated by the Russians; Görgey reGoths, who were expelled about 376 by the Huns; see treats after three days' battle..

.15 July, Huns and Attila. After Attila's death in 453, the Gepi- Battle before Komorn between the iusurgents and the dæ, and in 500 the Lombards, held the country. It was Insorgents under Bem enter Moldavia, 23 July; defeated

..16 July acquired by the Arars about 568, and retained by them by the Russians at Schässburg...

.31 July,



1784 1790 1825

29 Dec.





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Utter defeat of the Hungarian army before Temesvar Bills for financial arrangement with Austria and for by gen. Haynau...

...10 Aug. 1849 Jewish emancipation received royal assent....29 Dec. 1867 Görgey and his army surrender to the Russians, 13 Aug. First trial by jury of press offences (fine and imprisonKossuth, Andrassy, Bem, etc., escape to the Turkish ment inflicted for publishing a letter of Kossuth), frontiers, and are placed under protection at New

27 Feb. 1868 Orsova (see Turkey)....

21 Aug Kossuth (elected a member of the legislature) resigns by Komorn surrenders to the Austrians; close of the war, letter....

..14 April, 27 Sept. A Croatian deputation accepts union with Hungary, Louis Batthyany tried at Pesth, and shot; many other

27 May, insurgent chiefs put to death...

...6 Oct. Prince Jerome Napoleon's visit; warmly received, June, Amnesty granted to the Hungarian insurgents, who re- Dispute respecting the apportionment of the army setturn home..

..16 Oct.

5 Dec. Bem dies at Aleppo..

.10 Dec. 1850 The diet of 1865 closed with an address from the em. The country remains in an unsettled state; many exe


10 Dec. cutions..

.1853–5 Congress of Hungarian Jews opened; Joseph Eötvos Crown of St. Stephen and royal insignia discovered and


14 Dec. sent to Vienna..

.8 Sept. 1853 Powerful counter-addresses from Andrassy and Kossuth Amnesty for political offenders of 1848-9... .12 July, 1856 published...

...Jan. 1869 The emperor and empress visit Buda. ...4 May, 1857 Royal Hungarian guard organized..

.9 Feb. During ihe Italian war in 1859, an insurrection in Hun. Chamber of deputies meet...

.22 April, gary was in contemplation, and communications took Remains of Louis Batthyany (executed and privately place between Louis Napoleon and Kossuth, which buried, Oct. 1819), re-interred solemnly in the public circumstances, it is said, led the emperor of Austria to cemetery, Pesth..

.9 June, 1870 accede to the peace of Villafranca so suddenly, and Joseph Eötvos, author, patriot, and minister, died, deepshortly afterwards to promise many reforms and to ly lamented, aged 58..

.3 Feb. 1871 grant more liberty to the Protestants in Hungary, Autumn military maneuvres near Waitzen, 22 Sept.

Aug. -Oct. 1859 Recall of archduke Albert; gen. Benedek appointed gov. Andrassy succeeds count von Beust as foreign minister ernor...

.. April, 1860 at Vienna; count Lonyay, Hungarian premier, 14 Nov. Demand for restoration of the old constitution; reunion The diet, after sitting three years, dissolved.... 16 April, 1872

of the Banat and Voivodina with Hungary, etc. ... Oct. Elections; increased majority of the Deak or constituRestoration of old constitution promised.... .20 Oct.

tional party, July; diet opened...

.4 Sept. Schmerling appointed minister..

.13 Dec. Resignation of the count Lonyay ministry, 2 Dec.; National conference at Gran...

Szlavy forms a ministry...

Demand for the constitution of 1848..
..Jan. 1861 The Fiume railway partly opened. .

.24 June, 1873 The emperor promulgates a new liberal constitution for Buda-Pesth formally constituted the capital... ... Nov. the empire..

.26 Feb. Ministry resigns; crisis; Bitto forms a cabinet, 20 March, 1874 Which does not satisfy the Hungarians.... ..March, Parliament closes...

.14 Aug. Hungarian diet opened. .

.6 April,

Ministry resigns, 11 Feb.; coalition ministry under Meeting of the Reichsrath at Vienna; no deputies pres- baron von Wenckheim formed, 26 Feb.-1 March.... 1875 ent from Hungary or Croatia..

29 April, Elections; greatly in favor of government.........July, Count Teleki (see Austria, 1860) found dead in his bed Tisza chief of the ministry...

.20 Oct. at Pesth; intense excitement.

.8 May,

Death of the patriot Francis Deak, 28 Jan.; state funer. The diet votes an address to the emperor, desiring res


.....3 Feb. 1876 toration of the old constitution

.5 July, Ministerial crisis; Tisza resigns; remains in office, Feb. 1577 The military begin to levy the taxes.. .....July, Projected raid into Roumania to favor the Turks Imperial rescript refusing the entire independence of checked; censured by Klapka.. .....end of Sept.

Hungary, 21 July; the diet protests, 20 Aug.; and is Miskolcz nearly destroyed by a waterspout......30 Aug. 1878 dissolved...

.21 Aug.

Resignation of Szell, finance minister, 26 Sept ; followed The archbishop of Gran, the primate, indignantly pro- by that of the Tisza ministry.

..4 Oct. tests against the act of the imperial government,

Tisza ministry retained modified..

5 Dec. Sept. -Oct. Distressing inundation at Szegedin; great loss of life and Summoned to Vienna; he stands firm.. .25 Oct.

property (see Inundations).. 12, 13 March, and 12 Dec. 1879 The magistrates in the comitat of Pesth resign; military

SOVEREIGNS. government established; passive resistance of the no. bility..

.. Dec. 997. St. Stephen, duke of Hungary (son of Geisa); established Amnesty declared for political offences, and cessation of

the Roman Catholic religion (1000), and received from prosecutions..

18 Nov. 1862

the pope the title of Apostolic King, still borne by the Newspapers confiscated for publishing seditious speech

emperor of Austria, as king of Hungary. es.

29 March, 1863 1038. Peter, the German; deposed. The emperor visits Buda. Pesth; well received; inau. 1041. Aba, or Owen,

guration of a new policy; the rights of Hungary to be 1014. Peter, again ; deposed; and his eyes put out. restored...

.6-9 June, 1865 1047. Andrew I. ; deposed. Imperial rescript, abolishing the representative consti. 1061. Bela I.; killed by the fall of a ruinous tower.

tution of the empire, with the view of restoring inde. 1074. Salamon, son of Andrew. pendence of Hungary, etc..

21 Sept. 1075. Geisa I., son of Bela. The Deak or moderate party demand restoration of the 1077. Ladislas I., the Pious.

monarchy, with a responsible government....11 Nov. 1095. Coloman, son of Geisa. The emperor visits l'esth; the diet opened, 14 Dec. ; Carl 1114. Stephen II., named Thunder. Szentivanyi elected president....

.... 20 Dec.

1131: Bela II. ; had his eyes put out. Emperor and empress arrive at Pesth.

.29 Jan. 1866 1141, Geisa II. ; succeeded by his son, Hungarian legions join the Prussian army, June (after 1161. Stephen (II.; and Stephen IV. (anarchy).

the peace they were allowed to return to their alle- 1173. Bela III. ; succeeded by his son, giance).....

1196. Emeric; succeeded by his son, Prolonged negotiations for autonomy; Deak 1204. Ladislas II. ; reigned six months only.

and national party, wearied, threaten to break off, Oct. 1205. Andrew II., son of Bela III.
Hungarian diet opened by a conciliatory rescript, 19 Nov. 1235. Bela IV.
Deak's address in reply, demanding the restoration of 1270. Stephen IV. (or V.), his son.

the constitution, adopted by the diet with a large ma. 1272. Ladislas III. ; killed.

15 Dec. 1290. Andrew III., surnamed the Venetian, son-in-law of Ro. Much opposit.on to the convocation of the Reichsrath,

dolph of Hapsburg, emperor of Germany (last of the Jan. 1867

house of Arpad); died 1301. Restoration of the constitution of 1848; an independent 1301. Wenceslas of Bohemia, and (1305) Otho of Bavaria, who ministry appointed, headed by count 'Julius Andrassy,

gave way to

17 Feb. 1309. Charobert, or Charles Robert, of Anjou. The Croats protest against incorporation with Hungary, 1342. Louis I., the Great; elected king of Poland, 1370.

25 May, 1382. Mary, called King Mary, daughter of Louis. The emperor and empress crowned at Buda with the 1385-6. Charles Durazzo. ancient ceremonies..

...8 June, 1387. Mary and her consort Sigismond: the latter became king Amnesty granted for all political offences.......9 June,

of Bohemia, and was elected emperor in 1410. The coronation gift to the emperor of 50,000 ducats be- 1392. Sigismond alone (on the death of Mary). stowed on orphans and invalids...

.10 June,

1437. Albert, duke of Austria, married Elizabeth, daughter of Discussion between the Austrians and Hungarians re

Sigismond, and obtains the thrones of Hungary, Bohesp ing the division of the liability for the national

mia, and Germany; dies suddenly. debt....

...Aug. --Sept. 1439. Elizabeth alone: she marries. A financial convention signed by deputations... 23 Sept. 1440. Ladislas IV., king of Poland, of which kingdom he was Kossuth's letter to his constituents at Waitzen, cen

Ladislas VI. ; slain at Varna. suring Deak and the moderate party..


1444. (Interregnum.] Deak joined by Klapka and other liberals.. ..Nov. 1445. John Hunniades, regent. The "Nazırenes," a sect resembling Quakers, become 1458. Ladislas V., posthumous son of Albert; poisoned. prominent..


Matthias Corvinus, son of Hunniades.





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1490. Ladislas VI., king of Bohemia: the emperor Maximilian elder slain at Bömischbrod or Lippau. Toleration was

laid claim to both kingdoms. 1516. Louis II. of Hungary (1. of Bohemia); loses his life at granted by the treaty of Iglau, and Sigismond entered the battle of Mohatz.

Prague 23 Aug. 1436. The Hussites opposed his sucJohn Zapolski, vaivode of Transylvania, elected by cessor, Albert of Austria, and called Casimir of Poland the Hungarians, and supported by the sultan Soly to the throne; but were defeated in 1438. A portion of

man; by treaty with Ferdinand, he founds the prin the Hussites existed in the time of Luther, and were 1526.

cipality of Transylvania, 1536.
Ferdinand I., king of Bohémia, brother to the emperor called “Bohemian Brethren."

Charles V. ; rival kings.
1540. Ferdinand alone; elected emperor,


Hustings (said to be derived from house court, an 1563. Maximilian, son; emperor in 1564.

assembly among the Anglo-Saxons), an ancient court 1572. Rodolph, son; emperor in 1576. 1608. Matthias II., brother; emperor in 1612.

of London, being its supreme court of judicature, as the 1618. Ferdinand II., cousin, emperor.

court of common council is of legislature. The court 1625. Ferdinand III., son; emperor, 1637.

of hustyngs was granted to the city of London, to be 1647. Ferdinand IV., son; died in 1654, three years before bis holden and kept weekly, by Edward the Confessor, 1052.

father, 1655. Leopold I., brother; emperor, 1657.

One was held to outlaw defaulters, 6 Dec. 1870. Win1687. Joseph I., son; emperor in 1705.

chester, Lincoln, York, etc., were also granted hustings 1712. Charles VI. (of Germany), brother, and nominal king of courts.

Spain. 1741. Maria Theresa, daughter, empress; survived her con- Hutchinsonians included many eminent clergy,

sort, emperor Francis I., from 1765 until 1780; see who did not form any sect, but held the opinions of

Germany. 1780. Joseph II., son; emperor in 1765; succeeded to Hungary John Hutchinson of Yorkshire (1674-1737); they reon the death of his mother.

jected the Newtonian system, and contended that the 1790. Leopold II., brother; emperor; succeeded by his son, Scriptures contain a complete system of natural philos1792. Francis I., son (Francis II. as emperor of Germany); in ophy. His work, “ Moses' Principia,” was published in

1804 he became emperor of Austria only. 1835. Ferdinand V., son; Ferdinand I. as emperor of Austria. 1724. He derived all things from the air, whence, he 1848. Francis Joseph, emperor of Austria; nephew; succeed: said, proceeded fire, light, and spirit, types of the Trinity.

ed on the abdication of his uncle, 2'Dec. 1848; crowned In 1712 he invented a timepiece for finding the longiking of Hungary, 8 June, 1867; see Austria.

tude, and died in 1737. Hungerford Bridge,* over the Thames from Hungerford Stairs to the Belvedere road, Lambeth, opened 1 Great defeated Porus, after a severely contested engage

Hydaspes, a river in India, where Alexander the May, 1845, was taken down in July, 1862, to make way ment, 327 B.C. for the Charing-cross Railway bridge, and transferred to Clifton (which see). The market (opened in July, 1833), Hyde Park (London, W.), the ancient manor of was removed at the same time.

Hyde, belonging to the abbey of Westminster, became Huns, a race of warlike Asiatics, said to have con

crown property at the dissolution, 1535. It was sold by quered China about 210 B.C., and to have been expelled parliament in 1652; but was resumed by the king at therefrom about a.d. 90. They invaded Hungary about the restoration in 1660. The Serpentine was formed

1730-3. 376, and drove out the Goths. Marching westward, under Attila, they were thoroughly beaten at Châlons by Colossal statue of Achilles, cast from cannon taken in the

battles of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo, the consul Aëtius, 451; see Attila.

and inscribed to “ Arthur, duke of Wellington, and his Hunting, an ancient pastime. The “ Bokys of brave companions in arms, by their countrywomen," Hawking and Huntyng,” by Dame Julyana Barnes, was Hyde Park Corner entrance erected.

erected on

........18 June, 1822

1828 printed at St. Alban's, 1486.

Marble arch from Buckingham Palace set up at Cumber.

land Gate... Huntingdon, see Whitefieldites.

.29 March, 1850 Crystal Palace erected for the great exhibition

1851 Hurricanes, see Cyclones.

Disturbances in consequence of a Sunday bill having

been brought before parliament by lord Robert GrosveHussars, Hungarian militia, provided by the land

nor, which was eventually withdrawn, holders; instituted by Matthias Corvinus, about 1359.

Sundays, 24 June, and 1 and 8 July, 1855 (Hussar is derived from huss, 20; and ar, price.) The Riotous meetings held here, on account of the high price

of bread. British Hussars were enrolled in 1759.

..Sundays, 14, 21, 28 Oct.

Democratic meetings on the Reform question.... March, 1859 Hussites. After the death of Huss,t many of his The queen reviewed 18,450 volunteers 23 June, 1860 followers took up arms in 1419, and formed a political Great meeting of admirers of Garibaldi, 28 Sept. ; who

are violently attacked by the Irish; many persons party under John Ziska, and built the city of Tabor. wounded.

....5 Oct. 1862 He defeated the emperor Sigismond, 11 July, 1420, and Public meetings in the park henceforth prohibited, a short truce followed. Ziska, blinded at the siege of Rabi, beat all the armies sent against him. He died of 20,000 volunteers reviewed by the prince of Wales,

28 May, 1864 the plague, 18 Oct. 1424, and is said to have ordered a Proposed Reform meeting in the park opposed; great drum to be made of his skin to terrify his enemies even

rioting; the palings broken down, and much damage after death. Two Hussite generals, named Procopius,

done; fierce conflicts with the police, and many hurt,

23, 24 July, 1866 defeated the imperialists in 1431 ; and a temporary peace Peaceful Reform demonstrations in the park, ensued. Divisions took place among the Hussites, and

6 May and 5 Aug. 1867 on 30 May, 1434, they were defeated, and Procopius the Regulations with restrictions on public meeting in the

parks issued (afterwards modified).

..Oct. 1872 Meeting of Fenian sympathizers in Hyde Park contrary to the regulations...

.3 Nov. * It was 14 feet wide and 1342 feet long; the length of the Odger and others prosecuted and fined ..... Nov. central span, between the two piers, 676 feet; the height of the convictions confirmed by the judges on appeal, the two towers, 55 feet above the footway and 84 above high

22 Jan. 1873 water; the piers were in the Italian style, with the chains Great meeting on behalf of the Tichborne claimant, Dr. passing through the attic of each. The cost of the masonry

Kenealy and Mr. Guildford Onslow present, was 60,0001.; of the ironwork, exceeding 700 tons in weight, 17,0001 ; of the approaches, 13,000l. : total, 102,2451. Archi- Great meetings for and against government policy on

Easter-Monday, 29 March, 1875 tect, I. K. Brunel. # The clergy having instigated the pope to issue a bull Great orderly meeting to protest against arrest of Irish

the Eastern question.. Sundays, 24 Feb. and 10 March, 1878 against heretics, John Huss (born in Bohemia in 1373), a zeal

agitators (Killen, Daly, and Davitt) ...

...........30 Nov. 1879 ous preacher of the Reformation, was cited to appear before a council of divines at Constance, the emperor Sigismond send

Hyderabad (S. India), the territory of the Nizam, ing him a safe conduct. He presented himself accordingly, but was thrown into prison, and after some months' confine who derives his authority from Azof Jah, a chief under ment was adjudged to be burned alive, which he endured with Aurungzebe, who made him viceroy as Nizam-ool-Moolk, resignation, 6 or 7 July, 1415. Jerome of Prague, his intimate regulator of the state. He died in 1748. friend, who came to this council to support and second him, also suffered death by fire, 30 May, 1416, although he also had civil war between his descendants ensues.

1748-65 a safe conduct.

Nizam Ali dethroned his brother, 1761; ravaged the Car.

9 Oct.

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