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lord Berkeley. 1672, Arthur Capel, earl of Essex. to a committee of citizens of twelve London companies
1677, James Butler, duke of Ormond.
Hyde, earl of Clarendon. 1687, Richard Talbot

, eary invited by king James I. to colonize the confiscated lands of Tyrconnel. 1690, Henry Sydney, lord Sydney in the north of Ireland, termed the Ulster plantations,

1695, Henry Capel, lord Capel. 1700. Laurence Hyde, earl of Rochester. 1703, James Butler, mittee received a charter, which was taken away in

including Londonderry and Coleraine, 1613. The comduke of Ormond. 1707, Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 1709, Thomas, earl of Wharton. 1710, James, duke of 1637, and restored after various changes 1670. The Ormond, again. 1713, Charles, duke of Shrewsbury. affairs of this company and its methods of business were 1717, Charles, duke of Bolton.

1721, Charles, duke discussed in parliament in 1868 and 1869. of Grafton. 1724, John, lord Carteret. 1731, Lionel, duke of Dorset. 1737, William, duke of Devonshire. Irish University Bi (to combine Trinity Col1745, Philip, earl of Chesterfield. 1747, William, earl of Harrington. 1751, Lionel, duke of 'Dorset, again. lege and the Catholic College), introduced by Mr. I. Butt, 1755, William, duke of Devonshire. 1757, John, duke 16 May, 1876; withdrawn. of Bedford. 1761, George, earl of Halifax. 1763, Hugh, earl of Northumberland. 1765, Francis, earl of Hert

Iron found on Mount Ida by the Dactyles, owing to ford.

the forest having been burned by lightning, 1432 B.C.1767. George, viscount Townshend, 14 Oct.

Arundelian Marbles (1407, Hales ; 1283, Clinton). The 1772. Simon, earl of Harcourt, 30 Nov. 1777. John, earl of Buckinghamshire, 25 Jan.

Greeks ascribed the discovery of iron to themselves, and 1780. Frederick, earl of Carlisle, 23 Dec.

referred glass to the Phænicians. Moses relates that 1782. William Henry, duke of Portland, 14 April.

iron was wrought by Tubal-Cain (Gen. iv. 22). Swedish George, earl Temple, 15 Sept.

iron is very celebrated, and Dannemora is the greatest 1783. Robert, earl of Northington, 3 June. 1784. Charles, duke of Rutland, 24 Feb.; died 24 Oct. 1787.

mine of Sweden. The weekly publication Iron began 1787. George, marquess of Buckingham (late earl Temple), 18 Jan. 1873 ; see Steel.

again, 16 Dec. 1790. John, earl of Westmorland, 5 Jan.

Belgium an early seat of the iron manufacture; coal said to 1795. William, earl Fitzwilliam, 4 Jan.

have been employed at Marche-les-dames, 1346. John, earl Camden, 31 March.

British iron cast by Ralph Page and Peter Baude in Sussex, 1798. Charles, marquess Cornwallis, 20 June.

1543.-Rymer's Fædera. 1801. Philip, earl of Hardwicke, 25 May,

Iron-mills used for slitting iron into bars for smiths by God. 1806. John, duke of Bedford, 18 March.

frey Bochs, 1590. 1807. Charles, duke of Richmond, 19 April.

Tinning of iron introduced from Bohemia, 1681. Till about 1813. Charles, earl Whitworth, 26 Aug.

1730 iron ores were smelted entirely with wood charcoal, 1817. Charles, earl Talbot, 9 Oct.

which did not wholly give way to coal and coke till 1788. 1821. Richard, marquess Wellesley, 29 Dec.

The operation termed puddling, and other very great im1828. Henry, marquess of Anglesey, 1 March.

provements in the manufacture, invented by Mr. Henry 1829. Hugh, duke of Northumberland, 6 March.

Cort, about 1781, who did not reap the due reward of his 1830. Henry, marquess of Anglesey, again, 23 Dec.

ingenuity. He died in 1800. 1833. Marquess Wellesley, again, 26 Sept.

Mr. Henry Bessemer patented his method of manufacturing 1834. Thomas, earl of Haddington, 29 Dec.

iron and steel, 17 Oct., 5 Dec. 1855; 12 Feb. 1856. 1835. Henry, marquess of Normanby, 23 April.

Strike of the puddlers and lock-out of the masters in Stafford. 1839. Hugh, viscount Ebrington, afterwards earl Fortescue,

shire, Northumberland, etc., lasted during March, April, and 3 April.

May, 1865.

Iron-workers of Great Britain determine to form one trades1841. Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, 15 Sept. 1844. William, lord Heytesbury, 12 July.

union, with one executive, Oct. 1866. 1846. John William, earl of Bessborough, 9 July; died 16 May, Strike of iron-workers in the north over, 31 Dec. 1866. 1847.

Mr. Wm. Robinson announced a method of making wrought 1847. George William Frederick, earl of Clarendon, 26 day.

iron from cast iron by means of magnetism, July, 1867. 1852. Archibald William, earl of Eglinton, 28 Feb.

Mr. John Heaton's process for making steel announced about 1853. Edward Granville, earl of St. Germans, Jan.

Nov. 1867; discussed Oct. 1868. 1855. George, earl of Carlisle, March.

One of the finest, thickest, and heaviest armor - plates crer 1858. Archibald, earl of Eglinton, again, Feb. ; resigned.

rolled in the world was pressed into the very perfection of 1859. George, carl of Carlisle, again, June; died 5 Dec. 1864.

a manufactured armor-plate at the great Atlas Iron-works 1864. John, lord Wodchouse, afterwards earl of Kimberley,

of sir John Brown & Co., Sheffield. The size of it when 1 Nov.

in the furnace was a little over 20 feet long by about 4 feet 1866. James, marquess of Abercorn, July; made duke, 6 Aug.

broad and 21 inches thick. Its rough weight was over 21

tons. 1868.

It was built up in the furnace before being rolled by 1868. John, earl Spencer, Dec.

five mould plates, each 3 inches thick, and one solid plate

of 6 inches. 1874. James, duke of Abercorn, Feb.

This mass, when reduced by intense heat to 1876. John, duke of Marlborough, 28 Nov.

the consistency of dough, was withdrawn from the furnace, 1880. Francis T. de Grey, earl Cowper, 5 May.

and in the course of less than a quarter of an hour was

passed between the enormous rollers many times, was reIreland Forgeries. In 1786 W. H. Ireland made duced to a compact slab of iron of a uniform thickness of public the Shakespeare manuscripts which he had forged,

15 inches, and then passed on to its bed to cool till fit for

having its rough edges planed down to the proper dimenand deceived many critics. The play “ Vortigern" was

sions, 6 Sept. 1867. Armor-plate 24 inches thick rolled at performed at Drury-lane theatre on 2 April, 1796. He same works, Oct. 1876. shortly after acknowledged the forgery, and published Iron forts (cost about 1,000.0001. ; made by Whitworth & Co. his " Confessions" in 1805. He died in 1835.

at Manchester) put up at Spithead early in 1872.

Mr. Crampton's iron furnace, in which definite proportions of Ireland, Young, a party (or rather“ school”) coal-dust and air are introduced under pressure, was tried formed for the regeneration of the country, founded by Ironstone miners in Yorkshire; great strike through reduction

at Woolwich and was reported successful, May, 1873. Thos. Osborne, Charles Gavan Duffy (who established in wages, May, 1874. and conducted The Nution from 1842 to 1855), Smith Iron trades, see Employers. O'Brien, and others in 1840. Some of their proceedings

Iron merchant-vessels: built in 1860, 181; in 1877, 545. led to the state trials of 1813 and 1848. Mr. Duffy (after

IRON PRODUCED IN GREAT BRITAIN. wards premier of Victoria, Australia, and K. C. M. G.)

59 furnaces.

17,350 tons. 1788.. 77

61,920 published “ Young Ireland, a Fragment of Irish History,


124,789 1810-50," in 1880.


227,000 Iridium AND Osmium. In 1804 Tennant dis



1820.. covered these two rare metals in the ore of platinum, in

400,000 1825..

581,367 which, in 1845, Claus discovered a third, Ruthenium. 1840..


1,396, 400 Iridium is said to be the heaviest known metal, 1878;



1852... 655 see Weights.


in 1857, Irish Church, see Church of Ireland. The Irish In 1855, 3,217,154 tons of pig - iron were produced;

3,659,447 tons; in 1865, 4,819,254 tons; in 1869, 5,445,757 Presbyterian Church act, passed 16 June, 1871, regulates tons, in 1873, 6,566,451 tons; in 1876, 6,555,997 tons; in the management of certain trust properties for that 1879, 5,995,337 tons. church.

Iron Manufacture : between 1865-75 the capital invested rose

from 7.000,0001. to 29,000,0001. Number of puddling furIrish Land Bills, see Irelund, 1870, 1880-1, and naces rose from 3462 to 1159; also great increase in blast Addenda.


Great depression since 1876; due to excessive production and Irish Society, THE HONORABLE, the name given increased and cheap manufacture of steel, 1878-9.


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... 623

Exports of Iron and Steel from United Kingdom: 1860, 1,502,- | Park, and reported successful; sce Sewage and Inter500 tons; 1865, 1,687,071 tons; 1870, 2,825,575 tons; 1875, mittent Filtration.

2, 457,306 tons; 1879, 2,883,484 ions. The production of pig-iron in the United States in net tons Irun, a frontier village of Spain. On 16 May, 1837,

was, for 1870, 2,052,821; for 1880, 3,781.021. The total iron and steel production in the United States in net from St. Sebastian to attack Irun (held by the Carlists),

the British auxiliary legion, under gen. Evans, marched tons was: 1870, 3,655, 215; 1880, 7, 265, 140.

which, after a desperate resistance, was carried by asIron and Steel Institute, the duke of Devon- sault, 17 May. shire, president, held its first meeting in London, 22 June, 1869, first provincial meeting at Merthyr-Tydvil, 6 Sept

: the “Iloly Catholic Apostolic Church.” They use a

Irvingites, followers of Edward Irving,f now called 1870'; first foreign meeting at Liege, 18 Aug. 1873; liturgy (framed in 1842 and enlarged 1853), and have second at Paris, 16 Sept. 1878.

church officers named apostles, angels, prophets, etc. In Iron Cross, an order of knighthood established by 1852 lighted candles were placed on the magnificent alFrederick William III. of Prussia, 10 March, 1813, to tar, and burning of incense during prayers was prescribed. honor patriotic bravery in the war against France; was The Gothic church, in Gordon square, was solemnly revived by William I. in the Franco-Prussian war, and opened 1 Jan. 1854. It is said that all who join the awarded by him to his son for his victory at Wissem church offer it a tenth of their income. They had 30 bourg, 4 Aug. 1870. About 40,000 persons were deco- chapels in England in 1851. rated in 1870-1.

Isandula, ISANDLANA, or ISANDLWANA, termed the Iron Crown (of Italy), of gold and precious stones, “English Cremera;” sec Zululand, 22 Jan. 1879. set in a thin ring of iron, said to have been forged from a nail of Christ's cross, was made by order of Theude- the Romans B.C. 78; by the Saracens A.D. 650; was re

Isauria, a province in Asia Minor, conquered by linde for her husband, Agilulf

, king of the Longobards, taken by the emperor Leo III., who founded the Isaurian 591. She presented it (to be kept) to the church at dynasty, 718, which ended with Constantine VI. in 797. Monza. Charlemagne was crowned with this crown, Išauria was incorporated with Turkey 1387. and after him all the emperors who were kings of Lombardy; Napoleon I. at Milan, on 26 May, 1805, put it on

Isernia (S. Italy). Here the Sardinian general Cihis head, saying, Dieu me l'a donnée ; gare à qui y aldini defeated the Neapolitans, 17 Oct. 1860. touchera(“God has given it to me; woe to him who Islam, or ESLÂM, submission to God, the name given touches it"). The crown was removed from Monza to to Mahometanism (which see). Mantua by the Austrians on 23 April, 1859. After the Isle of France, Man, ETC.; see Mauritius, Man, peace of Vienna in 1866, the crown was given up to gen. etc. Menabrea on 11 Oct., and presented to king Victor Em

Isles, BISHOPRIC OF. This see contained not only manuel at Turin on 4 Nor. The order of the “ Iron the Hebrides, or Western Isles, but the Isle of Man, which Crown of Italy," instituted by Napoleon, 26 May, 1805, for nearly 400 years had been a separate bishopric. The was abolished in 1814, but revived by the emperor of first bishop of the Isles was Amphibalus, 360; see lona. Austria, 12 Feb. 1816; see Gotha. The order of the Since the revolution (when this bishopric was discontinCrown of Italy was instituted by king Victor Em- ued) the Isles have been joined to Moray and Ross, or to manuel, 20 Feb, 1868.

Ross alone. In 1847, however, Argyll and the Isles were Iron Mask, THE MAN WITH THE. A mysterious made a seventh post-revolution and distinct bishopric; prisoner in France, wearing a mask and closely confined see Bishops. under M. de St.-Mars, at Pignerol (1679), Exilles (1681), Isly (N.W. Africa). Here Abd-el-Kader, the Arab Sainte - Marguerite (1687), and at the Bastile (1698), chief, was totally defeated by the French, under Bugeaud, where he died, 19 Nov. 1703. He was of noble mien, 14 Aug, 1844. and was treated with profound respect; but his keepers had orders to despatch him if he uncovered. M. de St.

Ismail (Bessarabia). After a long siege by the RusMars himself always placed the dishes on his table, and sians, who lost 20,000 men before the place, the town was stood in his presence.

taken by storm, 22 Dec. 1790; when Suwarrow, the most

merciless warrior of modern times, put the brave TurkIron-clads, see Circular, Navy, and United States, ish garrison (30,000 men) to the sword and delivered up 1862; Germany, 1878.

Ismail to pillage, and ordered the massacre of 6000 women. Iron-plated Ships, see Iron-clads.

It was again captured by the Russians 26 Sept. 1809, and Irredenta Cry, see Italy, 1878.

retained till the treaty of Paris in 1856, when it was ceded

to Moldavia. Irrigation, practised in the East and in Egypt from

Ispahan was made the capital of Persia by Abbas the most remote ages. It was strenuously advocated for India by sir A. Cotton and others at the Social the Great, in 1590. It lost its supremacy in 1796, when

Teheran became the capital. Science Congress at Manchester, Oct. 1866. In 1865 acts were passed for utilizing London sewage in the

Israel, KINGDOM OF, see Jers. -Handel's oratorio irrigation of grass land, and the results are said to be “Israel in Egypt” first performed 4 April, 1789. generally favorable. The subject was much discussed, Issus (Asia Minor), the site of Alexander's second Aug. 1873. A method of producing artificial rain from great battle with Darius, whose queen and family were ponds by means of steam - power, patented by Isaac captured, Oct. 333 B.C. The Persian army, according to Brown of Edinburgh, was tried by Mr. Coleman at Stoke Justin, consisted of 400,000 foot and 100,000 horse; 61,

000 of the former and 10,000 of the latter were left dead * The following conjectures have been made as to his iden- on the spot, and 40,000 were taken prisoners. Here the tity: An Armenian patriarch forcibly carried from Constan. emperor Septimius defeated his rival Niger, A.D. 194. tinople (who died ten years before the mask); the duc de Vermandois, son of Louis XIV., reported to have perished in Istamboul, see Constantinople, the camp before Dixmude; the duc de Beaufort, whose head is reported to have been taken off before Candia; James, duke + Edward Irving was born 15 Aug. 1792, and was engaged as of Monmouth, executed on Tower hill; a son of Anne of Aus. assistant to Dr. Chalmers, at Glasgow, in 1819. In 1823 he attria, queen of Louis XIII., either by cardinal Mazarine or by tracted immense crowds of distinguished persons to his ser. the duke of Buckingham; the twin brother of Louis XIV. (a mons at the Scotch church, Hatton Garden. conjecture received by Voltaire and others); Foucquet, an was built for him in Regent square in 1827. Soon after he eminent statesman in the time of Louis XIV.; and a count propounded new doctrines on ihe human nature of Christ; Matthioli, secretary of state to Charles III., duke of Mantua. and the “ ['tterances of I'nknown Tongues," which began in M. Delort and the right hon. Agar Ell's (afterwards lord Dorer) his congregation with a Miss Hall and Mr. Taplin, 16 Oct. 1831, endeavored to prove Matthioli to have been the person. The wore countenanced by bim as of divine inspiration. He was mask, it seems, was not made of iron, but of black velvet, expelled from the Scotch church 15 March, 1833. His church, strengthened with whalebone, and fastened behind the head reconstituted with the threefold cord of a sevenfold miniswith a padlock

try," was removed to Newman street. He died & Dec. 1834.


A new church .....1182, etc.



Ister, see Danube.

the German emperors; since then Spain, France, and Isthmian Games received their name from the Germany struggled for the possession of the country, isthmus of Corinth, where they were observed; institut- which has been divided among them several times. ed by Sisyphus about 1406 B.c., in honor of Melicertes, Spain predominated in Italy during the sixteenth and a sea-god.—Lenglet. Reinstituted in honor of Neptune seventeenth centuries; yielded to the house of Austria by Theseus about 1239 B.C.; and their celebration was

at the beginning of the eighteenth. The victories of beld so sacred that even a public calamity did

not pre but the Austrian rule was re-established at the peace in

Bonaparte in 1797–8 changed the government of Italy; vent it. The games were revived by Julius Cæsar, 60 B.C.; and the emperor Julian, A.D. 362.

1814. In 1848 the Milanese and Venetians revolted and

joined Piedmont, but were subdued by Radetzky; see Istria was finally subdued by the Romans, 177 B.C. below. The hostile feeling between Austria and PiedAfter various changes it came under the rule of Venice mont gradually increased till war broke out in April, in 1378, and was annexed 1420. It was obtained by Aus- 1859. The Austrians were defeated, and the kingilom tria, 1796 ; by France, 1806; by Austria, 1814.

of Italy, comprising Piedmont, Sardinia, Lombardy, TusItalia Irredenta (“ unredeemed Italy"), a secret cany, Modena, Parma, the Romagna, Naples, and Sicily, society which first appeared in Italy Nov. 1877, and said was re-established 17 March, 1861, by the Italian parto have 200 committees, the chief at Naples. Its pro- liament (consisting of 443 deputies from 59 provinces). fessed object is to add to the Italian kingdom Trieste, Ou 29 Oct. 1861, the internal government was reorganthe Tyrol, and other Austrian provinces ou the Adriatic. ized; the 59 provinces were placed under prefects, sub

ject to four directors-general. In 1861 the population In 1879 col. Haymerle, an Austrian military resident at Rome, published • Res Italicæ," freely discussing the subject. was 21,728,529. War with Austria was declared 18 June, The Italians were much annoyed, and the publication was dis- 1866; and on 3 Oct. peace was signed at Vienna, and Veavowed by the Austrian government.

netia was ceded to Italy; see below for the events. The Italian Association for the Advancement kingdom of Italy was consummated by the occupation of Science, first met at Pisa, under the patronage of of Rome as the capital, 1870. Estimated population of the grand-duke of Tuscany, in 1837. It met in Rome the kingdom, 1862, 25,003,635 (Rome was added in 1870); 20 Oct. 1873.

1878, 28,209,620. For other details see Rome and the Italian Benevolent Society, London, founded various Italian cities throughout the volume. by the king of Italy and others, 1861.

Italy (Saturnia) fabled to have been ruled by Saturn during the golden age...

....B.C. 2450 Italian Catholic Church (between two and three Arrival of Enotrus from Arcadia, 1710; and of Evander; thousand persons); first bishop, Domenico Panelli; a

reign of Latinus..

.about 1240

Æneas the Trojan said to land in Italy, defeat and kill synod met at Naples in 1875.

Tarnus; marry Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus; and Its statute (of 62 articles) asserts that the Catholic church found Lavinium in South Italy. is nothing but the society of all believers in Jesus Christ, and Greek colonies (see Magna Græcia) founded.

.974-443 that he only is its supreme head and pastor; rejects all mira. Romulus builds Rome..

753 cles since the death of the Apostles; declares that the Catho.

(For subsequent history, see Rome.) lic faith is only that revealed in the Holy Scriptures, etc. Odoacer, leader of the Heruli, establishes the kingdom of Italian Language, based on Latin, is said by Dante The Ostrogoths invade Italy, 489, and retain it till..


491 to be formed of a selection of the best portions of the dif- They are expelled by the imperial generals Narses and ferent dialects. Pure elegant poetry was written by



(See Kings Or ITALY, p. 381, and Iron Crown.) Guido Cavalcanti, who died 1301; and good prose by Narses, governor of Italy, invites the Lombards from Ger. Malespini, about 1250.

many, 568; who overrun Italy..
Invasion and defeat of Constans II...

Venice first governed by a doge.
Born Died
Born Died Pepin gives Ravenna to the pope,

754 Dante...

1265 1321 Goldoni.. 1707 1795 Charlemagne invades Italy, 774; overcomes the lomPetrarca.. 1304 1374 Parini.

1729 1799 bards; crowned emperor of the West at Rome by pope Boccaccio 1313 1375 Alfieri.. 1803 Leo III.

. 25 Dec. 800 Machiavelli..... 1469 1527 Volta...

1745 1826 The Saracens invade Italy and settle at Bari.. Ariosto, . 1474 1533 Monti.. 175+ 1828 Invasion of Otho I. 951; crowned emperor. 2 Feb.

962 Guicciardini.... 1482 1540 Leopardi.. 1798 1837 Genoa becomes important..

1000 Tasso.. 1544 1595 Gioberti, 1801 1852 The Saracens expelled by the Normans..

1016-17 Galileo.. 1564 1642 Nicolini. 1782 1861 The Normans acquire Naples from the pope.

1051 Metastasio...... 1698 1782 | Manzoni........ 1784 1873 Pope Gregory VII., Hildebrand, pretends to universal sor.

ereignty, in which he is assisted by Matilda, countess The following terms are often used with reference to certain periods in the history of Italian literature and art:

of Tuscany, mistress of the greater part of Italy.....1073-85

Disputes between the popes and emperors, relative to ec1. Trecento (three hundred), from the birth of Dante (1265) to

clesiastical investitures, begin (and long agitate Italy the death of Boccaccio (1375), which two, with Petrarca, are and Germany)...

...about 1073 styled “the triumvirate of the Trecento"

Rise of the Lombard cities...

.about 1120 2. Quattrocento (four hundred), from 1375 to the revival of Who war with each other.

1144 Italian literature by Lorenzo de' Medici in the fifteenth cen

The Venetians obtain many victories over the Eastern tury. During this period Latin was revived, to the preju


1125 dice of Italian.

Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines (which see) begin 3. Cinquecento (five hundred), from about 1480 to 1596. A sensuous style of art, founded on the heathen mythology, began Frederick I. (Barbarossa) interferes; his wars........1154-75

about 1161 to prevail.

Lombard League formed.

1167 4. Seicento (six hundred), from 1590 to 1700. The bad taste His defeat at Legnano. which prevailed during this period is ascribed to the influ. Peace of Constance...

.29 May, 1176 ence of the Spaniards and the Jesuits throughout Italy. Civil wars again...

1183 Seicentisti is a term of reproach.

.1199, etc. Rise of the Medici at Florence.

.. about 1251 The Trecento and Cinquecento were the most flourishing peri- Wars of Frederick II. and the Lombard League.......1236-50 ods.

His natural son, Manfred, king of Sicily, defeated and Italian Republic was the name given to the re

killed at the battle of Benevento by Charles of Anjou,

26 Feb. 1266 modelled Cisalpine republic. Napoleon Bonaparte pres- who defeats Conradin at Tagliacozzo... 23 Aug. 1268 ident, Jan. 1802.

The Visconti rule at Milan....


The Sicilian Vespers; massacre of the French, who are Italy (either from Italus, an early king, or ilalus, a expelled from Sicily.

30 March, 1282 bull calf) was called the garden of Europe. The invad- Clement V. (pope, 1305) fixes his residence at Avignon in ing Pelasgians from Greece, and the Aborigines (Umbri- Louis Gonzaga makes himself master of Mantua, with

1309 ans, Oscans, and Etruscans) combined, form the Latin

the title of imperial vicar...

1328 race, still possessing the southern part of Europe. The First doge of Genoa appointed..

1339 history of Italy is soon absorbed into that of Rome, Lucca independent...

1370 founded 753 B.C. Previous to the fifteenth century it Charles VIII. of France invades Italy, 1494, and conquers

Rome again the seat of the pope...

1377 was desolated by intestine wars and the interference of Naples, 1495; loses it in.....

596 662 697


.. 1749


.. 1496


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.....10 Nov.

Louis XII. joins Venice and conquers Milan (soon lost). 1499 | Treaty coding Saroy and Nice to France signed, 24 League of Cambray (1508) against Venice, which is de

March; approved by the Sardinian parliament, spoiled of its Italian possessions... 1509

29 May, 1860 Leo X., pope, patron of literature and art.

.. 1513-22 The French troops retire from Italy.. .......May, Wars of Charles V. and Francis I.

....1515–21 Vain insurrections in Sicily... ..4 April, 2 May, Francis defeated and prisoner at Pavía.. .24 Feb. 1525 Garibaldi lands at Marsala in Sicily, 11 May; assumes Parma and Placentia made a duchy for his family by

the office of dictator, 14 May; defeats the Neapolitans pope Paul III. (Alexander Farnese).

1545 at Calatifimi, 15 May; and at Melazzo, 20 July; by a Peace of Cateau-Cambresis...

1559 convention the Neapolitans agree to evacuate Sicily War of the Mantuan succession.. 1627-31 (see Sicily)...

..30 July, Catinat and the French defeat the duke of Savoy at Mar. Garibaldi lands at Reggio in Calabria, 18 Aug. ; enters saglia.... .4 Oct. 1693 Naples; king Francis retires.

..7 Sept War of Spanish succession commences in Italy.

1701 Insurrection in Papal States, 8 Sept. ; the Sardinians enBattle of Turin...

.7 Sept. 1706 ter, 11 Sept. ; defeat the papal troops at Castel-fidardo, Division of Italy at the peace of Utrecht. ..11 April, 1713 18 Sept. ; take Ancona.

17-29 Sept. The duke of Savoy becomes king of Sardinia..

1720 Victor Emmanuel takes the command of his army, Successful French campaign in Italy.. 1745

4 Oct. Milan, etc., oblained by the house of Austria, 1706; con- The Sardinians enter kingdom of Naples, 15 Oct.; defeat firmed by treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.. 1748 Neapolitans at Isernia..

..17 Oct. Italy overrun by the French...

..May-Dec. 1796 Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans at the Volturno, 1 Oct. Division of the Venetian states by France and Austria by

1860; meets Victor Emmanuel, and says, “ King of the treaty of Campo Formio; Cisalpine republic found. Italy!” the latter replies, “I thank you!''. . 26 Oct.

.17 Oct. 1797 By universal suffrage (plebiscitum), Sicily and Naples Pius VI. deposed by Bonaparte. ... Feb. 1798 vote for annexation to Sardinia.

.21 Oct. The Russians, under Suwarrow, defeat the French at Tre. Capua bombarded; the Neapolitans retire, 2 Nov.; and bia, etc.. 1799 are defeated at the Garigliano...

.3 Nov. Bonaparte crosses the Alps, 16-20 May; defeats the Aus- Victor Emmanuel enters Naples as king, 7 Nov.; Garitrians at Marengo...

.14 June, 1800 baldi resigns the dictatorship and retires to Caprera, The Cisalpine becomes the Italian republic (Bonaparte

9 Nov. president)..

Jan. 1802 Victor Emmanuel receives homage from the Neapolitan Napoleon crowned king of Italy..

.26 May, 1805 clergy, etc.; gives money to encourage education; ap. Eugène Beauharnois made viceroy of Italy.

points a ministry, including Poerio, etc. Nov. Austria loses her Italian possessions by the treaty of Siege of Gaeta commences; attack by sea prevented by Presburg; ratified.

,1 Jan. 1806 the presence of the French fleet.. ..3 Nov. etc. The kingdom ceases on the overthrow of Napoleon, 1814; Treaty of Zurich signed (see Zurich). the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom established for Aus- Decree in honcr of Garibaldi's army.

.16 Nov. tria...

. 7 April, 1815 Reactionary movements suppressed. .. Nov - Dec. Formation of the Young Italy party by Mazzini; insur- Prince of Carignan-Savoy appointed lieutenant of Narections... .1831-3 ples.....

...Jan. 1861 Italian Association for Science first met (at Pisa)... 1837 The French fleet retires from Gaeta, 19 Jan.; after severe Insurrection in Lombardy and Venice, March; supported bombardment it surrenders; Francis Il. retires to by the king of Sardinia and by the pope.. .. April, 1848 Rome..

.13 Feb. The king, defeated at Novara, abdicates, 23 March; and Monastic establishments in Naples abolished, with comLombardy reverts to Austria..

May, 1849 pensation to the inmates; schools established. ...Feb. (See Sardinia and Austria.)

Assembly of the first Italian parliament, 18 Feb. ; which "Napoléon III. et l'Italie" published..

Feb. 1859 decrees Victor Emmanuel king of Italy, The Austrian ultimatum, rejected by Sardinia . 26 April,

26 Feb. and 14 March, The Austrians cross the Ticino, 27 April; and the French Naples unsettled through reactionary intrigues of the enter Genoa.

..3 May,
papal party

...March and April, Peaceful revolution at Florence, 27 April; Parma, 3 Italy recognized by Great Britain.. ........31 March, May; Modena. ..15 June, Order for the levy of 70,000 soldiers..

... April, The Austrians defeated at Montebello, 20 May; Palestro, Cavour forms a new ministry, including members from 30, 31 May; Magenta, 4 June; Marignano, 8 June; Sol. · all parts of Italy....

.. April ferino...

24 June, The pope protests against the kingdom.......15 April, Provisional governments established at Florence, 27 Altercation in parliament between Cavour and Garibaldi, April; Parma, May; and Modena (the sovereigns re- 18 April; reconciled...

25 April, tire). 15 June, Bourbonist bands defeated..

....7 May, etc. Insurrection in the papal states Bologna, Ferrara, etc. Prince of Carignan resigns; San Martino appointed lieu

13-15 June,
tenant at Naples...

13 May, Massacre of the insurgents at Perugia by the Swiss Death of count Cavour, aged 52.

.6 June, troops..

20 June, Ricasoli forms a ministry to continue Cavour's policy, The allies cross the Mincio. ....1 July,

11 June, Armistice between Austria and France. .8 July, The kingdom recognized by France...

.24 June Preliminaries of peace signed at Villafranca; Lombardy San Martino resigns the government of Naples; active surrendered to Sardinia...

..11 July, measures taken against the insurgents and brigands Italy dismayed at the peace; agitation at Milan, Flor- by Cialdini, his successor, appointed.........16 July,

ence, Modena, Parma, etc. ; resignation of count Ca- The king opens the exhibition of Italian industry at vour as minister..


.14 Sept. The pope appeals to Europe against the king of Sardinia, The kingdom recognized by Portugal and Belgium, 1

12 July,

Oct.; divided into fifty-nine prefectures, etc., 13 Oct. Garibaldi exhorts the Italians to arm.

19 July, Skirmishes in the south with brigands and foreign emisGrand-duke of Tuscany abdicates..

, 21 July,

saries in the cause of Francis II. Constitutional assemblies meet at Florence, 11 Aug.; and Cialdini retires, and La Marmora becomes lieutenantat Modena..

general of Naples.....

.2 Nov. Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and the Romagna enter into a Brigandage still prevailing in the south, aided by the defensive alliance, and declare for annexation to Pied

king of Naples; insurgents defeated, and many killed, mont, 20 Aug.-10 Sept. ; fiscal restrictions between

19 Nov them and Piedmont abolished...

...10 Oct.

José Borges, a Spaniard, lands in Calabria, 15 Sept. ; calls Assassination of col. Anviti at Parma..... .5 Oct.

on the people to rise for Francis II., Sept. ; taken and Garibaldi appeals to the Neapolitans; subscriptions in


..8 Dec. Italy and elsewhere to supply arms for the Italians, The reactionist warfare continues; cruelties of the brig.


ands lead to reprisals... ... ... Dec. 1861, Jan. and Feb. 1862 Tuscany, etc., choose the prince Eugène of Carignan-Sa- Ricasoli compelled to resign by court influence, 1 March; voy as regent of central Italy, 5 Nov.; the king of Rattazzi forms an administration..

.3 March, Sardinia refusing his consent, the prince declines the The kingdom recognized by Prussia.. .1 March, office, but recommends the chevalier Buoncampagni, Surrender of Civatella del Tronto, the last Bourbon for

14 Nov.
tress in Sicily.....

14 March, Treaty of Zurich (establishing Italian confederacy, etc.), Triumphant progress of Garibaldi through Italy, estabsigned...

10 Nov.
lishing rifle clubs

March and April, Garibaldi retires from Sardinian service...

Mr. J. F. Bishop, an active English Bourbonist propaNew Sardinian constitution proclaimed.......... 7 Dec.

gandist, captured .

2 April, The pope condemns the pamphlet "Le Pape et le Con. Conspiracy among the Neapolitan soldiers at Milan sup

..... 31 Dec.

. 19 April, The emperor Napoleon recommends the pope to give up The king received at Naples with great enthusiasm, the legations.. ..31 Dec.

28 April, The pope refuses and denounces the emperor.....8 Jan. 1860 The French general Guyon aids in the suppression of Count Cavour charged with the formation of a ministry, the Bourbon ist brigands...

... April, 16 Jan. The kingdom recognized by Russia.. ....3 July, Annexation to Sardinia voted for (by universal suffrage) Garibaldi proceeds to Sicily; at Marsala he calls for vol

in Parma, Modena, and the Romagna, 13 March; Tus- unteers, giving as his watchword, “ Rome or death!" cany, 16 March; accepted by the king...18-22 March,

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Calls on the Hungarians to rise..
26 July, 1862 | The kingdom recognized by Spain

..June, 1865 The king issues a proclamation against his proceedings, Mr. Moens released after a ransom of 50001. had been as tending to rebellion.

...3 Aug

..26 Aug Garibaldi enters Catania, and organizes a provisional Bank of Italy established..

..7 Nov. government

19 Aug

French troops leaving Italy; general election, the mod. Sicily proclaimed to be in a state of siege, 21 Aug; and erate party predominate..

Nov. put under gen. Cialdini..

.22 Aug.

The new parliament meets at Florence. .18 Nov. Garibaldi issues his last proclamation; embarks at Ca- Serious financial deficiency; heavy taxation proposed,

tania; lands at Melito, in Calabria, and marches tow. 13 Dec.; much dissatisfaction; the ministers resign, ards Reggio, 25 Aug. ; La Marmora proclaims a state 21 Dec. ; a new ministry formed under La Marmora, of siege, 26 Aug.; Garibaldi and his followers fall in

31 Dec. with the royalists under Pallavicini, at Aspromonte, Death of the patriot and soldier, Massimo d'Az lio, where, after a short skirmish, he is wounded and taken

15 Jan. 1866 prisoner, 29 Aug. ; removed to Varignano, near Spezzia, Formation of the “Consorzio Nazionale," a public sub

1 Sept. scription for reducing the national debt......27 Feb. Mr. J. F. Bishop sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, Massacre of Protestants at Barletta, Naples; attributed

6 Sept.
to priests..

.19 March, Gen. Durando issues a diplomatic circular condemning Alliance with Prussia,

12 May, Garibaldi's proceedings, yet asserting the necessity of Volunteers numerously enlisted.

.7 June et seq. the Italian government possessing Rome.....10 Sept. War declared against Austria.

....18 June, A subscription in England enables professor Partridge, New ministry formed under Ricasoli.

........20 June of King's College, London, to go to Garibaldi. .19 Sept. Royal manifesto to the people..

20 June, Princess Maria Pia married by proxy to the king of The army, headed by the king, crosses the Mincio, 23 Portugal......

.27 Sept.
June; defeated at Custozza.

. 24 June, Garibaldi issues a rhetorical appeal to the English na- Venetia ceded to France by the emperor of Austria, tion, urging its intervention for the cause of liberty,

3 July, 28 Sept. Fruitless conflicts; the volunteers under Garibaldi deInflammatory manifesto addressed to the people of Italy feated at Monte Suello........ ......4 July, by Joseph Mazzini...

.Sept. Bill for suppression of monasteries and contiscation of Amnesty granted to Garibaldi and his followers...5 Oct.

property passed..

.7 July, Sharp reply of M. Drouyn de Lhuys to Durando's note, Cialdini crosses the Po, and enters Venetia......8 July,

8 Oct. Naval battle near Lissa; Italians defeated by Austrians End of state of siege in Naples and Sicily.......17 Oct. (Re d'Italia and Palestro blown up)..........20 July, Disorderly encounter between Italians and Austrians on The Italians beaten at Versa; the last conflict... 26 July, the banks of the Po... .1 Nov. Armistice for four weeks signed....

..12 Aug. Father Passaglia and 10,000 (out of 80,000) Italian priests Volunteers disbanded; Garibaldi retires to Caprera, sign a declaration against the temporal authority of

15 Aug the pope.....

Treaty of peace with Austria signed at Vienna, 3 Oct.; Garibaldi removed to Pisa, 9 Nov.; ball extracted from ratified..

...12 Oct. his foot by Zanetti

..23 Nov. Court constituted at Florence to try admiral Persano for Meeting of parliament; determined opposition to Rat- neglect of duty at battle of Lissa.

.11 Oct. tazzi, 18 Nov ; he resigns

.30 Nov. The Austrians retire from Peschiera, 9 Oct.; Mantua, 10 New ministry formed by Farina.

.9 Dec.
Oct.; Verona, 16 Oct. ; Venice..

17 Oct. It declines further negotiations with France on the Ro- Gen. Menabrea pays to count Mensdorff a sum of money, man question..

.18 Dec.

and receives the iron crown of Italy...... 11 Oct. Commercial treaty with France signed.. ...17 Jan. 1863 National loan freely subscribed..

. Oct. Farina resigns; Minghetti succeeds.. 24 March, Plebiscitum in Venetia; for annexation with Italy, Grand Cavour Canal for irrigation of Piedmont opened, 641,758; against, 69.

.21 Oct. 1 June, This result reported, and the iron crown presented to Income tax bill passed. ..July, the king at Turin...

4 Nor. Tristany and other bandits captured... ....July, The king enters Venice, 7 Nov.; visits Verona, Mantua, Commercial treaty with Great Britain signed....6 Aug.


.Nov. Death of Farina...

..5 Sept.

Circular of Ricasoli to the prefects, recommending in. Several bandits captured on board the French ship dustrial development and commerce, forbidding agita. Aunis; given up to France, July; restored to Italy, tion, and enjoining neutrality regarding Rome, 15 Nov.

12 Sept.

Letter from Ricasoli to the clergy recommending a free The army of Piedmont (50,000) consolidated by La Mar- church in a free state.....

26 Nov. mora and expanded into the army of Italy ” (250,000), Persano committed for trial; examination begins, 1 Dec.

Oct. Parliament opened by the king, who declares that“ Italy The king visits Naples; reviews National Guard, etc., is now restored to herself”.

.15 Dec. 11-17 Nov. Sig. Tonello received by the pope, 15 Dec.; many bishops General election; triumph of the moderate party...Jan. 1864 return to their dioceses.

Dec. Garibaldi's visit to England amid much enthusiasm, Persano acquitted of cowardice at Lissa.. ..30 Jan. 1867

April, Government proposal for investing part of the property Franco-Italian convention signed (French troops to quit of the religious bodies for support of clergy (Free

Rome in two years [from 6 Feb. 1865), Florence to be Church and Ecclesiastical Liquidation bill) brought the capital of Italy, etc.)....


..Jan. Riots at Turin in consequence; many persons killed by Great reduction in the army (to 146,000) ordered...Jan. the military.....

21, 22 Sept. Defeat of the ministry on question of the right of public Minghetti and his colleagues blamed; resigned; a minis- meetings in Venetia, 11 Feb. ,, parliament dissolved, try formed by La Marmora. ... 24 Sept.

13 Feb. Garibaldi denounces the convention

....10 Oct.

Ricasoli reconstructs his ministry.... .....17 Feb. Desperate state of the finances announced by Sella, the The pope accepts Italian help to suppress brigandage, minister; he proposes stringent remedies.. Nov.

March, Railway from Turin to Florence opened... .4 Nov. Elections give a majority for government.... March, The convention approved by the chamber of deputies, Resignation of Ricasoli, 5 April; a ministry formed by 19 Nov.; by the senate (after an able speech by Cial- Rattazzi.....

.8 April, dini, 6 Dec.).

.9 Dec. Persano condemned: degraded and dismissed the service Decree for transfer of the capital published. .11 Dec.

for disobedience, incapacity, and negligence. . 15 April, Prince Humbert resides at Naples..

.Dec. Treaty of commerce with Austria signed at Florence, Stated that 346 brigands had been killed in action; 453

23 April, taken in action, and 132 surrendered; about 300 re- Public funeral of the patriot Carlo Poerio........1 May, main to be tracked; many pretend to be subjects of Italy joins in the conference at London respecting the the ex-king Francis II. of Naples....

Luxemburg question......

7-11 May, Demonstration against the king of Turin, 30 Jan.; he National financial embarrassments; the king gives up goes to Florence.

.3 Feb. 1865 part of his civil list; proposed sale of church lands, Amnesty for political offences published; brigandage in and reduction of expenditure...

. May et seq. the Neapolitan and Roman states increasing... March, 17,200,0001. advanced for church lands by Fould and Fruitless negotiations with the pope by Vegezzi respect others of Paris. ......

. May, ing the position of bishops... .. April to July, Church Property bill passed.

Aug The king and court proceed to Florence, 13 May; he Garibaldi, about to enter the Roman territory with rol

opens the Dante festival, the 600th anniversary of the unteers, captured by Italian government at Sinalunga poet's birth..

.14 May,

(or Asinalunga) and sent to Alessandria. ...... 23 Sept. Mr. Moens, a British subject, seized and retained by brig. Sent to Caprera, Sept. ; escapes Leghorn and is ands..

.15 May,
sent back..

..2 Oct. 45 monks and others arrested at Salerno on charge of a Bands of Garibaldians invade Roman territories, Bourbonist conspiracy. .12 June,

Sept. -Oct. Inauguration of a national rifle meeting at Florence; the Garibaldi escapes from Caprera.

.15 Oct. king üres the first shot...

18 June, Embarkation of French troops at Toulon suspended by Numerous atrocities committed by brigands; Giardullo the resignation of Rattazzi and his ministry... 20 Oci. and 8 brigands captured.

19 June, Cialdini tries to form a ministry in vain...... 21-25 Oct.

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