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ner in which the elephant prepares himself for || gingerbread, and nothing else. A gentleman was the reception of his formidable antagonist! In all once standing beside him, whose pocket was in other cases, he elevates his club when he medi- the reach of his proboscis, which, without any tates a deadly blow. In the present instance, it sort of ceremony, and without even an apology would give to his enemy an unnecessary advan- for his impertinence, the animal proceeded to tage; it would leave the passage between his fore rifle. He found there something of about the legs unguarded. The sagacious animal seems weight, size, dimensions, shape, and colour of a sensible of this, and, lowering his head, lays his cake of gingerbread, and having so many eviproboscis between his fore legs, to its whole ex-dences before him, was not very scrupulous in his tent, and waits for the arrival of his foe. At the inquiries. Probably remembering the lines of moment of his arrival, the receding blow is given, || Shakespeare," thou com'st in such a questionawhich, while it guards him from the horn, lays ble shape, that I will call thee gingerbread,” he his enemy prostrate in the dust: his proboscis is swallowed it without hesitation; it was only a thus rendered, at one and the same instant of pocket book containing a comfortable variety of time, an engine both of assault and of defence. bank notes, confidential letters, and undrawn tickWhen annoyed by the flies in their passage through ets in a lottery. He was undoubtedly, according a forest, they will pluck with their trunks a bough, to the rigid rules of the English common law, a and whip the insects away, with all the dexterity || pick-pocket; but if an indictment had been preferred, we strongly incline to the opinion, that he might have alleged, in his defence, that he was educated in that strange system of ethics, which taught him to believe that every pocket in the universe was made for his picking.


of a beaux with his pocket handkerchief: they
have even been seen with these fans soliciting the||
presence of the zephyr, with as much maiden ef-
feminacy as if their delicate frames would tan
under the influence of the solar beams. This
docile, amiable, tractable, intelligent, and heroic The instances of docility recorded of this ani-
animal belongs to the hog species. It behooves mal are altogether surprising. The late Tippoo
us, therefore, out of gratitude to him, to treat Saib possessed an elephant which had been badly
his brethren with more respect than we have wounded in several engagements with the Eng-
hitherto done. This hog has even a species of lish. In one of these battles an English surgeon
foppery attached to his character. The elephant was made prisoner of war. As the art of surgery
who has been in the service of a monarch, and was imperfectly known in the dominions of Tip-
shining in all the paraphernalia of regal magnifi- poo, this was thought an invaluable capture. This
cence, passes by, with contempt and disdain, a surgeon was employed, and liberally paid for his
brother of his who is not decorated with the same services. Tippo at length told his captive that
gaudy trappings. We well remember the remark his favourite elephant was badly wounded, and
of a gentleman who had devoted soine of his that he must attend to the recovery of this formi-
leisure hours to Buffon's biography of an ele- dable patient. The English surgeon remonstrated
phant. He was mortified when he came to this against the peril of this practice; but the reply
obnoxious trait in the character of his hero, and of the monarch was short and conclusive-his head
observed, with singular emphasis, that he felt should answer for his neglect of his majesty's
much regret that so noble an animal should not command. His majesty attended the three or
be endowed with an ambition beyond the pride | four first visits of the surgeon to the four-footed
of dress. What a caustic, corrosive, but at the || patient, and while the ball was extracting, spoke
same time, unconscious satire was conveyed into the beast in a tone of command. The elephant
these words, not on an elephant, but on man! obeyed his master; and amidst the groans ex-
The elephant who has been murdered in Massa-cited by the pain of the operation, while the tears
chusetts once acted a felonious part; and if he were streaming from his eyes, offered no symp-
had known the criminality of the act, would un- toms of resistance or of annoyance. After his
doubtedly have merited the death of other mal-wounds had received two or three dressings, and
factors. It was customary for his visitants to place the anguish of his pain had abated, the elephant,
cakes of gingerbread in their pockets, and to with the other patients, would visit the surgeon
approach this animal, to observe with what dex-in his tent, and wait for the assistance of the
terity he would rifle and gormandize the contents medical hand with all the gravity of an intelli-
of these recesses, by the agency of his being. Who that distinguishes such traits,
From this fact the elephant drew this sage con- such evident symptoms of approximation to man,
clusion, that every pocket was made for his ac- does not feel something like a fellow sympathy
commodation, and that they always contained for the murder of this animal! But this assassin-

ation will not be without its use. It will teach mankind that they have indeed lost the glorious image of their Maker: it will teach us that many of our species are indeed degraded to a station below the brutes; that in mercy and compassion, those distinguishing attributes of the Deity, some of us are further removed from his presence than beasts; that this elephant, if he had only been endowed with speech, would have been enabled to have preached to this model of human brutality, lessons of humanity and benevolence.


In the above letter was enclosed a small branch of a tree, of about three eighths of an inch diameter, the bark of which was split the whole length, and, at the distances of about half an punctures were made, which had the appearance of having been bored with a bodkin, obliquely, extending lengthwise of the grain of the wood, and were found to be perforated to the pith or heart of the limb, in which were deposited the eggs, as they have been termed; but on examining them with a glass of about half an inch focus, they appeared to be perfectly organized insects, possessing all the appearance of a full grown locust, except the wings. The legs, and small specks in the head which had the appearance of eyes, were plainly discernable, but they did not appear to possess life, and very few of them any moisture. Whether these ever will possess life is a question we shall leave for naturalists to decide.

• The place was there erroneously called Northumberland C. H.


Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the
Bank Commmissioners at Philadelphia.

Treasury Department, Aug. 15, 1816.


The information communicated to this Department renders it probable, that in the course of a few days, the sum of 8,400,000 dollars in gold and silver coin, and in the public debt, will have been actually received, on account of the subscriptions to the capital of the Bank of the United States, exclusively of the public subscription; and it will then be your duty, to notify a time and


ton Court House, N. C. Aug. 8, 1816, "The locusts which appeared in such swarms in this neighbourhood, and of which mention was made in the 16th number of the National ter,* disappeared about the last of June, without having committed any perceptible injury, except that of having destroyed a few of the small branches of the trees which they occupied.

Extract of a letter to the Editor, dated Northamp-place within the city of Philadelphia, for the election of the directors, who are to be chosen by the stockholders. As an incident, in the performance of this duty, it is presumed, that you will deem it proper to provide a suitable building for comRegis-mencing the business of the Bank, at the place designated for holding the election; and conforwill, no doubt, be disposed to make such other ming to the general nature of your trust, you preparatory arrangements, as will facilitate and accelerate the operations of the institution. It is, indeed, of high importance to the people, as well as to the government, that the Bank of the United States should be in an organized and active state before the 20th of February next, when the paper of the State Banks, which have not returned to lection of duties and taxes; and when such Banks payments, must be rejected in the colwill, unavoidably, cease to be the depositaries of the public revenue.


"This was effected by their penetrating so deep into the limb of the tree, with what some term their dart, as to weaken it in such a degree as to cause it to break and wither. These punctures were made by them in order that they might there deposit their eggs, were they yet remain. I send you herewith one of those branches, which, by opening, you will find contains thousands of the eggs. You will also have an opportunity of seeing in what manner they split the limb, in order to make a place of deposite for their eggs. These eggs must either hatch in the course of the present summer, or they will, in all proba. bility, be entirely closed up by the growth of the sap over them."

the President to recommend that you cause to be In this view of the subject, I am authorized by prepared such books, engravings, and paper, as you shall deem necessary for the commencement of the business of the Bank, as soon as the directors shall be chosen by the stockholders. If, however, an opportunity occurs, it will be proper to consult the directors who have been appointed by the government, although not members of your Board, upon the measures pursued, in consequence of this recommendation.

With the advantages of the proposed anticipation, it is believed, that the Bank of the United States may be in operation before the 1st of Jainch,nuary next; and a hope is still indulged, that the State Banks will either conform to that event, or adopt the period contemplated by the Legisla ture (the 20th of February) for a general resumption of specie payments.

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, very respectfully, your most ob't serv't.


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ton, instead of five dollars, is twenty shillings.bation has been given to the act of the last session It will be recollected, that the trade in this article of the general Assembly of this Province, entitled, heretofore has been in a great measure confined "An Act for the encouragement of the trade of to American vessels, which have taken it on board this Province in Plaster of Paris, otherwise called at an eastern port, near the New Brunswick bor-Gypsum." der, they not being permitted to go for it to the British colonies. We have not at hand a copy of the law of Nova Scotia, but we believe it is similar to that of New Brunswick.

Sec. 1. That from and after the first day of May next, no plaster shall be laden or put on board any vessel, at any place within the limits of the province, to be transported and unladen at any place within the limits of the province excepting at St. John and St. Andrews, nor at any port eastward

Heads of the plaster of paris or gypsum bill, passed by the house of assembly, Fredericton, 9th March,lumbia, impressed with the importance of form

A number of the citizens of the District of Co


useful knowledge, met on the 28th day of June, ing an association for the purpose of promoting 1816, at M'Keowin's Hotel, under the title of the


committee to frame a constitution for their goMetropolitan Association," and appointed a ofvernment; and at a meeting held on the 8th inst. agreeably to public notice, the committee apof a constitution, which was unanimously agreed pointed as aforesaid reported the following draft toy after having changed the name of the association to that of the COLUMBIAN INSTITUTE for the promotion of Arts and Sciences.

At this meeting it was resolved, that a committee be appointed to promote the object of the "Institute," until the period appointed by the constitution for the election of its officers; whereupon, the Rev. Dr. A. Hunter, Dr. Edward Cutbush, Dr. Alexander M'Williams, Nathaniel Cutisting, Esq. and Benjamin Henry Latrobe, were ap pointed. B. H. LATROBE, Secy. pro tem. August 10, 1816.



2d. That bonds shall be given to the trasurer of the province, by the owner or master of the vessel that the plaster so laden shall not be unladen at any of the aforesaid prohibited ports. The treasurer or his deputy shall give the master certificate upon bonds being so given, that he can produce when occasion may require; that any plaster laden, on board of any vessel, to be transported to any port, before such bonds being given, the vessel and cargo are liable to be seized. The plaster bond twenty shillings per ton.

3. That any vessel found without a certificate

also liable to seizure.

4. The bonds can be cancelled in six months af ter given them, upon producing a certificate from the collector of the port where the plaster has been landed.

5. The treasurer or his deputy is entitled to ten shillings for each certificate.

6. That the treasurer or his deputies, are authorised to seize any vessel which shall be liable to seizure; one half of the sales, after deducting costs, to be paid to the officer who shall seize the same, or to the person who shall have given information, and the other moiety to the treasurer of the province.

By Command,


10. Limitation five years.

11. Suspending clause-this act not to go into effect until the prince regent's pleasure is kown. Provincial Secretary's Office, Halifax, 29th July, 1816.

From the National Intelligencer.

His Honor, the Administrator of the government, has received official information from the Right Hon. Earl Bathurst, that the Royal Appro



.7. That any person attempting to defraud by producing false certificates to cancel their bonds, each offender shall forfeit one hundred pounds.

8. That in cases of hardships that may arise in carrying into effect the provisions of this act, relief may be had by applying to the governor or commander in chief, who shall be invested withneral full power to direct the release of seizures, and discontinue prosecutions for penalties, as he may deem equitable.

Art. 3. To collect and examine the various miproductions and natural curiosities of the United States, and give publicity to every discovery which they may have been enabled to make. Art. 4. To obtain information respecting the


9. That this act shall not be in force until simi-mineral waters of the United States, their locality, lar and corresponding measures shall be made analysis, and utility; together with such topoand enacted by the general assembly of Nova Sco- graphical remarks as may aid valetudinarians. tia, nor until such provisions shall be made known by a proclamation from the governor or commander in chief, to be issued by and with the advice and consent of H. M. council for that purpose.

Art. 5. To invite communications on agricultural subjects, on the management of stock, their diseases and remedies.




Art. 1. The association shall be denominated the “ Columbian Institute for the promotion of Arts and Sciences," and shall be composed of resident and honorary members.

Art. 2. The objects of the Institute shall be to collect, cultivate, and distribute the various vegetable productions of this and other countries, whether medicinal, esculant, or for the promotion of arts and manufactures.

Art. 6. To form a topographical and statistical history of the different districts of the United States, noticing particularly the number and extent of streams, how far navigable; agricultural products; the imports and exports; the value of lands; the climate; the state of the thermometer and barometer; the diseases which prevail during the different seasons; the state of the arts and manufactures; and any other information which may be deemed of general utility.

Art. 7. To publish annually, or whenever the where a fund, by a condition of the donation, is Institute shall have become possessed of a suffi-not appropriated to a particular purpose; and the cient stock of important information, such com- said committee shall be empowered to do all acts munications as may be of public utility; and to that will promote the general interests of the Ingive the earliest information, in the public pa-stitute; and they shall establish such rules and pers, of all discoveries that may have been made regulations for the preservation of order, and by, or communicated to, the Institute. transaction of their business, as they may deem SECTION II. proper.

Art. 5. The officers of the Institute and members of the General Committe shall be chosen from the resident members, and be elected by a majority present, on the stated meeting of October in every year.

Art. 1. The President of the United States, for the time being, shall, with his permission, be considered the Patron of the Columbian Institute.

Art. 2. The officers for managing the general concerns of the Institute shall consist of a President, four Vice Presidents, one Secretary, one Treasurer, and four Curators.

Art. 3. There shall be a General Committee of fourteen members elected annually, by ballot, on the stated meeting held on the first Monday of October, to be chosen from the resident members,quorum. and styled the General Committee; and the officers of the Institute shall, ex officio, be members thereof. This committee, as soon as convenient after the election, shall assemble and elect by ballot a chairman and secretary from their body: the remaining twelve members, exclusive of their officers shall be formed into four departments, or sub-committees, each composed of three members, agreeably to the nomination of their chair

man, viz.

Art. 6. Seven members, exclusive of officers, shall form a quorum to transact business, except altering the constitution and electing honorary members; in which cases, thirteen members, exclusive of officers, shall be required to form a

Art. 7. The election of new members shall take place on any stated meeting, and shall be by ballot; a majority of the members present shall elect.

Art. 8. Any gentleman distinguished for his knowledge of any of the objects of this Institute, may be proposed and elected an honorary member, provided he does not reside within the limits of the District of Columbia; but no obligations shall be required of him.

No. 1.-Corresponding Committee.


Art. 9. All resident members shall pay into the hands of the treasurer five dollars, at the stated The duty of this committee shall be, to corres-meeting in October of every year during his mempond with naturalists, or other persons, in the different sections of the United States, to solicit and receive all specimens & communications embraced in the objects of this Institute; also to correspond with the amateurs of botany, natural history, agriculture, &c. of other countries; and, unless otherwise ordered by the Institute, to conduct all correspondence.




Art. 1. It shall be the duty of the president to take the chair precisely at the hour assigned for each meeting, to preserve order, and, in all equal divisions, to give the casting vote; he shall likewise have a general superintendence over the

No. 2. Committee on Mineralogy.


To this committee shall be submitted all ques-concerns of the Institute. tions, communications, and specimens of every kind, embraced in the 3d article of the 1st section Art. 2. During the absence of the president, his of the constitution; and when they shall have ex-duties shall devolve on the eldest vice president amined the same, they shall report the result of their examination to the chairman of the General Committee.



Art. 3. The secretary shall take minutes of the No. 3.-Committee on Botany and Agriculture. proceedings at each meeting, note the members To this committee shall be submitted the exe- present, and carefully transcribe, in a book procution of the 2d article of the 1st section of this vided for that purpose, all the transactions of the constitution, and they shall arrange and deliver Institute, and attest the same by his signature. over to the Curators such specimens as will not He shall likewise give notice of the meetings of admit of cultivation. This committee shall like-the Institute in two or more newspapers of the wise be charged with the superintendence of the District of Columbia. Botanical Garden, and shall report to the General Committee the progress and state of the establish


Art. 4. The General Committee shall have power to direct the application of the funds of the stitute to such purposes as they may deem proper, according to their discretion, in all cases


Art. 4. The treasurer shall collect all moneys due to, and discharge all bills accepted by, the Institute, which the president or chairman of the

No. 4.-Committee on General Subjects.

To this committee shall be submitted all com-general committee shall have signed. He shall munications which may be received, connected ||keep a regular account current of his receipts with the 4th, 5th, and 6th articles of the 1st sec- and expenditures, in a book provided for that tion of this constitution. This committee shall purpose, which shall be open for the inspection report to the General Committee on all communi- of every member at each stated meeting; and a cations which are embraced in any or all of the fair copy of his receipts and expenditures shall aforesaid articles, and shall endorse those which, be submitted, at the stated meetings in October in their opinion, are most worthy of publication; of every year, or oftener, if required, to the inthey shall then be delivered to the Curators for spection of the general committee, or any special preservation. committee, appointed by the general committee for that purpose, which, when verified by the In-general or special committee, shall be deposited with the curators. The treasurer shall give a bond for the faithful discharge of his trust.


Art. 5. The curators shall take charge of all original communications, and file them under their respective heads; also, specimens which are not to be cultivated in the Botanical Garden; also all drawings, books, &c. belonging to the Institute, and shall keep a book with a list of the donations, with the names of the respective donors, and their places of residence. SECTION IV. OF MEETINGS.

Art. 1. There shall be a stated meeting on the first Monday of October and April of every year. Art. 2. Special meetings may be convened by a resolve of the Institute, or by the president, with the concurrence of five members of the general committee, signified to him in writing.

Art. 3. The general committee shall meet on the first Monday of November, and afterwards on their own adjournments. Any member of the Institute may attend the meetings of this committee, but shall not participate in the duties thereof. SECTION V.

Art. 1. All pecuniary donations and bequests shall be received by the president of the Institute, and be delivered over, by him, to the treasurer, to be appropriated under the control of the general committee.

Art. 2. No alterations, additions, or amendments shall be made to this constitution, unless they shall have been proposed to the Institute by at least three members of the general committee, and shall then lie over until the next stated meeting, and meet with the concurrence of two thirds of the members present, for their adoption. Published by order of the Columbian Institute,



Secretary pro tempore.
From the Petersburg Enquirer.
Concerning the acquisition of Knowledge in general,
and that of Medicine in particular.

The views of the people, at present, in respect to the acquisition of knowledge, differ widely, I think, from those of the celebrated Lord Bacon. The following are maxims of his; on which I have ventured to make a short comment:

"Reading much, makes a full man; writing much, makes a correct one; talking much, makes a ready man."

atizing; and afterwards, we must examine our writings, and correct the inaccuracies; but this no person can do, who is unacquainted with grammar, logic, and composition.

It is further to be observed, that while we are aware, on the one hand, few attain to a state of mediocrity in literature or knowledge, without the advantage of school institution; on the other hand "the most splendid and successful exertions, but in the sciences and arts (it has been frequently remarked) have been made by individuals, in whose minds the seeds of genius were allowed to shoot up, wild and free; while from the most care. ful and skilful tuition seldom any thing results above mediocrity." The practice of conferring the degree of Doctor of Medicine upon students is, no doubt, destructive to medical knowledge; for this abuse fills the minds of novices with conceit, and it has the tendency to produce the belief that they have already attained to a superior degree of medical knowledge. How silly it would appear to us to confer the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon youth at school! It is no less absurd, though more common, to confer on youth at school the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Few of these doctors can write a short prescription accurately! It would be sufficient to make them Bachelors of Medicine, and reserve the degree of Doctor for those who merit it; which seldom happens before a physician has been in practice ten years, or before he has attained to thirty-five years of age. Literature may be acquired early in life; but I am not aware the history of philosophy exhibits one instance of a man who attained to a state of mediocrity in professional knowledge till after thirty years of age. It is not by school instruction, but by laborious studies, after leaving the schools, that any advance beyond a state of mediocrity in professional knowledge. It will be recollected, in support of this sentiment, that the physicians who have chiefly improved the healing art, turned to study medicine in an advanced period of life; Boerhave and Bacon first studied divinity; Sydenham was a military officer before he studied medicine; Cullen only studied surgery; the famous Hunter was by trade a wheel-wright, and Hypocrates was at first a Greek Philosopher. If these men had obtained such a cloak for ignorance as the degree of Doctor of Medicine early in life, and before they had been many years in practice, that, no doubt, would have operated powerfully against their subsequent application, and deprived the world of their valuable improvements in respect to knowledge of diseases and their cures. M.


People, therefore, who has read but a little, or have applied but a few years, must want information; people who have written but little, are, generally, incorrect, when they think for themselves; We learn, with pleasure, that Mr. Capelano, and people who have not been accustomed to one of the finest sculptors of Europe, has arrived speak, cannot be ready. Unless a person has de- in this city, with Mr. Lee, from Bordeaux. He voted many years of his life to reading, he must had been employed by Charles, &c. and latterly not lay claim to superior information; and, as to by Joseph Bonaparte in Spain. He was on this correct thinking, and just reasoning, they are ac- account persecuted by the Bourbons, the deputy quisitions not to be made, without a great deal of governors for Castlereagh & Co. in France; and labour in writing essays upon the concerns of life, as Mr. Laine, the polite prefect at Bordeaux, said in general, and upon the subject of one's profes- he could not reconcile it to his feelings to introsion, in particular; whether he is a legislator or duce to the duke of Angouleme (at a public cerepolitician, civil or military officer, a clergyman,monial) the representative of a nation which had a physician, lawyer, or philosopher. And to make dared to declare war against England! no doubt reading useful, we must waste much ink and pa- that base race, who "glory in their shame," were per, in abridging, enlarging, altering, and system-l chagrined to learn that Mr. Capelano had finished

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