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fortune in getting between two such eminent I frigate La Atocha, and after her consumption by travellers as Elphinstone and Holland. In short, | fire, he obtained his release with much difficulty. it would tire your patience to read a full descrip- Spain, beware-you are playing a dangerous game. tion of this reviewer's study, which, in my esti- Mr. Meade is said to be imprisoned about some mation, surpassed every thing of the kind í had private business with the Spanish governmeatbefore witnessed.

he has been in prison for some months. The But what gave me the greatest satisfaction, was chief conspirators against Ferdinand's life have the peculiar situation of the celebrated 'Exposi- || been executed. tion,' to which I have before alluded. It was sur- France. A great activity prevails in the French rounded on all sides by piles of authors, some in naval department. The frigate Cybele, with boards and some in calf, while near it on the table sloops of war, are to be stationed at New-Found. lay a sheet of paper partly blotted and partly in- land, for the protection of the fishery. The terlined. The pamphlet itself was still clean and French regicides are not to be permitted to reneat, without any rents or defacements; but some side in France. Louis 18th has ordercd the forof the surrounding authors were dreadfully folded || feited property of Bonapart's family to be distri. and soiled, and many of them torn in two parts.- buted among the officers and soldiers who had As this was a circumstance that naturally inspired lost their pensions by their wounds in battle. No me with courage, and as I concluded, from the distinction is made. Gen. Guyor has been sen. disfigured appearance of the aforesaid sheet of tenced to twenty years imprisonment, instead of paper, that the critic must lave been considera- | death. Didier's confessions have caused the ar. bly bothered in attempting to explain away the

rest of several persons

Another disturbance has truths of the Esposition,' I ventured to ask him taken place at Grenoble. A bad understanding how it happened that this little work could so ea. is said to exist between France and Sweden. sily withstand the repeated attacks of such an Canada.—The Canadian government has issued army of authors as that by which it was surround- a proclamation declaring the ports open for all od ? "Come gentlemen,” said he, “ let us try a lit- kinds of grain, provisions, &c. from the United tle wine; my wife wants to talk to you about A States, for three months, in British vessels. The ruerica, and I long to hear what is going on there price of flour is said to be 18 dollars per barrel. in the literary way." This was, at least, a most Englando-It seems that Canning is a candidate happy knack to evade the question? but a Scotch- for parliament from Liverpool. The papers state man, when he sets his head for any thing is as ob- that he was " severely handled, and narrowly esstinate as a mule. So we drank a glass of wine caped the brick-bats that were thrown at him." and bade adieu to this grand inquisitor of the lite- The alien bill has passed the House of Commons. rary world



Redheffer's perpetual motion, as it has been American Literature.

styled, is said to be permanently at rest. He has

laboured with much zeal and assiduity to cause a It cannot but be highly gratifying to every Ame

cause that should produce an effect greater than rican of letters, to learn that the History of Ame.

itself. rica, by the late venerable and much lamented Dr. Ramsay, is about to be put to press, and ex

Mr. Davenport, of Connecticut, has publicly ecuted in a style that will do credit to the state iana, has been re-elected to Congress. Mr. Hen

declined a re-election. Mr. Robertson, of Louis. of the arts in this country. The work is to be published solely for the benefit of his family. ly, the opponent of Col. Johnson, and Mr. Bart, Whis, apart froin the pre-emineet ability of the from the contest.

opponent of Mr. Clay, have both withdrawn

:-300 Swiss and 400 Wertemberg author, will be a powerful stimulant to public patronage. The history was brought down to emigrants are said to be on their way to the 1808 by the Doctor, and will be continued to the United States. The flooring and railing of the close of the late war by the Rev. Dr. S. T. Smith. great bridge in Providence has been lately com.

We understand that Mr. Duponceau is about to pleted. The dimensions are:-the south foot undertake a work on languages, in which he three feet, and the north foot walk twenty-three

walk is nine feet wide, the carriage way sixtymeans to show that the languages spoken, from feet; the whole width, including the railings, is Greenland to the Hudson, by the aborigines, are fundamentally the same, differing only in certain and thirty feet. It is believed to be the widest

about ninety-seven feet; its length one hundred dialects.

bridge in the United States, if not in the world.SUMMARY-FOREIGN & DOMESTIC.

By the papers from the east, we learn that the unusual cold season will probably cause the crops

of Indian corn to be something less than in ordiRussia.—The Russian army is to be kept on the nary seasons, but that other crops will be abund. war footing. The army stationed on the frontiers || ant. The schooner Mary & Elizabeth, Captain is said to be dissolved, and the troops have com-Davis, from the Grand Banks, arrived at Gloucesmenced their march to the remotest provinces of||ter, Mass. on the 28th ult. with fifty-seven thouthis empire.

sand fish, being the largest fare ever arrived at Sweden.—The Crown Prince, in consequence that place. of the Swedish ambassador not having been re- United States Bank.-From the accounts which ceived at the French court, has been seriously we have seen published, it is calculated that there alarmed, and has applied to Russia for protection, remains a deficiency of 5 or 6 millions unsubwhich has been promised.

scribed to this stock. It is believed, however, Spain.-In imitation of Great Britain, the Spa- that whatever deficiency there may be when all niards have commenced the practice of im press the returns are received, it will be filled on the ment also. They impressed, some time ago, a second opening of the books in Philadelphia. As young man, named Cambell, of respectable con- soon is the returns shall be completed we shall nections in New Jersey, on board the Spanish publish them.




spread of republican principles through the naSOUTH-AMERICA.

tion, all indicate the certain triumph of our South. There is, perhaps, no spectacle in nature more American brethren. The establishment of a reinteresting and sublime than a nation contending publican and independent government in Southfor its liberties. Mankind revolt at oppression, || America is an event peculiarly desirable. A coun. and have a natural aversion to tyranny: there is try which stands unrivalled in beauty and in the an incessant struggle to cast off the shackles by profusion of nature's blessings, requires a form which they are bound, and to return to that state

of government which would secure the enjoy. for which nature destined them. We rejoice at 1 ment of those blessings, and the fruition of those the triumph of him who has rescued himself from gifts, which nature has so lavishly bestowed. Un. the chains of the despot that oppressed and ma- der present circumstances, it is weakness and nacled him; and we glory in the success of a na. absurdity in the Spanish government to persist in tion that has undertaken to wrest from the hand its efforts to crush the insurgents. They have of the tyrant who withholds them, the impre- gained too firm a hold to be shaken, and have scriptable and unalienable rights of man. It is, advanced too far to recede. Were there even a then, with no common interest, we view the pa- || possibility of success, it is perhaps questionable, triotic and noble struggle of our South-American whether it would redound to the advantage of brethren for independence; and that interest is the Spanish crown to retain the colonies. Spain, increased in proportion to the despotism of him at the period Columbus discovered the new world, who now wields the sceptre of Spain. We who stood high as a nation: she was distinguished for bave once bled in a similar cause; who have once her chivalry; for the elevation and grandeur of contended as they contend, for the sacred liber-her national character; and for the boldness, enties of man and the overthrow of tyrants, must | terprize, and liberality of her subjects : but now indeed be lost to the common sympathies of our the scene is reversed, and she is perhaps three nature, if we do not feel a double interest in centuries behind every other civilized nation of their welfare and success. Whatever may be the the earth—“Gods, how unlike her sires of old”policy of government, which, in order to avoid The cause of this degeneracy may be ascribed, in contentions and to maintain peace and harmony a great degree, to the discovery of South-America, with foreign nations, suggests a neutrality of con- which, by affording an outlet to her population, duct, we yet feel as men, and those feelings must || and opening a channel of exhaustless wealth, probe strongly elicited in behalf of the patriots of duced indolence, luxury, vice, and effeminacythe south. For many years they have struggled the national character became enervated and enfor freedom; but their struggles have been hither-feebled-science sunk beneath the gloom of su. to limited and circumscribed. Like all revolting | perstitious bigotry and the energies of the hunations, they have had to contend with the diffi-| man mind were destroyed by the want of power. culties and embarrassments incident to such a ful motives to virtuous action and generous en state. The want of money; of munitions of war; terprise. Remove these causes of depression, and of a sufficient naval armament, and the darkness there is a probability that the public mind will and terror which the gloomy and superstitious recover its former activity and energy-will cast government of the mother country had cast orer off the torpor & darkness by which it is paralized the minds of the colonists, have tended to retard and enshrouded; and, by producing stimulants to the progress of the arms of the independents, industry and enterprise, restore the national cha. and to prevent that success which would inevita-racter to its wonted energy and vigout. It would bly have followed their exertions in the cause of appear, therefore, that it is the policy of Spain to freedom.

acknowledge the independence of South-America, But these difficulties are now vanishing, and and to abandon her fruitless and unavailing atthe cause of liberty in the south is acquiring tempt to crush the germ of freedom that has now vigour, like fame, by progression. The ultimate gained so extensive a growth in that continent. success of the patriots is, we think, scarcely | It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the indequestionable. The length of time they have main-pendence of South America would be invaluably tained their ground; the accession uf force by beneficial to the United States. The surplus pro. emigration from Europe and America; the pre- || duce of this country would always find a market sent facility of acquiring munitions; and the wide- ll there, and thus add to its commercial and agtien VOL. I.


24. Grey

cultural prosperity; while the facility of obtain

2d SEC.---LEAVES INDENTID, ing metalic medium would contribute to the pre- 6. Swamp white oak, Quercus prinus discolor. servation of our credit at home and abroad, in

7. Chesnut do. do.

do. palustris, the event of future wars. There is but one thing 8. Rock chesnut, do.

do. monticola. to be deeply lamented in the struggles of those 9. Yellow do.

do. acuminata men for liberty—the sanguinary practice of re- || 10. Small chesnut, do. do. chincapin taliation, which has been adopted on both sides,

2d DIVISION. is shocking to human nature, and a lasting stigma on the character of the nation. The savage and Fructification biennial-leaves mired. forrible cruelty of the mother country was too

1st sec,-LEAVES ENTIRE. shocking to be imitated: and the exhibition of

11. Live oak,

Quercus virens. forbearance and mercy, on the part of the revo- 12. Willow do.

do. phellos. lutionists would, perhaps, have been more effect.

13. Laurel do.

do. imbricaria ual in subduing their opponents; and certainly

14. Upland willow do. do. cinerea. would, more powerfully, have excited the sym

15. Running do.

do. pumila. pathies and interests of the world in their favour.

2d sec.-LEAVES LOBED. We trust, however, that now they are rapidly advancing to the goal of triumph, they will dis- 16. Bertram oak, Quercus heterophylla. play a far different spectacle to the eyes of man- 17. Water do.


aquataca. kind, and conquer as well by their humanity as 18. Black jack do.

do. ferruginea. their courage.

19. Bear do. do. banisteri.


20. Barrens scrub oak, Quercus catesbæi. AMERICAN BOTANY.

21. Spanish do. do. falcata. As Botany forms an important branch in the 22. Black

do. do. tinctoria. education of a gentleman; and as it is a subject

23. Scarlet do. do. coccinea.



ambigua. to which but very few in this country have de

25. Pine

do. do. voted much of their leisure and attention, we

palustris. 26. Red

do. do. rubra. shall, with pleasure, insert such original communications or translations as may tend to diffuse a It appears that there are 26 different species of more extensive knowledge of the botanical, and the oak in the United States; all of which Mr. also of the zoological productions of the United Michaux accurately describes; and which is States.

another proof that nature has been no niggard

in the distribution of her favours to this happy For the National Register.

country. As a specimen of Mr. Michaux's style Mr. EDITOR,

and manner, I send you a translation of his small Perceiving that you are solicitous to make your chesnut oak--Quercus prinus Chincapin— Register a repository of science and literature, In the northern and middle States this beautias well as of politics, and thus render it of great ful little species is called the small, or dwarf chesnational benefit, I take the liberty to send you a nut oak, from the resemblance of its leaves to translation from a very valuable work, in French, I those of the quercus prinus monticola, or rock entitled Histoire des Chenes de L'Amerique Septen-chesnut. The leaves have also some resemblance trionale, by F. A. Michaux, which, I believe, has to those of the fagus chincapin; and it is on that never been translated into English, and which account that in East 'Tennessee, and in the upper would be very interesting to the American bo- Carolinas, near the mountains, it is designated by tanical reader. The following is his disposition: the name of chincapin oak. This last denomina

tion, which I have adopted, appeared to me, from 1st DIVISION.

subsequent reflection, less applicable than the Annual fructification-leaves changeable.

first, which I wish henceforth to be considered as

definitely fixed. I will explain the motives of Ist SEC.-LEAVES LORED.

this change: In the first place, the name of chin. 1. White oak, Quercus alba.

capin oak is entirely unknown to half the country 2. Mossy cup do. do. olivaformis.

where this species grows the most abundantly: 3. Over cup white do. do. macrocarpa. . and, in the second place, that of the dwarf ches. 4. Post oak, do. obstusiloba.

nut oak, though less used in the middle States, is 5. Over cup oak, do. lyrata.

not difficult to be comprehended by all the in.


habitants who equally possess in their forests the each commissioned officer was born, will forth two species of chesnut oaks described above. with be reported to this office. This species is noi commonly disseminated in the

By order,

D. PARKER, Adjt. & Insp. Gen. forests which contain many trees and shrubs. It is very rare, on the contrary, to meet with it in Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, a great many places where it should grow very

August 1, 1816. well, & it is more frequently found only in districts. There, then, either alone, or mixed with the quer | peace establishment of the United States, which

Promotions to fill vacancies in the military cus banisteri or bear oak; it covers spaces more or have occurred since the 17th of June, 1816. less considerable in extent_sometimes exceeding

Corps of Artillery. 100 acres. The existence of these two kinds of

1st Lieut. Milo Mason, to be captain, 17th May oaks is always a certain indication of sterility of 1816, vice Hierriot, declined. soil. The following places are those in which I

2d Lieut. John W. Kincaid, 1st lieut. 17th May, have more particularly observed the dwarf ches. || 1816, vice Mason, promoted. nut oak. In the neighbourhood of New-Provi- || 1816, vice Morgan, resigned.

2d Lieut. Robert Goode, 1st lieut. 15th July, dence, (R. I.) that of Albany, (N. Y.) in Virgi- 3d. Lieut. Richard H. Lee, 2d lieut. 17th May, nia, upon the Alleghany mountains, and in East 1816, vice Kincaid, promoted. Tennessee, near Knoxville. I have found it also

3d Lieut. Jesse M'llvain, 2d lieut. 15th July,

1816, vice Goode, promoted. in the suburbs of Philadelphia, in the park of Mr. 3d Lieut. William L. Boothe, 2d lieut. 16th Ju. Hamilton, where its grows spontaneously. ly, 1816, vice Whetmore, resigned. This species, and another which grows in the

5th Regiment of Infantry, midst of heaths in the southern States, are, of all 2d Lieut. Subael Butterfield, to be Ist lieut. the oaks of America, the least considerable in 30th June, 1816, vice Cilly, resigned. size, not commonly exceeding 24 or 30 inches in

7th Regiment of Infantry. height.

21 Lieut. Jacob Tipton, to be 1st lieut. 5th The leaves of the dwarf chesnut oak are oval,

July, 1816, vice Hays. topped with a clear green above, and pale below;

8th Regiment of Infantry. they are indented with sufficient regularity, but July, 1816, vice King, resigned.

2d Lieut. Russell B. Hyde, to be 1st lieut. 1st not deeply cut: the acorns, contained to the third The officers above promoted will report acof their length in a scaley cup, are middling cordingly, subject to the approval of the Senate large, a little oblong, and equally rounded at

at their next session. their two extremities; they are very sweet to the

By order,

D. PARKER, Adj. & Ins. Gen. raste. It appears that nature has been desirous to compensate for the smallness of this oak, by

SPANISH TYRANNY AT CADIZ. an abundant fructification. It is often so much

In recording the following documents it may So, that the nuts, pressed, and closed into each other upon the stock, bend to the earth where be useful to preface them with some of the cir. they remain concealed at full length : but it is cumstances connected with the affisir they devenecessary to remark, that these stems sometimes lope, and which will serve to show the character scarcely exceed the size of an ordinary quill. If of the Spanish government under its "legitimate the scantiness of this species renders it improper sovereign.even for fuel, it might perhaps yield some advan

Mr. Meade, it appears, has been a resident mer. tage from the abundance of its fruit, particularly chant in Cadiz for a number of years, transacting if it were connected with the quercus banisteri,| business on his own account and as agent for mawhich is no higher, and which offers the same ny of the first mercantile houses in the U. States : advantages as to fruit.-p. 66.

That during the investment of that city by the French, the citizens were indebted to the credit and enterprize of Mr. Meade for much of their

subsistence, as well as the army of Andalusia after PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

the siege was raised. During the troubles of the Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, Spanish government, when their funds were ex.

August 1, 1816. hausted, they found a resource in Mr. Meade:

whose advancements at sundry times amounted to

more than two millions of dollars, he relying with Preparatory to forming a list of the army, conformably to a resolution of Congress, passed confidence on the honor and good faith of that go, April 27, 1816, the State and Country in which \vernment for an indemnification when their diffi


culties should be removed. Occasional and par- || refusal he was seized and sent to the castle of Santa tial payments, we learn, were made by bills on Lon. Catalina and remained a prisoner there on the 27th don, but, a large portion of those advances is still of May last. due hiin. Not contented with receiving these

On the 2d of May the auditor of war of Andalularge sums thus generously advanced, he was sia, with an adjutant of the governor and a scriseized during the setting of the Cortez and thrown venor, waited on Mr. Meade at his own house, and into prison, for refusing to surrender the whole of informed him that a royal order had been issued his property, and that of others entrusted to him, under the sign manuel, in virtue of a secret conwithout security for payment. This being the acı

sultation of war through the department of state, unof the civil auti:orities of the city of Cadiz, he ap| manding the captain general of Andalusia to es

der the direction of Don Pedro Cevallos, and compealed, from the unjust procedure to the Cortez, and wrote and printed a pamphlet in the Spanish ||ecute it. The tenor of the matter in implication language, in a manly and spirited style, detailing || royal treasury, or satisfactory security to be given

was a sum of money required to be paid into the the circumstances of his grievance, a copy of || for its payment to the tribunal of commerce at which, he caused to be put into the possession of || Cadiz-That information bad been given that each member of that body. Though this bold and he was about to depart from Cadiz, and that if the dignified course obtained his release and the res.

money was not immediately paid or the required pect of the liberal and virtuous, yet his stores were security given, they were ordered to seize on and broken open and his property taken ; whether it || secure his person. Mr. Meade remonstrated a. was ever restored or paid for we do not know, but gainst such a proceeding, and the false allegation that a vast debt remains yet unpaid is certain. as to his departure. Aware that if confined he

The pretext for the outrage recently practised could not so well manage the transaction, and up. on Mr. Meade is connected in some measure with on the consultation of some friends, he proposed to the debt of the government. In the transaction of give security by a deposit of notes, in which the his mercantile business, by negociations and agen- | members of the city were among the, he obtained'a credit on the Spanish treasury When this security was laid before the consuls, as to the amount, perhaps, of $150,000, which, with they are called, they changed ground and refused a further credit to a considerable amount, he em. to accept any security but cash. ployed, with the consent of the public authorities,

Mr. Mead offered to give security for his person in the discharge ofthe debt due him, and closed the to any amount, and would add to this the security negociations, in which he was enabled to secure of the notes ; and represented to the auditor that a considerable sum on account of Spain in foreign he possessed bills and orders of his majesty on his countries. This affair was honorably adjusted at different treasuries in the provinces for ten times the Spanish treasury, and triplicate receipts gi- the amount ; that he was determined to undergo ven for the amount. More than a year had || every personal suffering in preference to aug. espired when it was intimated to him, that menting the amount which the Spanish govem. he must deposit a sum of money in the Spa- ment already owed him; and of which there was nish treasury, equal to the amount for which no hopes of payment, since his majesty had issued he had receipts, in liquidation of part of his claim. a royal order in September last, declaring all At this time, Mr. Meade was acting as consul for debts or obligations of the government, or conthe United States. He urged the injustice of the tracts made prior to December, 1814, should be demand, and the impossibility of his compliance, considered as belonging to the public debt, which his funds being vested in'mercantile adventures in

was tantamount to saying these debts would never other countries. As consul, he had no funds, and be paid, as all the evidences of the public debt if he had, he could use them only in the service were then selling at a discount of 80 or 90 per cent. of his country. He was threatened with imprison and added that it was in vain to say the royal orment if he did not comply. Possessed of the evi- der contained an exception to foreigners, since bis dence of the government, that the sum demanded own claims had been suspended, and the royal inwas already paid, he should deem the demand an | tendant and treasurer in Seville, where large sums unjustifiable outrage, and should, of course, refuse were due him, had declared in writing that his to refund a sum which had been paid to him, and claims were included in the decree, and that he which constituted but a small part of what was must apply to the directors of the public debt, justly due him, of a debt contracted to relieve the notwithstanding he had proved himself a native necessitics of the Spanish government. Upon this and citizen of the United States, und had alway,

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