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860 and completed in 1279, and a nave and four aisles; the proved brave warriors and formed a bodyguard to protect interior has, however, been modernized. Opposite the door of Boniface VIII. from his many foes. During the 14th and 15th the cathedral is a candelabrum with interesting sculptures of the centuries their feuds with the Colonna caused frequent disturbend of the 13th century, consisting of 48 panels in bas-relief, ances in Rome and the Campagna, sometimes amounting to with 24 representations from the life of Christ, and 24 of the civil war. They also played an important role as Neapolitan life of St Erasmus (A. Venturi, Storia dell' arte Italiana, iii. nobles. In 1500 Alexander VI., in his attempt to crush the great Milan, 1904, 642 seq.). The cathedral possesses three fine Roman feudal nobility, confiscated the Gaetani fiefs and gave Exultet rolls, with miniatures dating from the with to the begin- them to his daughter Lucrezia Borgia (9.0.); but they afterwards ning of the 13th century. Behind the high altar is the banner sent regained them. by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the victor of Lepanto. At present there are two lines of Gaetani: (1) Gaetani, princes The constable of Bourbon, who fell in the sack of Rome of 1527, of Teano and dukes of Sermoneta, founded by Giacobello is buried here. The other churches are of minor interest; close Gaetani, whose grandson, Guglielmo Gaetani, was granted to that of La Trinitá is the Montagna Spaccata, where a vertical the duchy of Sermoneta by Pius III. in 1503, the marquisate fissure from 6 to 15 ft. wide runs right down to the sea-level. of Cisterna being conferred on the family by Sixtus V. in 1585. Over the chasm is a chapel del Crocefisso, the mountain having In 1642, Francesco, the 7th duke of Sermoneta, acquired by split, it is said, at the death of Christ.
marriage the county of Caserta, which was exchanged for the During the break-up of the Roman empire, Gaeta, like Amalfi principality of Teano in 1750. The present head of the house, and Naples, would seem to have established itself as a practically Onorato Gaetani, 14th duke of Sermoneta, 4th prince of Teano, independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with duke of San Marco, marquis of Cisterna, &c., is a senator of the the Levant. Its history, however, is obscure until, in 823: it kingdom of Italy, and was minister for foreign affairs for a short appears as a lordship ruled by hereditary hypati or consuls. time. (2) Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona, princes of Piedimonte, In 844 the town fell into the hands of the Arabs, but four years and dukes of Laurenzana, founded by Onorato Gaetani dell' later they were driven out with help supplied by Pope Leo IV. Aquila, count of Fondi, Traetto, Alife and Morcone, lord of In 875 the town was in the hands of Pope John VIII., who gave Piedimonte and Gioia, in 1454. The additional surname of it to the count of Capua as a fief of the Holy See, which had long Aragona was assumed after the marriage of Onorato Gaetani, claimed jurisdiction over it. In 877, however, the hypatus John duke of Traetto (d. 1529), with Lucrezia of Aragon, natural (Ioannes) II. succeeded in recovering the lordship, which he daughter of King Ferdinand I. of Naples. The duchy of Laurenestablished as a duchy under the suzerainty of the East Romanzana, in the kingdom of Naples, was acquired by Alfonso Gaetani emperors. In the nth century the duchy fell into the hands of by his marriage in 1606 with Giulia di Ruggiero, duchess of the Norman counts of Aversa, afterwards princes of Capua, and Laurenzana. The lordship of Piedimonte was raised to a in 1135 it was definitively annexed to his kingdom by Roger of principality in 1715. The present (1908) head of the house is Sicily. The town, however, had its own coinage as late as 1229. Nicola Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona (b. 1857), 7th prince of
In military history the town has played a conspicuous part. Piedimonte and 12th duke of Laurenzana. Its fortifications were strengthened in the 15th century. On See A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1868); F. the 30th of September 1707 it was stormed, after a three months' Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Stuttgart, 1872); Almanach siege, by the Austrians under Daun; and on the 6th of August de Gotha (1907 and 1908). 1734 it was taken, after a siege of four months, by French, GAETULIA, an ancient district in northern Africa, which in Spanish and Sardinian troops under the future King Charles the usage of Roman writers comprised the wandering tribes of of Naples. The fortifications were again strengthened; and the southern slopes of Mount Aures and the Atlas, as far as the in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French. On the 18th Atlantic, and the oases in the northern part of the Sahara. of July 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the They were always distinguished from the Negro people to the French under Masséna; and on the 18th of July 1815 it capitu- south, and beyond doubt belonged to the same Berber race lated, after a three months' siege, to the Austrians. In November which formed the basis of the population of Numidia and 1848 Pope Pius IX., after his flight in disguise from Rome, Mauretania (9.v.). The tribes to be found there at the present found a refuge at Gaeta, where he remained till the 4th of Sep- day are probably of the same race, and retain the same wandering tember 1849. Finally, in 1860, it was the scene of the last stand habits; and it is possible that they still bear in certain places of Francis II. of Naples against the forces of United Italy. Shut the name of their Gaetulian ancestors (see Vivien St Martin, up in the fortress with 12,000 men, after Garibaldi's occupation Le Nord de l'Afrique, 1863). A few only sçem to have mingled of Naples, the king, inspired by the heroic example of Queen with the Negroes of the Sahara, if we may thus interpret Maria, offered a stubborn resistance, and it was not till the 13th Ptolemy's allusion to Melano-Gaetuli (4. 6. 5.). They were noted of February 1861 that, the withdrawal of the French fleet having for the rearing of horses, and according to Strabo had 100,000 made bombardment from the sea possible, he was forced to foals in a single year. They were clad in skins, lived on flesh capitulate.
and milk, and the only manufacture connected with their name See G. B. Federici, Degli antichi duchi, consoli o ipali della città is that of the purple dye which became famous from the time of di Gaeta (Naples, 1791); Onorato Gaetani d' Aragona, Mem, slor. Augustus onwards, and was made from the purple fish found on della città di Caela (Milan, 1879); C. Ravizza, Il Golfo di Gaela the coast, apparently both in the Syrtes and on the Atlantic. (Novara, 1876)
We first hear of this people in the Jugurthine War (111-106 GAETANI, or CAETANI, the name of the oldest of the Roman B.C.), when, as Sallust tells us, they did not even know the name princely families which played a great part in the history of the of Rome. They took part with Jugurtha against Rome; but city and of the papacy. The Gaetani are of Longobard origin, when we next hear of them they are in alliance with Caesar and the founder of the house is said to be one Dominus Con- against Juba I. (Bell. Afr. 32). In 25 B.C. Augustus seems to Slantinus Cagetanus, who flourished in the roth century, but have given a part of Gaetulia to Juba II., together with his the family had no great importance until the election of Benedetto kingdom of Mauretania, doubtless with the object of controlling Gaetani to the papacy as Boniface VIII. in 1294, when they at once the turbulent tribes; but the Gaetulians rose and massacred became the most notable in the city. The pope conferred the Roman residents, and it was not till a severe defeat had been on them the fiefs of Sermoneta, Bassiano, Ninfa and San Donato inflicted on them by Lentulus Cossus (who thus acquired the (1297-1300), and the marquisate of Ancona in 1300, while Charles surname Gaetulicus) in A.D. 6 that they submitted to the king. II. of Anjou created the pope's brother count of Caserta. After Mauretania became a Roman province in A.D. 40, the Giordano Loffredo Gactani by his marriage with Giovanna Roman governors made frequent expeditions into the Gaetulian dell' Aquila, heiress of the counts of Fondi and Traetto, in 1297 territory to the south, and the official view seems to be expressed added the name of Aquila to his own, and his grandson Giacomo by Pliny (v. 4. 30) when he says that all Gaetulia as far as the acquired the lordships of Piedimonte and Gioia. The Gaetani Niger and the Ethiopian frontier was reckoned as subject to the Empire. How far this represents the fact is not clear; but GAGERN, HANS CHRISTOPH ERNST, BARON VON (1766inscriptions prove that Gaetulians served in the auxiliary troops 1852), German statesman and political writer, was born at of the empire, and it may be assumed that the country passed Kleinniedesheim, near Worms, on the 25th of January 1766. within the sphere of Roman influence, though hardly within the After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and Göttingen, pale of Roman civilization.
he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom For bibliography see AFRICA, ROMAN.
in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet. He was afterwards GAGE, LYMAN JUDSON (1836- ), American financier, appointed the prince's envoy at. Paris, where he remained till was born at De Ruyter, Madison county, New York, on the 28th the decree of Napoleon, forbidding all persons born on the left of June 1836. He was educated at an academy at Rome, New side of the Rhine to serve any other state than France, compelled York, where at the age of seventeen he became a bank clerk. him to resign his office (1811). He then retired to Vienna, and In 1855 he removed to Chicago, served for three years as book-in 1812 he took part in the attempt to excite a second insurrection keeper in a planing-mill, and in 1858 entered the banking house against Napoleon in Tirol. On the failure of this attempt he left of the Merchant's Loan and Trust Company, of which he was Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army (1813), cashier in 1861–1868. Afterwards he became successively and became a member of the board of administration for north assistant cashier (1868), vice-president (1882), and president Germany. In 1814 he was appointed administrator of the Orange (1891) of the First National Bank of Chicago, one of the strongest principalities; and, when the prince of Orange became king of financial institutions in the middle west. He was chosen in 1892 the Netherlands, Baron Gagern became his prime minister. president of the board of directors of the World's Columbian In 1815 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and sucExposition, the successful financing of which was due more to himceeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable augmentathan to any other man. In politics he was originally a Re- tion of territory. From 1816 to 1818 he was Luxemburg envoy publican, and was a delegate to the national convention of the at the German diet, but was recalled, at the instance of Metter. party in 1880, and chairman of its finance committee. In 1884, nich, owing to his too independent advocacy of state constitutions. however, He supported Grover Cleveland for the presidency, In 1820 he retired with a pension to his estate at Hornau, near and came to be looked upon as a Democrat. In 1892 President Höchst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first Cleveland, after his second election, offered Gage the post of chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take secretary of the treasury, but the offer was declined. In the an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of “ free-silver" campaign of 1896 Gage laboured effectively for his country. He retired from public life in 1848, and died at the election of William McKinley, and from March 1897 until Hornau on the 22nd of October 1852. Baron von Gagern wrote January 1902 he was secretary of the treasury in the cabinets a history of the German nation (Vienna, 1813; 2nd ed., 2 vols., successively of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt. From Frankfort, 1825-1826), and several other books on subjects April 1902 until 1906 he was president of the United States connected with history and social and political science. Of Trust Company in New York City. His administration of the most permanent value, however, is his autobiography, Mein treasury department, through a more than ordinarily trying Anteil an der Polilik, 5 vols. (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1823-1845). period, was marked by a conservative policy, looking toward Of Hans Christoph von Gagern's sons three attained conthe strengthening of the gold standard, the securing of greater siderable eminence:flexibility in the currency, and a more perfect adjustment of the FRIEDRICH BALDUIN, Freiherr von Gagern (1794-1848), the relations between the government and the National banks. eldest, was born at Weilburg on the 24th of October 1794. He
GAGE, THOMAS (1721-1787), British general and governor entered the university of Göttingen, but soon left, and, taking of Massachusetts, second son of the first Viscount Gage, was born service in the Austrian army, took part in the Russian campaign in 1721. He entered the army in 1741 and saw service in Flanders of 1812, and fought in the following year at Dresden, Kulm and and in the campaign of Culloden, becoming lieutenant-colonel Leipzig. He then entered the Dutch service, took part in the in the 44th foot in-March 1751. In 1754 he served in America, campaigns of 1815, and, after studying another year at Heideland he took part in the following year in General Braddock's berg, was member for Luxemburg of the military commission of disastrous expedition. In 1758 he became colonel of a new the German federal diet (1824, 1825). In 1830 and 1831 he took regiment, and served in Amherst's operations against Montreal. part in the Dutch campaign in Belgium, and in 1844, after being He was made governor of Montreal, and promoted major-general promoted to the rank of general, was sent on an important in 1761, and in 1763 succeeded Amherst in the command of the mission to the Dutch East Indies to inquire into the state of British forces in America; in 1770 he was made a lieutenant- their military defences. In 1847 he was appointed governor at general. In 1774 he was appointed governor of Massachusetts, the Hague, and commandant in South Holland. In the spring and in that capacity was entrusted with carrying into effect the of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revoluBoston Port Act. The difficulties which surrounded him in the tionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government execution of his office at this time of the gravest unrest culmin- of Baden to take the command against the insurgent “ free ated in 1775, and the action of the 19th of April at Lexington companies” (Freischaaren). At Kandern, on the 20th of April, initiated the American War of Independence. After the battle he made a vain effort to persuade the leaders to submit, and was of Bunker Hill, Gage was superseded by General (Sir William) about to order his troops to attack when he was mortally wounded Howe, and returned to England. He became general in 1782, by the bullets of the insurgents. His Life, in 3 vols. (Heidelberg and died on the end of April 1787.
and Leipzig, 1856–1857), was written by his brother Heinrich GAGE, a pledge, something deposited as security for the von Gagern. performance of an agreement, and liable to be forfeited on failure HEINRICH WILHELM August, Freiherr von Gagern (1799– to carry it out. The word also appears in “engage,” and is 1880), the third son, was born at Bayreuth on the 20th of August taken from the O. Fr., as are “wage,” payment for services, 1799, educated at the military academy at Munich, and, as an and“ wager," bet, stake, from the collateral O. Fr. waige. These officer in the service of the duke of Nassau, fought at Waterloo. two words are from the Low Lat. wadiare, vadiare, to pledge, Leaving the service after the war, he studied jurisprudence at vadium, classical Lat. vas, vadis, but may be from the old Teutonic Heidelberg, Göttingen and Jena, and in 1819 went for a while cognate base seen in Gothic wadi, a pledge (cf. Ger. welten, to to Geneva to complete his studies. In 1821 he began his official wager); this Teutonic base is seen in Eng. “ wed,” to marry, career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 i.e. to engage by a pledge (cf. Goth. gawadjon, to betrothe). was elected to the second chamber. Already at the universities A particular form of giving a gage or pledge was that of he had proclaimed his Liberal sympathies as a member of the throwing down a glove or gauntlet as a challenge to a judicial Burschenschaft
, and he now threw himself into open opposition combat, the glove being the “pledge” that the parties would to the unconstitutional spirit of the Hessian government, an appear on the field; hence the common phrase" to throw down attitude which led to his dismissal from the state service in 1833. the gage of defiance” for any challenge (see Glove and Wager). Henceforth he lived in comparative retirement, cultivating a farm rented by his father at Monsheim, and occasionally pub- , documents, together with portraits and prints, and had copies lishing criticisms of public affairs, until the February revolution made of a great number of the most curious antiquarian objects, of 1848 and its echoes in Germany recalled him to active political such as seals, tombstones, stained glass, miniatures and tapestry. life. For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian In 1711 he presented the whole of his collections to the king. administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation The bulk of them is preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale of a united Germany. At the Heidelberg meeting and the at Paris, and a certain number in the Bodleian library at Oxford. preliminary convention (Vorparlament) of Frankfort he deeply
See G. Duplessis, Roger de Gaignières (Paris, 1870); L. Delisle, impressed the assemblies with the breadth and moderation of Cabinet des manuscrits, t. i. pp. 335-356; H. Bouchot, Les Portraits his views; with the result that when the German national aux crayon des XVI et XVII siècles (Paris, 1884); Ch. de parliament met (May 18), he was elected its first president. Grandmaison, Gaignières, ses correspondants el ses collections de His influence was at first paramount, both with the Unionist portraits (Niort, 1892). party and with the more moderate elements of the Left, and it was
GAIL, JEAN BAPTISTE (1755-1829), French hellenist, was he who was mainly instrumental in imposing the principle of a born in Paris on the 4th of July 1755. In 1791 he was appointed united empire with a common parliament, and in carrying the deputy, and in 1792 titular professor at the Collège de France. election of the Archduke John as regent. With the growing During the Revolution he quietly performed his professional split between the Great Germans (Grossdeutschen), who wished duties, taking no part in politics, although he possessed the the new empire to include the Austrian provinces, and the Little faculty of ingratiating himself with those in authority. In 1815 Germans (Kleindeutschen), who realized that German unity could he was appointed by the king keeper of Greek MSS. in the royal only be attained by excluding them, his position was shaken. library over the heads of the candidates proposed by the other On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian conservators, an appointment which made him many enemies. members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the Gail imagined that there was an organized conspiracy to belittle imperial ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme his learning and professional success, and there was a standing (known as the Gagernsche Programm) according to which Austria quarrel between him and his literary opponents, the most diswas to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it tinguished of whom was P. L. Courier. He died on the 5th of by a treaty of union. After a severe struggle this proposal was February 1829. Without being a great Greek scholar, Gail was accepted; but the academic discussion on the constitution a man of unwearied industry, whose whole life was devoted to continued for weary months, and on the 20th of May, realizing his favourite studies, and he deserves every credit for having the hopelessness of coming to terms with the ultra-democrats, rescued Greek from the neglect into which it had fallen during the Gagern and his friends resigned. Later on he attempted to
troublous times in which he lived. The list of Gail's published influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the
works filled 500 quarto pages of the introduction to his edition of national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt Xenophon. The best of these is his edition of Theocritus (1828). parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good He also wrote a number of elementary educational works, based results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from
on the principles of the school of Port Royal. His communicathe contest, and, as a major in the service of the Schleswig-tions to the Académie des Inscriptions being coldly received and Holstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850. seldom accorded the honour of print, he inserted them in a vast After the war he retired into private life at Heidelberg. In 1862, compilation in 24 volumes, which he called Le Philologue, conmisled by the constitutional tendency of Austrian politics, he taining a mass of ill-digested notes on Greek grammar, geography, publicly declared in favour of the Great German party. In 1864 archaeology, and various authors. he went as Hessian envoy to Vienna, retiring in 1872 when
See “ Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de J. B. G.," in the post was abolished. He died at Darmstadt on the 22nd universelle (by A. Pillon) and Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclo
Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, ix.; the articles in Biographie of May 1880.
pädie (by C. F. Bähr); a list of his works will be found in J. M. MAXIMILIAN, Freiherr von Gagern (1810-1889), the youngest Quérard, La France littéraire (1829), including the contents of the son, was born at Weilburg on the 26th of March 1810. Up to
volumes of Le Philologue. 1848 he was a government official in Nassau; in that year he GAILLAC, a town of south-western France, capital of an became a member of the German national parliament and under arrondissement in the department of Tarn, on the right bank of secretary of state for foreign affairs. Throughout the revolu- the Tarn, 15 m. W. of Albi on the railway from that city to tionary years he supported his brother's policy, became a member Toulouse. Pop. (1906) town, 5388; commune, 7535. The of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the national churches of St Michel and St Pierre, both dating from the 13th movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau. In and 14th centuries, have little architectural importance. There 1855 he turned Roman Catholic and entered the Austrian service are some interesting houses, one of which, the Maison Yversen, as court and ministerial councillor in the department of foreign of the Renaissance, is remarkable for the rich carving of its doors. affairs. In 1871 he retired, and in 1881 was nominated a life The public institutions include the sub-prefecture, a tribunal member of the Upper Chamber (Herrenhaus). He died at of first instance, and a communal college. Its industries include Vienna on the 17th of October 1889,
the manufacture of lime and wooden shoes, while dyeing, woodSee Allgemeine deutsche Biographic
, Band viïi. p. 301, &c. (1878) sawing and four-milling are also carried on; it has a considerand Band xlix. p. 654 (1904).
able trade in grain, Nour, vegetables, dried plums, anise, coriander, GAHANBAR, festivals of the ancient Avesta calendar cele- &c., and in wine, i he white and red wines of the arrondissement brated by the Parsees at six seasons of the year which correspond having a high reputation. Gaillac grew up round the Benedictine with the six periods of creation: (1) Maidhyozaremaya (mid abbey of St Michel, founded in the roth century. spring), (2) Maidhyoshema (midsummer), (3) Pailishahya (season GAILLARD, GABRIEL HENRI (1726–1806), French historian, of corn), (4) Ayathrema (season of flocks), (5) Maidhyarya (winter was born at Ostel, Picardy, in 1726. He was educated for the solstice), (6) Hamaspathmaedha (festival of sacrifices).
bar, but after finishing his studies adopted a literary career, GAIGNIÈRES, FRANÇOIS ROGER DE (1642-1715), French ultimately devoting his chief attention to history. He was genealogist, antiquary and collector, was the son of Aimé de already a member of the Academy of Inscriptions and BellesGaignières, secretary to the governor of Burgundy, and was lettres (1760), when, after the publication of the three first born on the 30th of December 1642. He became écuyer (esquire) volumes of his Histoire de la rivalité de la France et d'Angleterre, to Louis Joseph, duke of Guise, and afterwards to Louis Joseph's he was elected to the French Academy (1771); and when aunt, Marie of Guise, by whom in 1679 he was appointed governor Napoleon created the Institute he was admitted into its third of her principality of Joinvillc. At an early age he began to class (Académie française) in 1803. For forty years he was the make a collection of original materials for history generally, and, intimate friend of Malesherbes, whose life (1805) he wrote. He in particular, for that of the French church and court. He died at St Firmin, near Chantilly, on the 13th of February 1806. brought together a large collection of original letters and other Gaillard is painstaking and impartial in his statement of facts,
and his style is correct and elegant, but the unity of his narrative the spring of 1727. His father, who carried on the business of a
modelling and a few landscapes, were succeeded by two years in GAINESVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Alachua county, the country. Here he fell in love with Margaret Burr, a young Florida, U.S.A., about 70 m. S.W. or Jacksonville. Pop. (1890) lady of many charms, including an annuity of £200, married her 2790; (1900) 3633, of whom 1803 were negroes; (1905) 5413; after painting her portrait, and a short courtship, and, at the age (1910) 6183. Gainesville is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, of twenty, became a householder in Ipswich, his rent being the Seaboard Air Line, and the Tampa & Jacksonville railways, £6 a year. The annuity was reported to come from Margaret's and is an important railway junction. It is the seat of the real (not her putative) father, who was one of the exiled Stuart University of the State of Florida, established at Lake City in princes or else the duke of Bedford. She was sister of a young 1905 and removed to Gainesville in 1906. The university in- man employed by Gainsborough's father as a traveller. At cludes a school of language and literature, a general scientific Ipswich, Gainsborough tells us, he was“ chiefly in the face-way "; school, a school of agriculture, a technological school, a school of his sitters were not so numerous as to prevent him from often pedagogy, a normal school, and an agricultural experiment rambling with his friend Joshua Kirby (president of the Society station. In 1908 the university had 15 instructors and 103 of Artists) on the banks of the Orwell, from painting many students. The Florida Winter Bible Conference and Chautauqua landscapes with an attention to details which his later works is held here. Gainesville is well known as a winter resort, and its never exhibited, or from joining a musical club and entertaining climate is especially beneficial to persons affected by pulmonary himself and his fellow-townsmen by giving concerts. As be troubles. In the neighbourhood are the Alachua Sink, Payne's advanced in years he became ambitious of advancing in reputaPrairie, Newman's Lake, the Devil's Mill Hopper and other tion. Bath was then the general resort of wealth and fashion, objects of interest. The surrounding country produces Sea and to that city, towards the close of the year 1759, he removed Island cotton, melons, citrus and other fruits, vegetables and with his wife and two daughters, the only issue of their marriage. naval stores. About 15 m. W. of the city there is a rich phosphate His studio in the circus was soon thronged with visitors; he mining district. The city has bottling works, and manufactures gradually raised his price for a half-length portrait from 5 to 40 fertilizers, lumber, coffins, ice, &c. The municipality owns and guineas, and for a whole-length from 8 to 100 guineas; and he operates the water-works; the water-supply comes from a spring rapidly developed beyond the comparatively plain and hum2 m. from the city, and the water closely resembles that of the drum quality of his Ipswich paintings. Among his sitters at Poland Springs in Maine. Gainesville is in the midst of the this period were the authors Sterne and Richardson, and the famous Seminole country. The first settlement was made here actors Quin, Henderson and Garrick. Meanwhile he contributed about 1850; and Gainesville, named in honour of General E. P.both portraits and landscapes to the annual exhibitions in Gaines, was incorporated as a town in 1869, and was chartered London. He indulged his taste for music by learning to play the as a city in 1907.
viol-di-gamba, the harp, the hautboy, the violoncello. His house GAINESVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Cooke county, harboured Italian, German, French and English musicians. Texas, U.S.A., about 6 m. S. of the Red river, and about 60 m. He haunted the green-room of Palmer's theatre, and painted N. of Fort Worth. Pop. (1890) 6594; (1900) 7874 (1201 negroes gratuitously the portraits of many of the actors: he constantly and 269 foreign-born); (1910) 7624. The city is served by gave away his sketches and landscapes. In the summer of 1774, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé, and the Missouri, Kansas & having already attained a position of great prosperity, he took Texas railways, and by an interurban electric railway. Gaines- his departure for London, and fixed his residence at Schomberg ville is a trading centre and market for the surrounding country, House, Pall Mall, a noble mansion still standing, for a part of in which cotton, grains, garden truck, fruit and alfalfa are grown which the artist paid £300 a year. and live-stock is raised; and a wholesale distributing point for Gainsborough had not been many months in London ere he the neighbouring region in Texas and Oklahoma. The city received a summons to the palace, and to the end of his career he has cotton-compresses and cotton-gins, and among its manu- divided with West the favour of the court, and with Reynolds factures are cotton-seed oil, flour, cement blocks, pressed bricks, the favour of the town. Sheridan, Burke, Johnson, Franklin, canned goods, foundry products, waggon-beds and creamery Canning, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Mrs Siddons, Clive, products. Gainesville was settled about 1851, was incorporated Blackstone, Hurd, were among the number of those who sat to in 1873, and was chartered as a city in 1879; it was named in him. But in London as in Bath his landscapes were exhibited, honour of General Edmund Pendleton Gaines (1777-1849), were commended, and were year after year returned to him, who served with distinction in the War of 1812, becoming a "till they stood," says Sir William Beechey, "ranged in long brigadier-general in March 1814 and receiving the brevet of lines from his hall to his painting-room." Gainsborough was a major-general and the thanks of Congress for his defence of member of the Royal Academy, one of the original 36 elected in Fort Erie in August 1814. Gaines took a prominent part in the 1768; but in 1784, being dissatisfied with the position assigned operations against the Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he on the exhibition walls to his portrait of the three princesses, was in command of the Southern Military District) and in 1836 he withdrew that and his other pictures, and he never afterwards and during the Mexican War commanded the department of the exhibited there. Even before this he had taken no part in the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.
business of the Institution. After seceding he got up an exhibiGAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS (1727-1788), English painter, tion in his own house, not successfully. In February 1788, while one of the greatest masters of the English school in portraiture, witnessing the trial of Warren Hastings, he felt an extraordinary and only less so in landscape, was born at Sudbury, Suffolk, in chill at the back of his neck; this was the beginning of a cancer
(or, as some say, a malignant wen) which proved fatal on the including 220 portraits: he also etched at least 18 plates, and 2nd of August of the same year. He lies buried at Kew. 3 in aquatint. At the date of his death 56 paintings remained
Gainsborough was tall, fair and handsome, generous, impulsive on hand: these, along with 148 drawings, were then exhibited. to the point of capriciousness, easily irritated, not of bookish In his earlier days he made a practice of copying works by likings, a lively talker, good at repartee. He was a most thorough Vandyck (the object of his more special admiration), Titian, embodiment of the artistic temperament; delighting in nature Rubens, Teniers, Hobbema, Claude and some others, but not and “the look of things,” insatiable in working, fond of music in a spirit of servile reproduction. and the theatre hardly less than of painting-a warm, rich person- Gainsborough was pre-eminent in that very essential eleality, to whom severe principle was perhaps as foreign as de- ment of portraiture-truthful likeness. In process of time he liberate wrong-doing. The property which he left at his death was advanced in the rendering of immediate expression, while he not large. One of his daughters, Mary, had married the musician. somewhat receded in general character. He always made his Fischer contrary to his wishes, and was subject to fits of mental sitters look pleasant, and, after a while, distinguished. Unity aberration. The other daughter, Margaret, died unmarried. of impression is one of the most marked qualities in his work; Mrs Gainsborough, an extremely sweet-tempered woman, sur- he seems to have seen his subject as an integer, and he wrought vived her husband ten years. There is a pretty anecdote that at the various parts of it together, every touch (and very wilful Gainsborough, if he ever had a tiff with her, would write a pacify- some of his touches look) tending towards the foreseen result. ing note, confiding it to his dog Fox, who delivered it to the lady's He painted with arrowy speed, more especially in his later pet spaniel Tristram. The note was worded as in the person of years. For portraits he used at times brushes upon sticks 6 st. Fox to Tristram, and Mrs Gainsborough replied in the best of long; there was but little light in his painting-room, and he humours, as from Tristram to Fox.
often worked in the evenings. He kept his landscape work Gainsborough and Reynolds rank side by side as the greatest distinct from his portraiture, not ever adding to the latter a fully portrait-painters of the English school. They were at variance; realized landscape background; his views he never signed or but Gainsborough on his death-bed sought and obtained a re- dated-his likenesses only once or twice. His skies are constantly conciliation. It is difficult to say which stands the higher of cloudy, the country represented is rough and broken; the the two, although Reynolds may claim to have worked with a scenes are of a pastoral kind, with an effect generally of coming nearer approach to even and demonstrable excellence. In grace, rain, or else of calm sun-setting. The prevalent feeling of his spirit, and lightness of insight and of touch, Gainsborough is landscapes is somewhat sad, and to children, whether in subjectpeculiarly eminent. His handling was slight for the most part, groups or in portraits, he mostly lent an expression rather plainand somewhat arbitrary, but in a high degree masterly; and tive than mirthful. It should be acknowledged that, whether his landscapes and rustic compositions are not less gifted than in portraiture or in landscape, the painter's mannerisms of his portraits. Among his finest works are portraits of “ Lady execution increased in process of time-patchings of the brush, Ligonier," Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire,” “Master tufty foliage, &c.; some of his portraits are hurried and flimsy, Buttall (the Blue Boy)," now in Grosvenor House, “ Mrs Sheridan with a minimum of solid content, though not other than artistic and Mrs Tickell," " Orpin, the parish clerk " (National Gallery), in feeling. Here are a few of his axioms:-"What makes the “the Hon. Mrs Graham ” (Scottish National Gallery), his own difference between man and man is real performance, and not portrait (Royal Academy), “Mrs Siddons " (National Gallery); genius or conception.” “I don't think it would be more ridiculous also“ the Cottage Door,'' " the Market Cart,"'" the Return from for a person to put his nose close to the canvas and say the colours Harvest,” “the Woodman and his Dog in a Storm” (destroyed smelt offensive than to say how rough the paint lies, for one is by fire), and “Waggon and Horses passing a Brook” (National just as material as the other with regard to hurting the effect and Gallery—this was a favourite with its painter). He made a vast drawing of a picture.” “The eye is the only perspective-master number of drawings and sketches.
needed by a landscape-painter." A few observations may be added: (1) as to individual AUTHORITIES.-In 1788 Philip Thicknesse, Lieutenant-Governor works by Gainsborough, and (2) as to his general characteristics of Landguard Fort, Ipswich, who had been active in promoting the as a painter.
artist's fortunes at starting, published A Sketch of the Life and
Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough. He had quarrelled with the Two of his first portraits, executed when he was settled at painter at Bath, partly because the latter had undertaken to do a Ipswich, were separate likenesses of Mr and Mrs Hingeston. portrait of him as a gift, and then neglected the work, and finally, His first great hit was made at Bath with a portrait of Lord in a huff, bundled it off only hall done. The crucial question here is Nugent. With a likeness of Mr Poyntz, 1762, we find a decided whether or not Gainsborough was reasonably pledged to perform advance in artistic type, and his style became fixed towards nesse's book is in part adverse to Gainsborough, and more particu
any such gratuitous work, and this point has been contested." Thick1768. The date of the “ Blue Boy” is somewhat uncertain: larly so to his wife. Reynolds's “ Lecture on Gainsborough, most accounts name 1779, but perhaps 1770 is nearer the mark. replete with critical insight, should never be lost sight of as a leading This point not without interest for dilettanti; because it is document. In 1856 a heedíully compiled Life of Thomas Gainssaid that Gainsborough painted the picture with a view to confut-borough, was brought out
by T. W. Fulcher. This
was the first
substantial work about him subsequent to Allan Cunningham's ing a dictum of Reynolds, to the effect that blue was a colour lively account (1829) in his Lives of the Painters. Of late years a unsuitable for the main light of a work. But, if the picture was great deal has been written, mainly but not by any means exclusively produced before 1778, the date of Reynolds's dictum, this long- from the critical or technical point of view:--Sir Walter Armstrong cherished and often-repeated tradition must be given up. A Conway, Artistic Development of Reynolds and Gainsborough (1886);
(two works, 1896 and 1898); Mrs Arthur Bell (1902); Sir W. M. full-length of the duke of Norfolk was perhaps the latest work Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower (1903): G. M. Brock-Arnold (1881). to which Gainsborough set his hand. His portrait of Elizabeth, G. Pauli has brought out an illustrated work in Germany (1904) duchess of Devonshire, famous for its long disappearance, has under the title Gainsborough.
(W. M. R.) aroused much controversy; whether this painting, produced not GAINSBOROUGH, a market town in the W. Lindsey or long after Gainsborough had settled in London, and termed Gainsborough parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England;
the Duchess of Devonshire," does really represent that lady, on the right (E.) bank of the Trent. Pop. of urban district is by no means certain. It was mysteriously stolen in 1876 in (1901) 17,660. It is served by the Lincoln-Doncaster joint line London immediately after it had been purchased by Messrs of the Great Northern and Great Eastern railways, by which it Agnew at the Wynn Ellis sale at a huge price, and a long time is 16 m. N.W. of Lincoln, and by the Great Central railway. elapsed before it was retraced. The picture was taken to New The parish church of All Saints is classic of the 18th century, York, and eventually to Chicago; and in April 1901, through excepting the Perpendicular tower. The two other parish the agency of a man named Pat Sheedy, it was given up to the churches are modern. The Old Hall, of the 15th century, enAmerican detectives working for Messrs Agnew; it was then sold larged in the 16th, is a picturesque building, forming three to Mr Pierpont Morgan.
sides of a quadrangle, partially timber-framed, but having a Gainsborough's total output of paintings exceeded 300, beautiful oriel window and other parts of stone. There is also