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Great Britain and Ireland, king, Defender of the Faith" 1620. Sir James Ley.

1725. Sir Robert Raymond, (France being omitted). .1 Jan. 1801 1624. Sir Ranulph Crewe.

ast. lord Raymond. Hanover omitted in the queen's style.. .......21 June, 1837 1626. Sir Nicholas Hyde. 1733. Sir Philip Yorke, aft. The queen was proclaimed in all the important places in 1631, Sir Thomas Richardson.

lord Hardwicke and India, as“ Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United 1635. Sir John Brampston.

lord chancellor. Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the colo- 1643. Sir Robert Heath.

1737. Sir William Lee. nies and dependencies thereof in Europe, Asia, Africa, 1648. Henry Rolle.

1754. Sir Dudley Ryder. America, and Australia, queen,” etc. (see Empress), 1655. John Glyn.

1756. Wm. Murray, lord, afí Nov. 1858 1659. Sir Richard Newdigate.

terwards earl of MansThe national assembly decreed that the title of Louis

Robert Nicholas.

field. XVI. king of France," should be changed to "king 1660. Sir Robert Foster. 1788. Lloyd, lord Kenyon, 9 of the French 16 Oct. 1789 1663. Sir Robert Hyde.

June. The royal title in France abolished.

1792 1665. Sir John Kelyng. 1802. Sir Edward Law, 12 Louis XVIII. styled " by the grace of God king of France 1671. Sir Matthew Hale.

April; afterwards lord and Navarre

1814 1676. Sir Richard Raynesford. Ellenborough Louis Philippe I. was invited to the monarchy under the 1678. Sir William Scroggs. 1818. Sir Charles Abbott, 4 style of the king of the French” .9 Aug. 1830 1681. Sir Francis Pemberton.

Nov.; afterwards lord The emperors of Germany, in order that their eldest 1683. Sir Edmund Saunders.

Tenterden. sons might be chosen their successors, in their own

Sir. George Jefferies, 1832. Sir Thomas Denman, 7 lifetime politically obtained them the title of "king of

aft. lord Jefferies and

Nov.; aft. lord Denthe Romans." The first emperor so elected was Henry

lord chancellor,

man : resigned IV..

1055 1685. Sir Edward Herbert. 1850. John, lord Campbell, Richard, brother of Henry III. of England, was induced 1687. Sir Robert Wright.

March; afterwards to go to Germany, where he disbursed vast sums under 1689. Sir John Holt.

lord chancellor. the promise of being elected next emperor; he was 1709. Sir Thomas Parker, aft. 1859. Sir Alexander Cockburn, elected “king of the Romans" (but failed in succeed

lord Parker, earl of

June (died 20 Nov. ing to the imperial crown)....

Macclesfield, and lord

1880). The style “ king of Rome" was revived by Napoleon I.


1880. John Duke, lord Cole. for his son, born.. 20 March, 1811 | 1718. Sir John Pratt.

ridge, 26 Nov. The title " king of Italy ” conferred on Victor Emmanuel II. of Sardinia by Italian parliament........17 March, 1861 CHIEF-JUSTICES IN IRELAND (see Supreme Court).

1690. Sir Richard Reynell, 6

afterwards lord Kil. King Philip's War. Philip, son of Massasoit,


warden (killed in Emthe friend of the Pilgrim fathers at New Plymouth, 1695. Sir Richard Pyne, 7 met's insurrection, 23 New England, was induced by real and imaginary wrongs 1709. Allan Brodrick, 24 Dec.

July, 1803).

1803. William Downes, 12 to make war upon the European settlers in order to ex- 1711. Sir Richard Cox, 5 July. Sept. ; afterwards lord terminate them. His home was at Mount Hope, R. I. 1714. W. Whitshed, 14 Oct.

Downes. He struck his first blow at Swansea on the 4th of July, 1727. John Rogerson, 3 April. 1822. Charles Kendal Bushe, 1675. The white settlers sprang to arms. Philip or- 1751. St. George Caulfield, 27

1741. Thomas Marlay, 29 Dec.

14 Feb.

1841. Edward Pennefather, 10 dered other New England tribes to join him, and during Aug.

Nov. the remainder of that year and the spring of 1676, there 1760. Warden Flood, 31 July. 1846. Francis Blackburne, 23

Jan. was alarm and bloodshed in nearly all the more remote

1764. John Gore, 24 Aug; ast.
earl Annaly.

1852. Thomas Lefroy, March. New England settlements. The Indians were finally 1784. John Scott, 29 April; 1866. James Whiteside, July; subdued; Philip was chased from one hiding-place to

afterwards earl of

died 25 Nov. 1876. another; and finally, in 1676, he was shot in a swamp 1798. Arthur Wolfe, 13 June;


1877. George Augustus Chi

chester May, 9 Feb. by a faithless Indian. His head was carried in triumph to Plymouth, and his little son, the last survivor of his King's Bench Prison (Southwark), near the site family, was sold for a bond-slave in Bermuda.

of one of the oldest prisons of London, long used for the

confinement of debtors. Here, it is said, prince Henry King-of-arms: three for England-Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy; Lyon king-at-arms for Scotland, and (afterwards Henry V.) was committed by justice GasUlster for Ireland. "These offices are very ancient: coigne. The prison was burned down by the London Clarencieux is so named from Lionel, third son of Edward rioters, 7 June, 1780; see Gordon's No-Popery Riots. It III., the sovereign who founded the order of the Gar- Formerly, the debtors were allowed to purchase the lib

was rebuilt in 1781, and contained about 230 rooms. ter; see Garter. Lionel having by his wife the honor erties, to enable them to have houses or lodgings withof Clare, was made duke of Clarence; which dukedom afterwards escheating to Edward IV., he revived the out the walls, or to purchase day-rules, to go out of the office of Clarence king-at-arms. The office of Bath prison under certain regulations. The rules included St.

George's Fields, etc. A consequence of the bankruptcy king-of-arms, created in 1725, was changed to Gloucester king-of-arms, 14 June, 1726. Ulster was substituted, act, 1861, was the release of many insolvent debtors; and it is said, in lieu of Ireland king-of-arms, by Edward prison and removal of the prisoners to Whitecross street

an act was passed in 1862" for discontinuing the queen's VI., 1553; but the monarch himself named it as a new prison.” The buildings, used as a military prison, were institution.

pulled down and the site sold, 1879-80. King's Advocate, see Queen's.

King's Book, or “Valor Ecclesiasticus temp. HenKing's Bench, or Queen's BENCH, CourT OF, rici VIII;" the return of the commissioners appointed obtained its name from the king sometimes sitting here in 1534 to value the first-fruits and tenths granted to the on a high bench, and the judges, to whom the judicature king. An edition by John Bacon (“Liber Regis ") was belongs in his absence, on a low bench at his feet. This published in 1780, and it was printed for the Record Comcourt in ancient times was called Curia Domini Regis. mission, 1810-25. The court of queen's bench sat for the last time July, King's Bounty, an annual grant of 10001., began 1875; see Supreme Court. Chief-justice Cockburn re-early in the reign of George III. and continued till 10 ceived the freedom of London, 9 March, 1876; said to George IV. 1829. be the first case of the kind. The queen's bench division of the high court of justice till 1881 consisted of the

King's Colleges, see Aberdeen and Cambridge. chief-justice of England and four judges. The chief- King's College, London, incorporated 14 Aug. 1829, and justice of the queen's bench division is now clief-justice versity of London in 1837. The hospital was founded

opened 8 Oct. 1831. It was incorporated with the uniof England; the exchequer and common-pleas division in 1839. The dining-hall and kitchen fell in, through were abolished in 1881.

drainage, 8 A.M., 6 Dec. 1869; no lives were lost. CHIEF JUSTICES IN ENGLAND FROM HENRY VIII.

King's Counsel, the first under the degree of ser1509. John Fineux.

1556. Sir Edward Saunders. 1526. John Fitz-James. 1569. Sir Robert Catlyn.

geant was sir Francis Bacon, made so, honoris causa, 1539. Sir Edward Montagu. 1573. Sir Christopher Wray.

without patent or fee, in 1604, by James I. The first 1546. Sir Richard Lyster. 1591. Sir John Popham. modern king's counsel was sir Francis North, afterwards 1552. Sir Roger Choimely. 1607. Sir Thomas Fleming. lord keeper, in 1663. 1553. Sir Thomas Bromley. 1613. Sir Edward Coke. 1554. Sir William Portman. 1616. Sir Henry Montagu. King's County (Ireland), formed out of confiscated property, and so named from Philip, king of Spain, the Kladderadatsch, the German “Punch," first pubhusband of queen Mary of England, in 1556.

lished in Berlin, by Albert Hoffmann, the proprietor, origKing's Cross Market, N. London, opened 7 Aug. inally a bookseller's assistant. He amassed a fortune, 1868; did not succeed.

and died 10 Aug. 1880, aged 62. King's Evil (scrofula), formerly supposed to be cured

Kneeling. The knee was ordered to be bent at the by the king's touch; the first being Edward the Con- name of Jesus (see Phil. ii. 10), about the year 1275, by fessor, in 1058. In the reign of Charles II. 92,107 persons the order of the pope. The ceremony of a vassal kueelwere touched; and, according to Wiseman, the king's ing to his lord is said to have begun in the eighth cenphysiciau, they were nearly all cured! Queen Anne tury. officially announced in the London Gazette, 12 March, Knights. The word knight is derived from the 1712, her intention to touch publicly. The custom was Saxon Cniht, a servant (i. e, servant to the king, etc.). dropped by George I., 1714.

The institution of the Roman knights (Equites or horseKing's Mountain, BATTLE OF. Major Patrick men, from equus, a horse) is ascribed to Romulus, about Ferguson was sent by Cornwallis to embody the loyal 750 B.C., when the curiæ elected 300. Knighthood was militia west of the Broad River, in South Carolina. With conferred in England by the priest at the altar, after 1500 of them he was on his way to join the main army, confession and consecration of the sword, during the when, on 7 Oct. 1780, while encamped upon a spur of Saxon heptarchy. The first knight made by the soverKing's Mountain, he was attacked by 1800 federal eign with the sword of state was Athelstane, by Alfred, militia under several colonels, and totally defeated. A.D. 900.-Spelman. The custom of ecclesiastics conShelby, Cleveland, and Campbell were the chief leaders ferring the honor of knighthood was suppressed in a of the federals. Ferguson was killed, and a small mon- synod held at Westininster in 1100.- Ashmole's Instiument marks the spot of his burial. 300 of his men tutes. All persons having ten pounds yearly income were killed or wounded, and about 800 of them made

were obliged to be knighted, or pay a fine, 38 Hen. III. prisoners, with 1500 stand of arms. The Americans lost 1254.Sulmon. On the decline of the empire of Charleonly 20 men.

magne, all Europe being reduced to a state of anarchy, King's Speech. The first from the throne is said his mansion was fortified by a moat, and defended by a

the proprietor of every manor became a petty sovereign; to have been by Henry I., 1107.

guard, and called a castle. Excursions were made by King's Theatre, see Opera-house.

one petty lord against another, and the women and

treasure were carried off by the conqueror. At length Kingsdown's Act, 24 & 25 Vict. c. 114 (1861), re- the owners of rich fiefs associated to repress these malates to wills.

rauders, to make property secure, and to protect the Kingston, the shire town of Ulster county, N. Y., ladies, binding themselves to these duties by a solemn was settled by the Dutch and Huguenots. It is mem- vow and the sanction of a religious ceremony. Cerorable in the United States as the place where the first / vantes'“ Don Quixote,” a satire on knight-erraptry, was constitution of the state of New York was framed, in published in 1605; see Banneret, Chivalry, Tournaments, 1777, and the first legislature was convened under it; Holy Sepulchre, John, and Michael. also as having been wantonly destroyed by a British

PRINCIPAL MILITARY, RELIGIOUS, AND HONORARY ORDERS OF marauding expedition up the Hudson in the autumn of

KNIGHTHOOD. * the same year.

Albert, Saxony... Kingston, Jamaica, was founded in 1693, after the

Albert the Bear, Anhalt.

Alcantara, instituted. great earthquake in 1692 which destroyed Port Royal; Alexander Nevskoi, St., Russia. it was constituted a city, 1802. An awful fire here Amaranta, Sweden (female).

1645 ravaged a vast portion of the town, and consumed 500,- Andrew, St.

, Russia.
Andrew, St., Scotland (see Thistle).

.787, 1540, 1687 0001. of property, 8 Feb. 1782; another fire in 1843. Angelic Knights, Greece.

.337, 1191 The bishopric was established in 1856; see Jamaica. Anne, St., Holstein, now Russia.

Annonciada, Savoy..

.about 1360 Kingston Trial. The duchess of Kingston was Annunciada, Mantua.. arraigned before the lords in Westminster Hall, on a Anthony, St., Bavaria.. charge of bigamy, having married first capt. Hervey, Avis, Portugal..

Anthony, St., Hainault.. afterwards earl of Bristol, and next, during his lifetime, Bannerets; see Bannerets. Evelyn Pierrepont, duke of Kingston, 15-22 April, 1776. Bath, England, 1399; revived (see Bath)..

1725 She was found guilty, but, on pleading the privilege of

Bear, Switzerland...

Bee, France (female). peerage, the punishment of burning in the hand was re- Bento d'Avis, St., Portugal. mitted, and she was discharged on paying the fees. Black Eagle, Prussia..

Blaise, St., Armenia.

12th century Kingstown (Dublin). The harbor here was com- Blood of Christ, Mantua. menced in June, 1817. The name was changed from Bridget, St., Sweden. Dunleary in compliment to George IV., who here em- Brotherly (or Neighborly) Love, Austria (female). barked for England at the close of his visit to Ireland, 3 Calatrava, Castile, instituted by Sancho IÏI. Sept. 1821. The Kingstown railway from Dublin was Catherine, St., Palestine.. opened 17 Dec. 1834.

Catherine, St., Russia (female)..

Charles, St., Würtemberg Kissing the hands of great men was a Grecian cus

Charles III. (or the Immaculate Conception), Spain.... tom. Kissing was a inode of salutation among the Jews, Chase, Würtemberg.

Charles XIII., Sweden...

1702 1 Sam. x. 1, etc. The “kiss of charity," or "holy kiss,” Christ, Livonia.. commanded in the Scriptures (Rom. xvi. 16, etc.), was Christ, Portugal and Rome... observed by the early Christians, and is still recognized Christian Charity, France. by the Greek church and some others. Kissing the Compostello ; see St. James. pope's foot (or the cross on his slipper) began with Conception of the Virgin..

1618 Adrian I. or Leo III. at the close of the eighth century. Constantine, St., Constantinople, about 313; by emperor Kit-kat Club, of above thirty noblemen and gen

Isaac, 1190; Parma, 1699; since removed to Naples. tlemen, instituted in 1703, to promote the Protestant suc- Crescent, Turkey.

Crescent, Naples, 1268; revived... cession. The duke of Marlborough, sir Richard Walpole, Cross of Christ. Addison, Steele, and Dr. Garth were members. It took its name from its dining at the house of Christopher Kat, * Enlarged and corrected from Edmondson, Carlisle, and a pastry-cook in King street, Westminster.

the “Almanach de Gotha;'' the early dates are doubtful.

Many orders were instituted after the settlement of Europe in Kitt's, see Christopher's, St.


1836 .about 1156




1618 1382

.about 1162

1213 1703 1162 1701

1608 1366 1234 1708 1158 1063 1714 1759 1771 1811

1203 1317 1558 1783


1464 1801 1217


.... 1808


Cross of the South, Brazil.

1822 | Lily of Navarre.

.......about 1043 Crown, Prussia... 1861 Lion, Holland...

1815 Crown, Würtemberg..

1818 Lion (see Sun). . Crown of India (female). . .31 Dec. 1877 Lion of Zähringen, Baden..

1812 Crown of Italy.. 1868 Lioness, Naples....

about 1399 Crown of Oaks, Netherlands.. 1841 Loretto, Lady of..

1587 Crown Royal, France (Friesland).. 802 Louis, Bavaria..

1827 Danebrog, Denmark, instituted by Waldemar 11., 1219; Louis, Hesse-Darmstadt.

1807 revived by Christian V...

1671 Louis, St., France. Death's Head (female), by the widow Louisa Elizabeth of Louisa, Prussia (female).

1814 Saxe-Masburg.

1709 Malta; see Hospitallers. Denis, St., France.. 1267 Maria de Merced, St., Spain..

1218 Dog and Cock, France... 500 Maria Louisa, Spain (female)..

1792 Dove of Castilo.. 1379 Maria Theresa, Austria..

1757 Dragon, Hungary 1439 Mark, St., Venice, about 828; renewed..

1562 Dragon Overthrown, German.. 1418 Martyrs, Palestine..

1014 Eagle; see Black, Mexican, Red, White.

Maurice, St., Savoy.

1434 Ear of Corn and Ermine, Brittany.. about 1442 Maximilian Joseph, Bavaria

1806 Elephant, Denmark (about 1190), by Christian I.. 1462 Medjidié, Turkey..

1852 Elizabeth, St., Portugal and Brazil (female). 1801 Merit, Bavaria..

1808, 1866 Elizabeth Theresa, Austria (female).. 1750 Merit, Belgium

1867 Empire of India.. 1877 Merit, Hesse-Cassel.

1769 Esprit, St., France. 1579 Merit, Military, Baden.

1807 Ferdinand, St., Naples.. 1800 Merit, Oldenburg.

1838 Ferdinand, St., Spain. 1811 Merit, Prussia.

1740 Fidelity, Baden.. 1715 Merit, Saxony.

1815 Fidelity, Denmark 1732 Merit, Würtemberg.

1859 'ools, Cleves.. 1380 Mexican Eagle..

1865 Francis I., Two Sicilies.. 1829 Michael, St., Bavaria..

1693 Francis Joseph, Austria. 1849 Michael, St., France...

1469 Frederick, Würtemberg.. 1830 Michael, St., Germany.

1618 Friesland (or Crown Royal), France..

802 Michael and George, Sts., 1818; reorganized.. . March, 1869 Garter (which see), England.

1349 Montjoie, Jerusalem..

.before 1180 Generosity, Brandenburg 1685 Neighborly Love, Austria (female)..

1708 Genet, France. 726 Nicholas, St. (Argonauts of), Naples..

1382 George, St., and the Reunion, Naples. 1800 and 1819 Noble Passion, Saxony...

1704 George, St., Angelic Knights. 1191 Oak of Navarre, Spain.

722 George, St., Austria. . 1470-94 Olaf, St., Sweden...

1847 George, St., Defender of the Immaculate Conception, Ba- Osmanié, Turkey.

1861 varia. 1729 Our Lady of Montesa.

1316 George, St., England (see Garter) 1349 Our Lady of the Conception of Villa Viçosa..

1818 George, St., Genoa.. 1472 Our Lady of the Lily, Navarre..

1013 George, St., Hanover.. 1839 | Palatine Lion.

1768 George, St., Ionian Isles...

1818 Palm and Alligator, Africa, granted to governor CampGeorge, St., Rome

bell in...

1837 George, St., Russia.. 1769 Passion of Jesus Christ, France..

1384 George, St., Spain.. 1317 | Patrick, St., Ireland

1783 George, St., Venice 1200 Paul, St., Rome..

1540 Gerion, St., Germany. 1190 Pedro I., Brazil..

1826 Glaive, Sweden. 1522 Peter, Frederick Lewis, Oldenburg..

1838 Glory, Turkey. 1831 Peter, St., Rome..

1530 Golden Angel (afterwards St. George).. .about 312 Philip, Hesse-Darmstadt.

1840 Golden Fleece, instituted at Bruges by Philip the Good, Pius, founded by Pius IV.

1559 Austria and Spain.... 10 Jan. 1429 Pius IX., Rome.

1847 Golden Lion, Hesse-Cassel 1770 Polar Star, Sweden; revived.

1748 Golden Lion, Nassau and Holland. 1858 Porcupine, France..

1393 Golden Shield and Thistle, France. 1370 Beale, Naples....

. about 1399 Golden Spur, by Pius IV. 1559 Red Eagle, Prussia, 1705, 1712, 1734; revived.

1792 Golden Stole, Venice.. before 737 Redeemer (or Saviour), Greece..

1833 Gregory, St., Rome,.

1831 | Remi, St. (or Holy Vial)..

.about 499 Guelphic, Hanover.. 1815 Rosury, Spain..

1212 Henry, St., Saxony. 1736 Rose, Brazil..

1829 Henry the Lion, Brunswick.

1834 Round Table, England, by Alfred (see Garter)..

.....516 or 528 Hermengilde, St., Spain.. 1814 Rue Crown, Saxony.

1807 Hohenzollern, Prussia.... 1851 Rupert, St., Germany.

1701 Holy Ghost, France. 1579 Saviour, Aragon.

1118 Holy Sepulchre (which see). .1099, 1496 Saviour, or Redeemer, Greece.

1833 Holy Vial (St. Remi), France. 499 Saviour of the World, Sweden.

1561 Hospitallers (which see), 1099; of Rhodes, 1303; of Malta. 1521 Savoy, Italy.

1815 Hubert, St., Germany (by the duke of Juliers and Cleves), Scale, Castile.

.about 1316 Bavaria. 1444 Scarf, Castile, 1330; revived.

1700 Imtiaz (Turkey).. .Nov. 1879 Sepulchre, Holy, Palestine.

1099 Iron Cross, Prussia.

1813 Seraphim, Sweden..

1260 or 1265 Iron Crown, Lombardy, 1805; revived... 1816 Ship and Crescent, France..

1269 Iron Helmet, Hesse Cassel. 1814 Slaves of Virtue, Germany (female)..

1662 Isabella, St., Spain, 1804; Portugal (female). 1801 Stanislas, St., Poland..

1765 Isabella the Catholic, Spain.. 1815 Star, France..

1022 James, St., Holland.. 1290 Star, Sicily..

1351 James, St., Portugal. 1310 Star of India, British..

1861 James, St., of the Sword, Santiago, 1175; Spain and Por- Star of the Cross, Austria (female).

1668 tugal... 1177 Star of the North, Sweden.

1748 Januarius, St., Naples... 1738 Stephen, St., Hungary...

1764 Jerusalem (see Malta). 1048 Stephen, St., Tuscany..

1561 Jesus Christ, Rome, instituted by John XXII., 1320; re- Sun and Lion, Persia..

1808 formed as Jesus and Mary by Paul V.. 1615 Swan, Flanders..

.about 500 Joachim, St., Germany... 1755 Swan, Prussia (female).

.1440, 1843 John of Acon, St.. ..after 1377 Sword (or Silence), Cyprus..

1195 John of Jerusalem, St. (see Hospitallers), Rome. 1048 Sword, Sweden, 1525; revived.

1748 John, St., Prussia. 1812 Templars (see Templars)...

1119 Joseph, St., Tuscany

1807 Teste Morte (Death's Head), Würtemberg (female).. 1652 Julian of Alcantara, St.

1156 Teutonic, Austria, about 1190; abolished 1809; 1522; reKatharine, St., England (female nurses). 1879 organized...

1840, 1865 Knot, Naples.... 1352 Thistle of Bourbon.

1370 La Calza, Venice... .about 737 Thistle, Scotland, 809; revived..

1540, 1687 Lamb of God, Sweden. 1564 Thomas of Acon, St..

after 1377 Lazarus, St., France, before 1164; united with that of St. Toison d'Or (Golden Fleece)..

1429 Maurice, Savoy... 1572 Tower and Sword, Portugal, 1459; revived.

1808 Legion of Honor, France. 1802 Tusin, or Hungarian Knights..

about 1562 Leopold, Austria... 1808 Two Sicilies.

1808 Leopold, Belgiam 1862 Vasa, Sweden...

1772 Lily of Aragon... 1410 | Vigilance, or White Falcon, Saxe-Weimar..



....... 1782

Virgin Mary, Italy.

1233 | general Daun gained a signal victory over Frederick Virgin of Mount Carmel, France.

1607 Wends, Mecklenburg..


the Great of Prussia, 18 June, 1757. In commemoration, White Cross, Tuscany.

1814 the military order of Maria Theresa was instituted by White Eagle, Poland, about 1325; revived..

1705 the empress-queen.
White Falcon, Saxe. Weimar...
Wilhelm, Holland.

Köln, see Cologne.
Wing of St. Michael, Portugal...
Wladimir, St., Russia...

Komorn, or COMORN (Hungary), an ancient fortress

town, often taken and retaken during the wars with FEMALE KNIGHTS. It is said that the first were the women Turkey. Near it the Hungarians defeated the Austri

who preserved Tortosa from the Moors in 1149 by their stout resistance. Large immunities were granted to the women ans, 11 July, 1849, but surrendered the town 1 Oct. and their descendants. Several female orders appear in the

Konieh (formerly Iconium). Here the Turkish previous list. Ladies have been admitted to several male orders.

army was defeated by the pacha of Egypt, after a long, KNIGHTS OF GLYN AND KERRY, IN IRELAND. The heads of sanguinary fight, 21 Dec. 1832. The grand-vizier was two branches of the family of Fitzgerald, who still enjoy the taken prisoner. distinctions bestowed on their ancestors by sovereigns in

Königgrätz (Bohemia). Near here was fought the thirteenth century. The 19th knight of Kerry died 6 Aug. 1880.

the decisive battle between the Austrians commanded by KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE, OR OF PARLIAMENT. Summoned by marshal Benedek, and the Prussians commanded by

the king's writ and chosen by the freeholders; first sum their king, William 1., 3 July, 1866. Prince Frederick moned by Simon de Montfort in 1258, and in a more formal Charles halted at Kamenez on Monday, 2 July, his manner, 20 Jan. 1265. There are writs extant as far back as 11 Edward I. 1283. The knights are still girded with a troops commenced their march at midnight, and the sword when elected, as the writ prescribes.

first shot was fired about 7.30 A.M. 3 July. The attack Knights of Labor, see United States, 1879.

began at Sadowa (after which the battle is also named)

about 10 o'clock, and a desperate struggle ensued, the Knives. In England, Hallamshire (the country result appearing uncertain, till the army of the crownaround Sheffield) has been renowned for its cutlery prince of Prussia arrived about 12.30. When Chlum, for five centuries. Chaucer speaks of the “Sheffield which had been taken and lost seven times by the thwytel.”. Stow says that Richard Mathews, on the Prussians, was taken for the eighth time, the fate of the Fleet bridge, was the first Englishman who made fine day was decided; and the retreat of the Austrians, at knives, etc., and that he obtained a prohibition of foreign first orderly, became a hasty, disastrous flight. About ones, 1563. Clasp or spring knives became common 400,000 men were engaged in this battle, one of the about 1650, coming originally from Flanders.-- Knife-greatest in modern times. The Austrians are said to cleaning machines were patented by Mr. George Kent in have lost 174 guns, about 40,000 killed and wounded, and 1844 and 1852; others have been invented by Masters, 20,000 prisoners. The Prussians lost about 10,000 men. Price, etc.; see Forks.

The victory gave the supremacy in Germany to Prussia, Know-Nothings, a society which arose in 1853 unity to North Germany, and Venetia to Italy; and led in the United States. Their principles were embodied to the legislative independence of Hungary. in the following propositions (at New York, 1855).

Königsberg, the capital of east Prussia, was foundThey possessed several newspapers and had much po-ed by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, and became the litical influence:

residence of the grand-master in 1457. It joined the 1. The Americans shall rule America.

Hanseatic League in 1365. It was ceded to the elector 2. The Union of these States.

of Brandenburg in 1657, and here Frederick III. was 3. No North, no South, no East, no West. 4. The United States of America-as they are—one and in crowned the tirst king of Prussia in 1701. It was held separable.

by the Russians 1758–64, and by the French in 1807. 6. No sectarian interferences in our legislation or in the ad. Here king William I. and his queen were crowned, 18

ministration of American law. 6. Hostility to the assumption of the pope, through the bishops,

Oct. 1861. etc., in a republic sanctified by Protestant blood.

Königstein Tun (Nassau, Germany), most capa7. Thorough reform in the naturalization laws. 8. Free and liberal educational institutions for all sects and cious, was built by Frederick Augustus, king of Poland,

classes, with the Bible, God's holy word, as a universal in 1725. It was made to hold 233,667 gallons of wine; text-book.

and on the top, which was railed in, was accommodation A society was formed in 1855 in opposition to the above, called for twenty persons to regale themselves. The famous

Know Somethings. Both bodies were absorbed into the two parties Democrats and Republicans at the presidential elec

tun of St. Bernard's was said to hold 800 tons; see tion in Nov. 1856.

Heidelberg T'un. Knoxville (Tennessee), SIEGE OF. Gen. Burnside,

Kookas, a warlike reforming sect in N.W. India, with the army of the Ohio, occupied Knoxville on 3 founded by Baluk Ram about 1845, and after his death, Sept. 1863. The Confederate general Buckner, upon his about 1855, headed by Ram Singh, who preached the advance, evacuated East Tennessee and joined Bragg at restoration of the old Sikh religion, which venerated Chattanooga. Early in November, gen. Longstreet,

cattle and punished their slaughterer. After several with 17,000 men, advanced against Knoxville. On the outrages against the Mahometans, an outbreak of the 14th he crossed the Tennessee. Burnside engaged him Kookas took place near Loodiana, which was vigorously on the 16th at Campbell's Station, and repulsed his suppressed, 15 Jan. 1872, by commissioner Cowan, who attacks, thus gaining time for the concentration of his ordered 49 prisoners to be blown from cannon, 17 Jan. army in Knoxville. Longstreet advanced and laid siege Several others were tried and executed by commissioner to the town. He made two furious assaults upon the Forsyth soon after. For this severity Mr. Cowan was place (18 and 29 Nov.), in both of which he was repulsed. ordered to be dismissed, and Mr. Forsyth removed to But, in the meantime, Grant had defeated Bragg at another station, April, 1872. The Kooka leaders claim Chattanooga, and Sherman, with 25,000 men, was on the 800,000 followers; but the probable number is about oneway to relieve Knoxville. Longstreet, compelled to

tenth. raise the siege, retired up the Holston river, but did not Koran, or ALCORAN (AL Kuran), the sacred book entirely abandon East Tennessee until the next spring, of the Mahometans, was written about 610, by Mahomet when he again joined Lee in Virginia.

(who asserted that it had been revealed to him by the Knutsford (Cheshire). The foundation-stone of angel Gabriel in twenty-three years), and published by St. Paul's college for the northern counties here was laid Abu-Bekr about 635. Its general aim was to unite the 24 Sept. 1873.

professors of idolatry and the Jews and Christians in the Koh-i-noor, or “Mountain of Light," the East inculcated), under certain laws and ceremonies, exacting

worship of one God (whose unity was the chief point India diamond ; see Diamonds.

obedience to Mahomet as the prophet. The leading Kolin, or KOLLIN (Bohemia). Here the Austrian article of faith preached is compounded of an eternal truth and a necessary fiction-namely, that there is only Kroumirs, see Tunis. one God, and that Mahomet is the apostle of God.- Krupp's Cast-STEEL Factory, Essen, Rhenish Gibbon. The Koran was translated into Latin in 1143 ; Prussia, established 1810. About 10,500 men employed, into French, 1647; into English by Sale, 1734; and into exclusive of about 5000 miners and others (1876). other European languages, 1763 et seq. It is a rhapsody of 6000 verses, divided into 114 sections; see Mahomet

Kryptograph, see Cryptograph. anism, etc.

Ku-Klux-Klan, the name of a secret society in Koreish, an Arab tribe which had the charge of the southern states of the United States, bitterly opposed the Caaba, or sacred stone of Mecca, and strenuously Early in 1868, this society issued lists of proscribed per

to the exercise of the electoral franchise by the negroes. opposed the pretensions of Mahomet. It was defeated by him and his adherents, 623-30.

sons, who, if they did not quit the country after warning,

became liable to assassination. Gen. Grant endeavored Kossova, see Cossova.

to suppress this society in April. Its repression by Koszta Affair. Martin Koszta, a Hungarian the militia in Arkansas was ordered, Nov. 1868, and it refugee, when in the United States in 1850, declared his became the subject of legislation at Washington, June, intention of becoming an American citizen, and went 1871, under which many persons were tried and convicted through the preliminary forms. In 1853 he visited for lawless outrages and murders. The Ku-Klux outSmyrna, and on 21 June was seized by a boat's crew of rages were generally committed at night, the men being the Austrian brig Huzzar. By direction of the Ameri- masked and even their horses being disguised. The can minister at Constantinople, capt. Ingraham, of the vigorous prosecution of Ku-Klux offenders speedily deAmerican sloop St. Louis, demanded his release; but, stroyed the organization. having heard that the prisoner was to be clandestinely Kuldja, a revolted province of China; was seized transported to Trieste, he demanded his surrender by a by Russia in 1871, and restored by treaty in 1879. certain time, and prepared to attack the Austrian vessel

Kulturkampf, the conflict in Prussia respecting on 2 July; Koszta was then given up. On 1 Aug., the worship; see Prussia, 1873 et seq. Austrian government protested against these proceed

Kunnersdorf, BATTLE OF, see Cunnersdorf. ings in a circular addressed to the European courts, but eventually a compromise was effected, and Koszta re- Kunobitza, in the Balkan. Here John Hunniades, turned to the United States.

the Hungarian, defeated the Turks, 24 Dec. 1443. Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh (which Kurdistan, Western Asia (the ancient Assyria), see).

subject partly to Turkey and Persia. In Oct. 1880, the Kraal, a Dutch name for a South African village ; ravaged Persia, and were subdued after fierce conflicts

Kurds, savage tribes, nominal Mahometans, invaded and see Zululand.

with their chief, Obeid-ullah, a Turkish sheik, Nov., Krasnoi (central Russia). Here the French de Dec. 1880. It was stated in June, 1881, that he had feated the Russians, 15 Aug. 1812; and here they were surrendered. themselves defeated after a series of conflicts, 14-18 Nov.

Kurrachee, a flourishing port in N.W. India, was following

taken by the British, 3 Feb. 1839. Kreasote, see Creasote.

Kushk-i-Nakhud, see Maiwand. Kremlin, a palace at Moscow, built by Demetri, grand-duke of Russia, about 1376. It was burned down sieged and burned by the Řussians, 22 Aug. 1758 ; taken

Kustrin, or Custrin (Prussia), a fortified town, bein Sept. 1812, and rebuilt in 1816; partly burned about by the French in 1806; given up, 1814. 23 July, 1879.

Kyrle Society (named after John Kyrle, who died Kriegsspiel, see under War.

1724, extolled by Pope as the Man of Ross), started by Kromschröder Gas, a new hydrocarbon (air Misses Miranda and Octavia Hill in 1875, and founded saturated with petroleum spirit), was tried in May, 1873, in 1877 by prince Leopold, princess Louise, the duke of at Great Marlow, for street-lighting, and reported suc- Westminster, and others, with the object of " bringing cessful. The gas was said to be cheap and quickly beauty home to the people ” by means of decorative art, generated, the combustion giving a brilliant white gardening, music, etc. First public meeting held 27 smokeless light.

Jan. 1881.


Labarum, see Standards.

John Pope Hennessy, 1867 ; sir H. E. Bulwer, 1871; Laboratory. The Royal Institution laboratory, Herbert Taylor Usher, 1875; Chas. Cameron Lees, 1879; the first of any importance in London, was established see Borneo. in 1800, and rebuilt 1872. In it were made the dis- Laburnum, Cytisus Laburnum, called also the coveries of Davy, Faraday, Tyndall, and Frankland; see golden chain, was brought to these countries from HunRoyal Institution. The Royal Laboratory, Woolwich gary, Austria, etc., about 1576.– A she. Arsenal, was reorganized in 1855.

Labyrinths. Four are mentioned: the first, said Laborers, STATUTE OF, regulating wages, enacted to have been built by Dædalus, in the island of Crete, to 1349, 1357. A conference of philanthropists on the con

secure the Minotaur, about 1210 B.C.; the second, of dition of agricultural laborers was held at Willis's Rooms, Arsinoe, in Egypt, in the isle of Mæris, by Psammeticus, Westminster, 28 March, 1868.–LABORING CLASSES king of that place, about 683 B.C.; the third, at Lemnos, Dwelling-house acts, passed 1855, and May, 1866; see remarkable for its sumptuous pillars, which seems to Agriculture, Artisans, and Working-men.

have been a stalactite grotto; and the fourth, at CluLabrador (North America), discovered by Sebastian about 520 B.C. -Pliny. The labyrinth of Woodstock is

sium, in Italy, erected by Porsenna, king of Etruria, Cabot, 1497; visited by Corte Real in 1500; made a connected with the story of Fair Rosamond ; see RosaMoravian missionary station in 1771.

mond. The maze at Hampton Court was formed in the Labuan, an Asiatic island, N.W. Borneo; ceded to sixteenth century. the British in 1846, and given up to sir James Brooke Lace of very delicate texture was made in France in 1848. The bishopric was founded 1855. Governor, and Flanders in 1320. Its importation into England

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