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in 1782 ; and, from the want of one, a quantity of LIME-LIGHT, produced by the combustion gunpowder was ignited at Brescia in 1767, and above of oxygen and hydrogen or carburetted hydrogen on 3000 persons perished. In 1762, Dr. Watson a surface of lime. This light evolves little heat and recommended conductors to be used in the navy; does not vitiate the air. It is also called Drummond and they were employed for a short time, but soon Light, after its inventor, lieut. Thomas Drummond, fell into disuse from want of skill and attention. who successfully produced it as a first-class light in Mr. (afterwards sir William) Snow Harris devoted his 1826, and employed it on the ordnance survey.. It attention to the subject from 1820 and 1854, and is said to have been seen at a distance of 112 iniles. published a work, in 1843, detailing his experiments. It was tried at the South Foreland lighthouse in În 1830, above thirty ships were fitted up with his 1861. Lieut. Drummond was born, 1797, died conductors, and in 1842 his plans were adopted, and 15 April, 1840. To him is attributed the maxim his conductors are now manufactured in the royal | that property has its duties as well as its rights." dockyards. In 1854 parliament granted him 5000l.

LIMERICK, anciently Lumneach (S. W. Ire

Jand). About 550, St. Munchin is said to have LIGNY (near Fleurus, Belgium), where Napo- founded a bishopric and built a church here, which leon defeated the Prussian army under Blucher, latter was destroyed by the Danes in 853. Donald 16 June, 1815; see Waterloo.

O'Brien, king of Limerick, founded the cathedral

about 1200. Limerick obtained its charter in 1195, LIGUORIANS or REDEMPTORISTS, when John Stafford was made first provost; and its Roman catholic order, established in 1732 by Alfonso first mayor was Adam Servant, in 1198. It was de Liguori, and approved by pope Benedict XIV. in taken by Ireton after six months' siege in 1651. In 1749.

Aug. 1690 it was invested by the English and LIGURIANS, a Celtie tribe, N. Italy, invaded Dutch, and surrendered on most honourable terms, the Roman territory, and were 'defeated 238 B.C.

3 Oct. 1691.* An awful explosion of 218 barrels of They were not subjugated till 172 B.C. - The Ligu- gunpowder greatly shattered the town, killing 100 RIAN Republic, founded in May, 1797, upon the persons, 1 Feb. 1694. Another explosion of gunruins of the republic at Genoa, was incorporated powder here killed many persons, 2 Jan. 1837 with France in 1805, and then merged into the Awful and destructive tempest, 6-7 Jan. 1839. "A kingdom of Italy.

new graving-dock was opened by the lord-lieutenant,

earl Spencer, 13 May, 1873. LILAC TREE, Syringa. The Persian lilac

LIMITATIONS, STATUTE OF, 21 James I. from Persia was cultivated in England about 1638;

c. 16, 1623. By it actions for trespass or debt, or the common lilac by Mr. John Gerard about 1597.

simple contract, must be commenced within six LILLE, see Lisle.

years after the cause of action, and actions for

assault, menace, or imprisonment within four years. LILY, a native of Persia, Syria, and Italy, was brought to England before 1460; the martagon ing the liability of joint stock companies, 18 & 19

LIMITED LIABILITY. An act for limit. from Germany, 1596.

Vict. c. 133 (passed 1855), was several times LILYBÆUM, a strong maritime fortress of amended 1856-7-8. On 31 May, 1864, “ 3830 joint Sicily, besieged by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, 276 B.C., stock companies had been formed and registered on and relieved by the Carthaginians 275 B.C. It was the limited liability principle, and 938 had ceased taken by the Romans, 241 B.C., after a siege of to exist." Much calamity in 1866 was occasioned nine years, which led to the end of the second by the abuse of the system. The Companies act of Punic war.

1862 was amended in 1867. LIMA (Peru). In 1534, Pizarro, marching

LINCELLES (N. France), where the allied through Peru, was struck with the beauty of the English and Dutch armies defeated the French, valley of Rimac, and there he founded this city, and

18 Aug. 1793. General Lake commanded three gave it the name of Ciudad de los Reyes, or city of battalions of foot guards. the kings, 1535. Here he was assassinated, 26 June, LINCOLN, the Roman Lindum Colonia, and 1541. Awful earthquakes occurred here, 1586, 1630, at the period of the conquest rich and populous. It 1087, and 28 Oct. 1746. In 1854-5, thousands was taken several times by Saxons and Danes. The perished by yellow fever. Mr. Sullivan, the British castle was built by William I. in 1086. Without consul, was assassinated at Lima, 11 Aug. 1857; see Newport-gate upon Lincoln plain was fought the Peru, 1872.

battle between the partisans of the empress Maud,

commanded by the earl of Gloucester, and the army LIMBURG (Netherlands), a duchy in the roth of Stephen, in which the king was defeated and century, acquired by the dukes of Brabant about taken prisoner, 2 Feb. 1141. Louis, dauphin of 1288; added to Burgundy about 1429; passed to France, invited over by the discontented barons in the house of Austria in 1477; became one of the the last year of king John's reign, was acknowledged United Provinces, 1609; conquered and annexed to by them as king of England here; but the nobility, the French republic, 1795; restored to the Nether- summoned by the earl of Pembroke to Gloucester lands, 1814; divided between Holland and Belgium, to crown Henry III., marched against Louis and 1830; completely separated from the German con the barons, and defeated them in a most sanguinary federation by treaty, 11 May, 1867.

By the treaty it was agreed that all arms, property

and estates should be restored ; all attainders annulled, LIME or LINDEN TREE, probably introduced

and all outlawries reversed ; and that no oath but that in the 16th century. The limes in St. James's of allegiance should be required of high or low; the freepark are said to have been planted at the suggestion dom of the Catholic religion was secured ; relief from of Evelyn, who recommended multiplying odorifer- pecuniary claims incurred by hostilities was guaranteed ; ons trees, in his “Fumifugium(1661). A lime- permission to leave the kingdom was extended to all who

desired it; and a general pardon proclaimed to all then tree planted in Switzerland in 1410, existed in

in arins.

This treaty was annulled by the Irish 1720, the trunk being thirty-eix feet in circum- parliament, 1695. Limerick is still called “the city of ference.

the broken treaty."





fight (called the Fair of Lincoln), 20 May, 1217; who held James V. in their power, defeated the and Louis withdrew.

forces of the earl of Lennox, who, after receiving LINCOLN, BISHOPRIC OF. Sidnacester or promise of quarter, was killed by sir James HamilLindisse and Dorchester, two distinct sees in Mercia, ton, 1526. Mary, queen of Scots, was born in the were united about 1078, and the see was removed palace of Linlithgow, 8 Dec. 1512, James 1., her to Lincoln by bishop Remigius de Feschamp, who father, dying of a broken heart, 14 Dec. built a cathedral (1086), afterwards destroyed by

LINNÆAN SYSTEM of botany, arranged fire, but rebuilt by bishop Alexander (1127) and by Linné or Linnæus, a Swede, 1725-30. He bishop Hugh of Burgundy. The diocese is very

classed the plants according to the number and large, although the dioceses of Ely (1109), Oxford,

situation of the sexual parts, and made the flower and Peterborough (1541) were formed from it, and and fruit the test of his various genera. Linnaus were further enlarged in 1837. The see was valued lived from 1707 to 1778. His library and herbarium at the dissolution of monasteries at 20651. per

were purchased by sir James E. (then Dr.) Smith, annum; and after many of its manors had been and given to the Linnaan Society in London, which seized upon, it was rated in the king's books at

was instituted in 1788, and incorporated 26 March, 8941. 108. id. Present income, 5000l. It has given 1802. three saints to the church of Rome, and to the civil state of England six lord chancellors. The great

LION AND UNICORN, the former English, bell of the cathedral, called Great Tom of Lincoln, the latter Scottish, became the supporters of the weighs four tons eight pounds.

royal arms on the accession of James I. in 1603.

The lions in Trafalgar-square, designed by sir Edwin 1787. George Pretyman (afterwards Tomline), translated Landseer, were uncovered, 31 Jan. 1867. to Winchester, 1820.

LION. True lions belong to the old world exclu1820. Hon. George Pelham, died 1 Feb. 1827.

sively. They existed in Europe, Egypt, and 1827. John Kaye, died 19 Feb. 1852.

Palestine, but lave long disappeared from those 1852. John Jackson, translated to London, 1869.

countries ; their present country being Africa. A 1869. Christopher Wordsworth, consecrated

lion named Pompey died in the Tower of London

in 1760, after 70 years' confinement. LINCOLN'S-INN (London), derives its name

Mr. Gordon Cumming, the lion-slayer, published from Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, who erected a his “Sporting Allventures in South Africa" in 1850 mansion on this spot in the reign of Edward I., Van Amburyhi was very successful in taming lions ; which had been the bishop of Chichester's palace. but many have perished through rashness. The It became an inn of court, 1310. The gardens of

Lion-queen was killed at Chatham, 1850 ; and Lincoln's-inn-fields were laid out by Inigo Jones,

Massarti (John McCarthy) was killed by a lion,

3 Jan. 1872 about 1620, and erroneously said to occupy the same LIPPAU, see Hussites. space as the largest pyramid of Egypt, which is 764 feet square; Lincoln's-inn square being 821 feet LIPPE, a constitutional principality (N. W. by 625 feet 6 inches. William lord Russell was Germany).' Population, 1867, 111,352. "Reigning beheaded in Lincoln's-inn-fields, 21 July, 1683. prince, Leopold, born i Sept. 1821; succeeded his The square (formed in 1618) was enclosed with iron father, Leopold, 1 Jan. 1851; heir, his brother railings about 1737. The new ball and other build- Waldemar, born 18 April, 1824. Lippe became a ings were opened, 30 Oct. 1845, and the square member of the North German confederation, 18 planted. The theatre in Lincoln's-inn-fields' was Aug. 1866. built in 1695; rebuilt in 1714; made a barrack in 1756, and pulled down in 1848.

LIPPSTADT, see Lützen. LINDISFARNE or HOLY ISLAND, on the ancients) was taken by the Arabs about 710, and

LISBON (Olisippo, and Felicitas Julia, of the coast of Northumberland, became a bishop's see, 635. It was ravaged by the Danes under Regnar whom it was captured by Alfonso I. of Portugal in

became important under the Moorish kings, from Lodbrok in 793, and the monastery destroyed by them in 875. The see was then removed to Chester 1147. It was made the capital of Portugal by le-street, and to Durham in 995 (or 990).

Emanuel, 1506. Lisbon has suffered much ly

earthquakes, and was almost destroyed by one, LINEN. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in vestures I Nov. 1755; see Earthquakes. The court Hed to of fine linen, 1716 B.C. (Gen. xli. 42.)

the Brazils, 1o Nov. 1807, and on 30 Nov. the

French, under Junot, entered Lisbon, and held it First manufactured in England by Flemish weavers, until the battle of Vimeira, in which they were

under the protection of Henry III. A company of linen weavers established in London 1365 defeated by the British, under sir Arthur Wellesley, The art of staining linen known

21 Aug. 1808. A military insurrection at Lisbon, A colony of Scots in the reign of James I., and other 21 Aug. 1831, was soon suppressed, and many sol

Presbyterians who fled from persecution in sue diers were executed; see Portugal.
ceeding reigns, planted then selves in the north-
east part of Ireland, and there established the

LISLE (now Lille), N. France, has a strong linen manufacture, which was liberally en citadel by Vauban. It was besieged by the duke couraged by the lord deputy Wentworth in 1634 ; of Marlborough and the allies; and, though deemed by William III.

1698 Hemp, flax, linen, thread, and yarn, from Ireland, impregnable, was taken after a three months' siege permitted to be exported duty free


in 1708. It was restored by the treaty of Utrecht, Irish linen board established in 170 ; the Linen in 1713, in consideration of the demolition of the

hall, Dublin, opened 1728: the board abolished 1828 fortifications of Dunkirk. Lisle sustained a severe A board of trustees to superintend the Scotch linen bombardment from the Austrians, who were obliged manufacture established

to raise the siege, 7 Oct. 1792. Duty on linen taken off Dunfermline in Fifeshire, Dundee in Angusshire,

LISMORE (S. Ireland). St. Carthage, first and Barnsley in Yorkshire, are chief seats of our

bishop, 636, says: “ Lismore is a famous and holy linen manufacture.

city, of which nearly one-half is an asylum where LINLITHGOW - BRIDGE (near Edin no woman dare enter.” The castle (built by king burgh), near which the forces of the earl of Angus, John when earl of Moreton, 1185), burnt in 1645,

about 1579

• 1727



was rebuilt with great magnificence by the duke of LITHIUM, a metal, the lightest substance in Devonshire. The cathedral, built 636, was nature except the gases (its specific gravity being paired by Cormac, son of Muretus, king of Muns- 0:59), is obtained from an alkaline substance termed ter, about 1130. The bishopric was united to that lithia; discovered by M. Arfwedson, a Swede, in of Waterford, about 1363; and both to Cashel in 1817. 1839.

LITHOFRACTEUR, or “STONE-BREAKLISSA (or Leuthen, Silesia). Here the king ER,” an explosive material, a modification of dynaof Prussia vanquished Charles of Lorraine ; 6000 mite (composed of gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, with Austrians were slain, 5 Dec. 1757 Lissa, in the constituents of gunpowder, and other subPoland, was laid in ruins by the Russian army in stances), invented by professor Engels of Cologne, the campaign of 1707.–Lissa, an island in the land made by Krebs, in 1869. It was occasionally Adriatic. Near here the Italian tleet, commanded used by the Germans in the war 1870-1, and was by Persano, was defeated with severe loss by the tried and well reported of for power and safety at Austrian fleet, commanded by Tegethoff, 20 July, Nant Mawr quarries, near Shrewsbury, 9, 10 May, 1866.

1871, and 20 feb. 1872. It was again tried at Nant

Mawr, 20 Feb. 1870, before the government exploThe Italians had 23 vessels, 11 of which were ironclads, and the Austrians had 23 vessels, 7 only

sire committee, with similar results. being ironclads. Persano, when in sight of the enemy, quitted his

LITHOGRAPHY (engraving on stone). The ship, the Re d'Italia, and hoisted liis flag on the invention is ascribed to Alois Sennefelder, about Afinulatore. His ironclads did not keep well 1796; and shortly afterwards the art was announced together.

in Germany, and was known as polyautography. It During the action, the ironclad Palestro took fire

became partially known in England in 1801, et seq., and exploded, and all on board perished (except 19 out of 200 mnen), exclaiming, Viru il Re! Vira

but its general introduction is referred to Mr. Thia! The Re d'Italia was surrounded and sunk Ackermann, of London, about 1817. Sennefelder by the Austrians. The Re di Portobello disabled died in 1841. Improvements have been made by the Austrian line-of-battle ship Keiser, and com Engelmann and many others; see Printing in pelled her to run ashore. Both parties soon after Colours. retired from the contliet, which had lastel four hours.

LITHOTOMY. The surgical operation of Admiral Persano was tried for misconduct and disinissed the service (see Italy)

cutting for the stone, it is said, was performed by

15 April, 1867 Ammonius, about 240 B.C. The'small apparatus," LITANIES (Greek litaneia, supplication), were

so called from the few instruments used in the first used in processions, it is said, about 469; others operation, was practised by Celsus, about A.D. 17: say about 400. Litanies to the Virgin Mary were

The “ high apparatus

was practised (on a criminal first introduced by pope Gregory I. ab 595:

at Paris) by Colot, 1475; by Franco, on a child, 'The first English litany was commanded to be used about 1566; and in England, by Dr. Douglass, in the Reformed churches by Henry VIII. in 1544.

about 1519. The “lateral operation," invented by

Franco, much performed in Paris by Frère Jacques, LITERARY CLUB (at first called “ The in 1697, bas been greatly improved. The “ great Club” and “Johnson's Club”), founded by Dr. apparatus” was invented by John de Romanis, and Johnson and sir Joshua Reynolds, in 1764.. Haw described by his pupil Marianus Sanctus, 1524. kins, Topham Beauclerk, Goldsmith, Burke, and Bennet Langton, were among the first members.

LITHOTRITY (or bruising the stone). The The opinion formed of a new work by the club was apparatus produced by M. Leroy d'Etiolles in 1822 speedily known all over London, and had great in

has since been improved. fluence. The club still exists. Hallam, Macaulay, the marquis of Lansdowne, and bishop Blomfield

LITHUANIA, formerly a grand-duchy, N. E. were members; Dr. Milman, dean of St. Paul's, race) long maintained their independence against

of Prussia. The natives (belonging to the Slavonic was in the chair at the ceutenary dinner, on 7 June,

the Russians and Poles. In 1386, iheir grand-duke 1864.

Jagellon became king of Poland and was baptized : LITERARY FUND, ROYAL, was founded Lithuania was not incorporated with Poland till in 1790, to relieve literary men of all nations, by 1501, when another duke Casimir, became king of David Williams, * the friend of Benjamin Franklin, that country. The countries were formally united and incorporated in 1818. The king of the Belgians in 1569. The larger part of Lithuania now belongs presided at the annual dinner, 8 May, 1872.

to Russia, the remainder to Prussia. LITERARY PROPERTY, SOCIETIES, LITURGIES (from the Greek litai, prayers, &c., see Copyright, Societies, &c.

and ergon, work). The Greek and Roman liturgies

are very ancient, having been committed to writing LITERATURE, see Letters ; comprehends about the 4th and 5th centuries. The Romish church eloquence, poetry, history, language, and their

recognises four: the Roman or Georgian, the Amsubdivisions.

brosian, the Gallican, and the Spanish or Mosarabic. Floyer Sydenham, an eminent Greek scholar, of

The Greek church has two principal liturgies : St. Waitham college, Oxford, and translator of some of the Chrysostom's and St. Basil's, and several smaller works of Plato, was arrested and thrown into prison fur

Parts of these liturgies are attributed to the a trilling debt clue for his frugal meals, and there, in A postles, to St. Ignatius, 250, to St. Ambrose (died 1788, diell of a broken heart in want and misery, when nearly eighty years of age. The sympathy exciter gave

397), and to St. Jerome (died 420). rise to this institution, since well supported. Williains The present English Liturgy was first composed, was in early life a dissenting minister, and wrote on and was approved and confirmed by parliament, education. He was consulted by the early revolutionary in 1547-8. The offices for morning and evening Jarty in France as to the form of a constitution for that prayer were then put into nearly the same forin country ; he, Dr. Priestley, sir James Mackintosh, and in which we now have them, other distinguished Englishmen, having been previously At the solicitation of Calvin and others, the liturgy declared French citizens. He died 29 July, 1816.

was reviewed and altered

• 1551


: 1823

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It was first read in Ireland, in the English lan Statue of George III, commenced

25 Oct. 1809 guage, in 1550, and in Scotland, where it occa Fall of St. Nicholas' tower, 28 killed I1 Feb. 1810 sioned a tumult, in 1637, and was withdrawn 1638 Royal Institution founded

1814 The liturgy was revised by Whitehead, formerly Wellington-rooms built

1815 chaplain to Anna Boleyn, and by bishops Parker, Royal Institution opened by Mr. Roscoe . 2 Nov. 1818 Grindall, Cox, and Pilkington, dean May, and

American seamen's hospital.

1820 secretary Smith.

Prince's dock opened

19 July, 1821 John Knox is said to have used a liturgy for several

St. John's market-place

Feb. 1822 years, The rev. Robert Lee, of Edinburgh, intro Royal Institution incorporated duced a form of prayer in publie Worship, but

Mar Humane Society formed gave it up when ordered to discontinue it in May, New house of industry erected.

1824 1859; he soon after resumed it, and the discussion

Liver theatre opened

1825 on the subject ceased only at his death, 14 March, 1868 Old dock closed

1826 Foundation of new custom-house laid See Common Prayer.

12 Aug. 1828

Blackrock lighthouse built, and light first shown, LIVERIES OF THE CITY OF LON

1 March, 1830 DON. The term is derived from the custom of the

Lunatic asylum founded, 1792 ; new buildings retainers of the lord mayor and sheriffs wearing Clarence dock completed .


Sept. clothes of the form and colour displayed by those Liverpool and Manchester railway opened* 15 Sept. functionaries. It was usual for the wardens of Zoological gardens opened companies to deliver a purse containing 208. to the Great lire; property valued at 300,000l. destroyed, lord mayor on 1 Dec. to obtain for individuals, so

I Jan. desiring, sufficient cloth to make a suit, and the

Lock hospital and Waterloo dock opened

Victoria and Trafalgar docks opened 8 Sept. 1836 privilege of wearing the livery. This added to the

British Association meet here

Sept. 1837 splendour of the lord mayor's train when the civic

Mechanics'institute opened

1837 court went forth. Ashe. Liveries were regulated by New fish market opened

8 Feb. statute in 1392, and frequently since. The nobility Apothecaries' company formed gave liveries to their retainers.

Liverpool and Birmingham (Grand Junction) railway opened

4 July, LIVERPOOL (W. Lancashire), is supposed to Railway to London (now the North-Western) opened be noticed in Domesday-book under the name Esme

its entire length

17 Sept. 1838 dune, or Smedune. * Soon after the conquest,

Statistical society founded

The Liverpool steamer, of 461-horse power, sails for William granted that part of the country situated New York

28 Oct. between the rivers Mersey and Ribble to Roger of Awful storm raged

6 Jan. 1839 Poitiers, who, according to Camden, built a castle Foundation of the collegiate institution laid by lord here, about the year 1089. It afterwards was held Stanley by the earls of Chester and dukes of Lancaster.

Foundation of St. George's hall and courts laid 1841 Population of the parliamentary borough in 1851,

Immense fire ; property worth more than half-a

million sterling destroyed . 375,995; in 443,938; in 1871, 493,346.

25 Sept. 1842 Mr. Huskisson's statue erected

. Oct. 1847 Liverpool made a free borough by Henry III.

Procession of Orangemen at Liverpool, and fatal riot,

1229 Made an independent port


14 July, 1851 Liverpool “ a paved town" (Leland)

The queen visits Liverpool “The people of her majesty's decayed town of British Association meet here

Sept. 1854 Liverpool" petition Elizabeth to be relieved from St. George's hall opened

18 Sept. a subsidy

Bread riots (150,000 persons out of employ through

1571 Separated from the duchy of Lancaster

the frost)

19 Feb. 1855 Town rated for ship-money in only 261. by Charles I. 1634 Gigantic landing stage for large steamers completed 1837 Besieged and taken by prince Rupert 26 June, 1644

Free library, &c., founded by Mr. (afterwards sir) Made a separate parish


W. Brown, M.P. for S. Lancashire, 5 April, 1857; The old dock, the first in England, constructed and free library, &c. opened

18 Oct. 1860 opened

Many commercial failures

Sept. to Nov. 1857 Blue coat hospital founded

Association for Social Science meets

Oct 1858 1709 The town vigorously opposes the Young Pretender Sailors' home (cost 30,000l.) burnt


29 April, 1860 Town-hall commenced.

Free Museum opened 1749

17 Oct. 1861 Infirmary established

Brownlow Hill church and workhouse school burnt, Seamen's hospital founded .

and 23 lives lost (20 children)

8 Sept. 1862 A most destructive fire

Explosion of 114 tons of gunpowder in the Lołtie

1762 House of industry founded


Sleigh, in the Mersey, great damage 16 Jan. 1864 Theatre licensed, 1771 ; opened

Death of sir Wm. Brown, a great benefactor to Liver

1772 Liverpool equips, at the commencement of the war


3 March, against France, 120 privateers, carrying 1986 guns,

Additionai M.P. (now 3) granted by Reform act, and 8754 seamen 1778

15 Aug. 1867 King's dock constructed 1785 Royal bank of Liverpool stopped

21 Oct. [The Queen's dock was also constructed about the Greek steamer (Bubnilina) in the Mersey explodel ; same time.)

about 19 lives lost Memorable storm raged


Reverdy Johnson, the United States' minister The exchange burnt

warmly received

22 Oct. 1868

1795 The town-hall (since restored) destroyed by fire.

A "Greek church consecrated by the Greek archThe Athenæum opened

bishop of Syra

16 Jan, 1869 Union news-room erected

Fire at St. Joseph's Catholic chapel, is lives lost,

1800 The Lyceum erected .

1802 Awful fire ; loss exceeded 1,000,000l. .

Stanley park, 100 acres (cost 42,000l.)

opened ; May, 1870 Corn exchange opened

4 Aug. 1808

Stanley hospital ; foundation laid by the earl of Royal Exchange completed .


.6 June,

The first grand work of the kind, about 31 miles long. * In other ancient records its appellations are Litherpul The first shaft was commenced in Oct. 1826, and the exand Lyrpul, signifying probably, in the ancient dialect, the cavation of the tunnel, one mile and a quarter long, Jan. lower pool; though some have deduced its etymology 1827; the tunnel was completed in Sept. 1828, and opened from a pool frequented by an aquatic fowl, called the 30 July, 1829. At the opening of the railroad, the duke “Liver," or from a sea-weed of that name; and others, of Wellington and other illustrious persons were present ; from its having belonged to a family of the name of and Mr. Huskisson, who alighted during a stoppage of Lever, whose antiquity is not sufficiently established to the engines, was knocked down by one of them, which justify their conclusion.

went over his thigh and caused his death, 15 Sept. 1830.


9 Oct


1 Jan. 1799

23 Jan.

14 Sept.




3 Nov.


British Association meets here third time 14 Sept. 1870 mained there till the fire in 1838, when it was Equestrian statue of the queen unveiled

removed till the present building was completed in Seamen's Orphan Institution founded 11 Sept. 1871 1844. Here resort eminent merchants, &c.; and Tunnel across the Mersey to Birkenhead begun,

April, 1872

here are effected many insurances on ships and Sefton park opened by prince Arthur 20 May, merchandise. Lloyd's is supported by subscribers The dock space in 1810 was 26 acres for ships, to the

who pay annually 41. 49. The books kept here

contain an account of the arrival and sailing of amount of 704,000 tons; in 1857, 209 acres, ton

vessels, and are remarkable for their early intellinage, 4,320,000.

gence of maritime affairs. In 1803, the subscribers LIVERPOOL ADMINISTRATION, instituted the Patriotic Fund (which see). The Shortly after the assassination of Mr. Perceval Austrian Lloyd's, an association for general, com(1! May, 1812), the earl of Liverpool became first mercial, and industrial purposes, was founded at minister. His administration terminated when he Trieste, by Baron Bruck, in 1833. 'It has established was attacked by apoplexy, 17. Feb. 1827, and Mr. regular communication between Trieste and the Canning succeeded as prime minister, 10 April. Levant, by means of a fleet of steamers carrying the Earl of Liverpool, first lord of the treasury.

mails, and publishes a journal. Earl of Elon, lord chancellor.

LOADSTONE, see Magnetism.
Earl of Harrowby, lori president of the council.
Earl of Westmoreland, lorii priry seul.

LOANO, Piedmont (N. Italy). Here the AusN. Vansittart, chancellor the exchequer (succeeded by trians and Sardinians were defeated by the French, F. J. Robinson, 1823).

under Massena, 23, 24 Nov. 1795. Viscount Sidmouth, home secretary (succeeded by Robert Peel, 1822).

LOANS for the public service were raised by Viscount Castlereagh, afterwards marquis of London Wolsey in 1522 and 1525,

In 1559 Elizabeth derry, foreign secretary (succeeded by George Canning, borrowed 200,0001. of the city of Antwerp, to en1822).

able her to reform her own coin, and sir Thomas Earl Bathurst, colonial secretary. Viscount Melville, first lord of admiralty.

Gresham and the city of London joined in the Earl of Buckinghamshire, board of control (succeeded by security. Rapin. The amount of some of the

G. Canning, 1816; C. Bathurst, 1820 ; C. Wynne,1822). English and other loans, during memorable periods, Charles Bathurst (1813), chancellor of duchy of Lancaster

viz.:(succeeded by N. Vansittart, lord Bexley, 1823).

£52,100,000 Wellesley Pole, afterwards lord Mary borough, 1815, Seven years' war

1755 to 1763

American war master of the mint.

1776 to 1784 75,500,000



French revolutionary war. F. J. Robinson, 1818 ; W. Huskisson, 1823, board of trade.

1793 to 1802


War against Bonaparte Earl of Mulgrave, ordnance (succeeded by duke of Wel

1803 to 1814 • 206,300,000

2 loans, 1813 lington, 1819).

21,000,000!. and War against Russia

1855 to 1856. 16,000,000 LIVINGSTONE, see under Africa.

For deficiency in revenue


[Both taken by the Rothschilds alone.) LIVONIA, a Russian province on the Baltic By East India Company


8,000,000 sea, tirst visited by some Bremen merchants about A subscription loan (18,000,000l.) to carry on the war, 1158. It has belonged successively to Denmark,

against France, filled up in London in 15 hours and

20 minutes (see Loyalty Loans), 5 Dec. 1796. Sweden, Poland, and Russia. It was finally ceded

French loan on 9 July, 1855, on account of the war with to Peter the Great in 1721.

Russia. The French legislature passed a bill for raising LIVRET D'OUVRIER, a species of work

by loan 750 million francs (30,000,000l. sterling). On

the zoth the total subscribed in France amounted to man's passport, introduced into France by Turgot

3.652,591,985 francs (about 146,103,6791.), nearly five about 1781; abolished 23 March, 1869.

times the amount required ; 2,533,838,450 were from LLANDAFF (S. Wales). The first known

Paris; from the departments, 1,118,703,535. The num

ber of subscribers was 316,864. No less than 231,920,155 bishop was St. Dubritius, said to have died in 612.

francs were made up by subscription of 50 francs and The see is valued in the king's books at 1541. 148. Id. under. About 600 millions came from foreign countries. per annum. Present income 4200i.

The English subscription of 150,000,000 francs was

retumed, as double the amount required had been RECENT BISHOPS.

proffered 1782. Richard Watson; died 4 July, 1816.

The French government raised a loan of 20,000,000l. for 1816. Herbert Marsh; trans. to Peterborough, 1819. the Italian war from its own people without difficulty, 1819. Wm. Van Mildert; translated to Durham, 1826. May 1859. 1826. Charles Richard Summer; translated to Win A Turkish loan of 5,000,000l., on the security of England chester, 1827

and France, was taken up by Rothschild in Aug. 1855, 1827. Edward Copleston; died 14

Oct. 1849

and was well received the stock rose to a small 1849. Alfred Ollivant, PRESENT bishop.

premium. LLANDEWEYER (Carmarthenshire); French louan 2,000,000,000 franes for 80,000,000l. : nearly

French loan for 17,600,000l. announced 29 Jan. 1868. Here Llewelyn, prince of Wales, having descended twice the amount subscribed in France alone, 28 June, into the plains, was surprised, defeated, and slain 1871 ; another loan, of (120,000,0col. at 6 per cent.) by the lords marchers, 11 Dec. 1282. This disaster for speedy payment of the indemnity and evacuation led to the subjugation of Wales in 1283.

of the provinces held by the Germans ; announced 26

July ; 1872, above twice the amount subscribed. See LLERENA, see Villa Franca.

France. LLOYD'S (London), at the Royal Exchange. LOAN SOCIETIES. The laws relating to About 1710, a coffee-house, kept by Lloyd, in them were amended by the act 3 & 4 Vict. c. 110; Abchurch-lane, became a place of meeting of mer passed Aug. 1840. chants. After several removals it was established

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, passed in tinally at the Royal Exchange in 1774, and re

1858, was amended in 1861. * Robert Jenkinson, born 7 Jan. 1770, entered the house LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD (a new of commons under Mr. Pitt; opposed the abolition of the slave trade in 1792 ; became lord Hawkesbury in 1796 ;

department of the government, comprising the became foreign minister under Mr. Addington, in 1801; supervision of the public health, and local governsucceeded his father as earl of Liverpool in 1808 ; died 4 ment together with the powers and duties of the Dec. 1828.

Poor Law board), was established in pursuance of

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