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1638

It was first read in Ireland, in the English lan-
guage, in 1550, and in Scotland, where it occa-
sioned a tumult, in 1637, and was withdrawn
The liturgy was revised by Whitehead, formerly
chaplain to Anna Boleyn, and by bishops Parker,
Grindall, Cox, and Pilkington, dean May, and
secretary Smith.

John Knox is said to have used a liturgy for several years. The rev. Robert Lee, of Edinburgh, introduced a form of prayer in public worship, but gave it up when ordered to discontinue it in May, 1859; he soon after resumed it, and the discussion on the subject ceased only at his death, 14 March, 1868 See Common Prayer.

LIVERIES OF THE CITY OF LONDON. The term is derived from the custom of the retainers of the lord mayor and sheriffs wearing clothes of the form and colour displayed by those functionaries. It was usual for the wardens of companies to deliver a purse containing 208. to the lord mayor on 1 Dec. to obtain for individuals, so desiring, sufficient cloth to make a suit, and the privilege of wearing the livery. This added to the splendour of the lord mayor's train when the civic court went forth. Ashe. Liveries were regulated by statute in 1392, and frequently since. The nobility gave liveries to their retainers.

LIVERPOOL (W. Lancashire), is supposed to be noticed in Domesday-book under the name Esmedune, or Smedune.* Soon after the conquest, William granted that part of the country situated between the rivers Mersey and Ribble to Roger of Poitiers, who, according to Camden, built a castle here, about the year 1089. It afterwards was held by the earls of Chester and dukes of Lancaster. Population of the parliamentary borough in 1851, 995; in 1861, 443,938; in 1871, 493,346. Liverpool made a free borough by Henry III. Made an independent port Liverpool "a paved town" (Leland) "The people of her majesty's decayed town of Liverpool" petition Elizabeth to be relieved from a subsidy

Separated from the duchy of Lancaster

Town rated for ship-money in only 261. by Charles I. Besieged and taken by prince Rupert 26 June, Made a separate parish

The old dock, the first in England, constructed and opened

1229 . 1335 1558

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House of industry founded. Theatre licensed, 1771; opened

1699

Blue coat hospital founded

1709

The town vigorously opposes the Young Pretender 1745
Town-hall commenced.
Infirmary established
Seamen's hospital founded.

1749

A most destructive fire

Liverpool equips, at the commencement of the war against France, 120 privateers, carrying 1986 guns, and 8754 seamen King's dock constructed

[The Queen's dock was also constructed about the same time.]

Memorable storm raged
The exchange burnt

The town-hall (since restored) destroyed by fire

The Athenæum opened

Union news-room erected

The Lyceum erected.

Awful fire; loss exceeded 1,000,000l..
Corn exchange opened
Royal Exchange completed.

1571 1628

1634 1644 1698

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1770 . 1772

29

1752 1762

1778 1785

1789 1795

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I Jan. 1799 1800 1802

39

14 Sept. 4 Aug. 1808 1809

Statue of George III. commenced
Fall of St. Nicholas' tower, 28 killed
Royal Institution founded
Wellington-rooms built
Royal Institution opened by Mr. Roscoe .
American seamen's hospital.
Prince's dock opened
St. John's market-place
Royal Institution incorporated
Marine Humane ociety formed
New house of industry erected.
Liver theatre opened

93

1823

1824

1825

Old dock closed

1826

Foundation of new custom-house laid

12 Aug. 1828 Blackrock lighthouse built, and light first shown, 1 March, 1830 Lunatic asylum founded, 1792; new buildings erected Sept. Liverpool and Manchester railway opened* 15 Sept. Zoological gardens opened Great fire; property valued at 300,000l. destroyed,

Clarence dock completed

1 Jan.

*In other ancient records its appellations are Litherpul and Lyrpul, signifying probably, in the ancient dialect, the lower pool; though some have deduced its etymology from a pool frequented by an aquatic fowl, called the "Liver," or from a sea-weed of that name; and others, from its having belonged to a family of the name of Lever, whose antiquity is not sufficiently established to justify their conclusion.

25 Oct. 1809

11 Feb. 1810 1814 1815

2 Nov. 1818

. 1820 19 July, 1821 Feb. 1822

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1834 8 Sept. 1836 Sept. 1837 1837

8 Feb.

Lock hospital and Waterloo dock opened Victoria and Trafalgar docks opened British Association meet here Mechanics' institute opened New fish market opened Apothecaries' company formed Liverpool and Birmingham (Grand Junction) railway opened 4 July, Railway to London (now the North-Western) opened its entire length 17 Sept. 1838 Statistical society founded The Liverpool steamer, of 461-horse power, sails for New York 28 Oct. Awful storm raged 6 Jan. 1839 Foundation of the collegiate institution laid by lord Stanley Foundation of St. George's hall and courts laid. Immense fire; property worth more than half-amillion sterling destroyed. 25 Sept. 1842 Mr. Huskisson's statue erected Oct. 1847 Procession of Orangemen at Liverpool, and fatal riot,

33

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14 July, 1851 9 Oct. Sept. 1854 18 Sept.

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Sept. to Nov. 1857 Oct. 1858 29 April, 1860 17 Oct. 1861

The queen visits Liverpool British Association meet here St. George's hall opened Bread riots (150,000 persons out of employ through the frost) 19 Feb. 1855 Gigantic landing stage for large steamers completed 1857 Free library, &c., founded by Mr. (afterwards sir) W. Brown, M. P. for S. Lancashire, 5 April, 1857: free library, &c. opened 18 Oct. 1860 Many commercial failures Association for Social Science meets Sailors' home (cost 30,000l.) burnt Free Museum opened Brownlow Hill church and workhouse school burnt, and 23 lives lost (20 children) Explosion of 11 tons of gunpowder in the Lottie Sleigh, in the Mersey, great damage 16 Jan. 1864 Death of sir Wm. Brown, a great benefactor to Liverpool 3 March, Additional M.P. (now 3) granted by Reform act, 15 Aug. 1867 Royal bank of Liverpool stopped 21 Oct. 33 Greek steamer (Bubulina) in the Mersey exploded; about 19 lives lost Nov. 39 Reverdy Johnson, the United States' minister warmly received 22 Oct. 1868

8 Sept. 1862

A Greek church consecrated by the Greek archbishop of Syra 16 Jan. 1869 Fire at St. Joseph's Catholic chapel, 15 lives lost,

37

23 Jan. Stanley park, roo acres (cost 42,000l.) opened 7 May, 1870 Stanley hospital; foundation laid by the earl of Derby . 6 June,

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*The first grand work of the kind, about 31 miles long. The first shaft was commenced in Oct. 1826, and the excavation of the tunnel, one mile and a quarter long, Jan. 1827; the tunnel was completed in Sept. 1828, and opened 30 July, 1829. At the opening of the railroad, the duke of Wellington and other illustrious persons were present; and Mr. Huskisson, who alighted during a stoppage of the engines, was knocked down by one of them, which went over his thigh and caused his death, 15 Sept. 1830.

LIVERPOOL ADMINISTRATION.

407

British Association meets here third time 14 Sept. 1870 Equestrian statue of the queen unveiled 3 Nov. Seamen's Orphan Institution founded 11 Sept. 1871 Tunnel across the Mersey to Birkenhead begun, April, 1872 20 May,

"

Sefton park opened by prince Arthur

The dock space in 1810 was 26 acres for ships, to the amount of 704,000 tons; in 1857, 209 acres, tonnage, 4,320,000.

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Earl Bathurst, colonial secretary.
Viscount Melville, first lord of admiralty.
Earl of Buckinghamshire, board of control (succeeded by
G. Canning, 1816; C. Bathurst, 1820; C. Wynne, 1822).
Charles Bathurst (1813), chancellor of duchy of Lancaster
(succeeded by N. Vansittart, lord Bexley, 1823).
Wellesley Pole, afterwards lord Maryborough, 1815,
master of the mint.

F. J. Robinson, 1818; W. Huskisson, 1823, board of trade. Earl of Mulgrave, ordnance (succeeded by duke of Wellington, 1819).

LIVINGSTONE, see under Africa.

LIVONIA, a Russian province on the Baltic sea, first visited by some Bremen merchants about 1158. It has belonged successively to Denmark, Sweden, Poland, and Russia. It was finally ceded to Peter the Great in 1721.

LIVRET D'OUVRIER, a species of workman's passport, introduced into France by Turgot about 1781; abolished 23 March, 1869.

LLANDAFF (S. Wales). The first known bishop was St. Dubritius, said to have died in 612. The see is valued in the king's books at 154/. 148. Id. per annum. Present income 42001.

RECENT BISHOPS.

1782. Richard Watson; died 4 July, 1816.

1816. Herbert Marsh; trans. to Peterborough, 1819. 1819. Wm. Van Mildert; translated to Durham, 1826. 1826. Charles Richard Summer; translated to Winchester, 1827.

1827. Edward Copleston; died 14 Oct. 1849. 1849. Alfred Ollivant, PRESENT bishop.

LLANDEWEYER (Carmarthenshire). Here Llewelyn, prince of Wales, having descended into the plains, was surprised, defeated, and slain by the lords marchers, 11 Dec. 1282. This disaster led to the subjugation of Wales in 1283.

LLERENA, see Villa Franca.

LLOYD'S (London), at the Royal Exchange. About 1710, a coffee-house, kept by Lloyd, in Abchurch-lane, became a place of meeting of merchants. After several removals it was established finally at the Royal Exchange in 1774, and re

*Robert Jenkinson, born 7 Jan. 1770, entered the house of commons under Mr. Pitt; opposed the abolition of the

slave trade in 1792; became lord Hawkesbury in 1796; became foreign minister under Mr. Addington, in 1801; succeeded his father as earl of Liverpool in 1808; died 4 Dec. 1828.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD.

mained there till the fire in 1838, when it was removed till the present building was completed in 1844. Here resort eminent merchants, &c.; and here are effected many insurances on ships and merchandise. Lloyd's is supported by subscribers who pay annually 47. 48. The books kept here contain an account of the arrival and sailing of vessels, and are remarkable for their early intelligence of maritime affairs. In 1803, the subscribers instituted the Patriotic Fund (which see). The Austrian Lloyd's, an association for general, commercial, and industrial purposes, was founded at Trieste, by Baron Bruck, in 1833. It has established regular communication between Trieste and the Levant, by means of a fleet of steamers carrying the mails, and publishes a journal.

LOADSTONE, see Magnetism.

LOANO, Piedmont (N. Italy). Here the Austrians and Sardinians were defeated by the French, under Massena, 23, 24 Nov. 1795.

LOANS for the public service were raised by Wolsey in 1522 and 1525. In 1559 Elizabeth borrowed 200,000l. of the city of Antwerp, to enable her to reform her own coin, and sir Thomas Gresham and the city of London joined in the security. Rapin. The amount of some of the English and other loans, during memorable periods,

viz. :

Seven years' war

American war

French revolutionary war War against Bonaparte 2 loans, 1813.

£52,100,000 75,500,000

. 168,500,000 206,300,000

War against Russia
For deficiency in revenue

1755 to 1763 1776 to 1784 1793 to 1802 1803 to 1814 21,000,000l. and 1855 to 1856 1856 [Both taken by the Rothschilds alone.] By East India Company 1858 8,000,000 A subscription loan (18,000,000l.) to carry on the war, against France, filled up in London in 15 hours and 20 minutes (see Loyalty Loans), 5 Dec. 1796. French loan on 9 July, 1855, on account of the war with Russia. The French legislature passed a bill for raising by loan 750 million franes (30,000,000l. sterling). On the 30th the total subscribed in France amounted to 3.652,591,985 francs (about 146,103,679l.), nearly five times the amount required; 2,533,888,450 were from Paris; from the departments, 1,118,703,535. The number of subscribers was 316,864. No less than 231,920,155 franes were made up by subscription of 50 francs and under. About 600 millions came from foreign countries. The English subscription of 150,000,000 francs was returned, as double the amount required had been proffered.

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22,000,000 16,000,000 10,000,000

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an act passed 14 Aug. 1871. First president, Mr. James Stansfeld, appointed president of the_poor law board, March, 1871; see Gladstone. Mr. Lambert, C.B., first secretary, appointed Sept. 1871.

LOCKE KING'S ACTS; 17 & 18 Vict' c. 113 (1854), and 30 & 31 Vict. c. 69 (1867), relate to mortgages.

LOCHLEVEN CASTLE (Kinross), built on an isle in Loch Leven, it is said by the Picts, was the royal residence of Alexander III. and his queen when taken from it to Stirling. It was besieged by the English in 1301, and in 1334. Patrick Graham, first archbishop of St. Andrew's, imprisoned for attempting to reform the church, died here about 1478. The earl of Northumberland was confined in it, 1569. It was the place of queen Mary's imprisonment in 1567, and of her escape on Sunday, 2 May, 1568. LOCKE'S ACT, 23 & 24 Vict. c. 127 (1860), sir William Hamilton, and Mr. John Stuart Mill. relates to legal proceedings.

LOGIC, "the science of reasoning." Eminent works on it are by Aristotle; Bacon, Novum Organon; Locke on the Understanding; and the modern treatises on Logic, by archbishop Whately,

LOCKS used by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Denon has engraved an Egyptian lock of wood. Du Cange mentions locks and padlocks as early as 1381. Bramah's locks were patented in 1784. Mr. Hobbs, the American, exhibited his own locks in the Crystal palace, in 1851, and showed great skill in picking others.

LOCOMOTIVES, see Railways. The use of steam locomotives on ordinary roads is regulated by acts passed in 1861, and 1865.

LOCRI, a people of Northern Greece. They resisted Philip of Macedon, were aided by the Athenians and Thebans, and defeated by him at Charonea, 7 Aug. 338 B.C.

LOCUSTS, one of the plagues of Egypt, 1491 B.C. (Exod. x.) Owing to the putrefaction of vast swarms in Egypt and. Libya, upwards of 800,000 persons are said to have perished, 128 B.C. Palestine was infested with such swarms that they darkened the air; and after devouring the fruits of the earth, they died, and their intolerable stench caused a pestilential fever, A.D. 406. A similar catastrophe occurred in France in 837. A swarm of locusts settled upon the ground about London, and consumed the vegetables; great numbers fell in the streets; they resembled grasshoppers, but were three times the size, and their colours more variegated, 4 Aug. 1748. They infested Germany in 1749, Poland in 1750, and Warsaw in June, 1816. They are said to have been seen in London in 1857. Russia was infested by them in July, 1860; Algeria, severely, in 1866; and Sardinia in 1868.

LODGERS paying 10l. a year for a whole year for apartments without furniture, acquired the suffrage, by Reform act passed 15 Aug. 1867. Act to protect their goods from distraint, passed 16 Aug. 1871.

Austrians, under Beaulieu, after a bloody engagement at the bridge of Lodi, 10 May, 1796. The republican flag floated in Milan a few days after.

LODGING-HOUSES. An act placing common lodging-houses under the watch of the police was passed in 1851. In that year a model lodginghouse erected by prince Albert appeared at the Great Exhibition. Since then, blocks of lodginghouses for the poor have been erected by Miss Burdett Coutts and others. Mr. Peabody's donation of 12 March, 1862, has been appropriated for a similar purpose; see Peabody. On 19 Nov. 1863, the city of London voted 20,000l. and a piece of land in Victoria-street for the purpose; see London, 1845.

LODI (N. Italy). Napoleon Bonaparte, commanding the French army, totally defeated the

LOGARITHMS, the indexes of the ratio of numbers one to another, were invented by baron Napier of Merchiston, who published his work in 1614. The invention was completed by Mr. Henry Briggs, at Oxford, who published tables, 1616-18. The method of computing by means of marked pieces of ivory was discovered about the same time, and hence called Napier's bones.

LOGIERIAN SYSTEM of musical education, commenced by J. B. Logier, in Jan. 1815, and introduced into the chief towns of the United Kingdom, Prussia, &c. He died 1846.

LOG-LINE, used in navigation, about 1570; first mentioned by Bourne in 1577. It is divided into spaces of 50 feet, and the way which the ship makes is measured by a half-minute sand-glass, which bears nearly the same proportion to an honr that 50 feet bear to a mile the line used in the royal navy is 48 feet.

LOGOGRAPHIC PRINTING, in which the commoner words were cast in one mass, was patented by Henry Johnson and Mr. Walter of the vol. iv. was printed by these types in 1789. Times in 1783. Anderson's History of Commerce,

LOGRONO, see Najara.

LOI DES SUSPECTS, enacted by the French convention, 17 Sept. 1793, during the reign of terror, filled the prisons of Paris. The Public Safety bill, of a similar character, was passed, 18 Feb. 1858, shortly after Orsini's attempt on the life of the emperor.

LOLLARDS (by some derived from the German lollen, to sing in a low tone), the name given to the first reformers of the Roman catholic religion in England, the followers of Wykliffe. The sect is also said to have been founded in 1315 by Walter Lollard, who was burnt for heresy at Cologne in 1322. The Lollards are said to have devoted themselves to acts of mercy. The first Lollard martyr in England was William Sawtree, parish priest of St. Osith, London, 12 Feb. 1401, when the Lollards were proscribed by parliament, and numbers of them were burnt alive. Sir John Cobham, lord Oldcastle, a follower of Wykliffe, was accused of treason and condemned, Sept. 1413. He escaped to Wales, where he was captured, and brought to London and burnt, 25 Dec. 1418.

LOMBARDISTS, disciples of Peter Lombard, the schoolman, bishop of Paris, author of the "Book of Sentences," who died in 1164.

LOMBARD MERCHANTS, in England, were understood to be composed of natives of some one of the four republics of Genoa, Lucca, Florence, or Venice. Anderson. Lombard usurers were sent to England by pope Gregory IX. to lend money to convents, communities, and private persons who were not able to pay down the tenths which were collected throughout the kingdom with great rigour that year, 13 Hen. III. 1299. They had offices in the street named after them to this day. Their usurious transactions caused their expulsion from the kingdom in the reign of Elizabeth."

LOMBARDY (N. Italy) derived its name from the Langobardi, a German tribe from Brandenburg, said (doubtfully) to have been invited into Italy by Justinian to serve against the Goths. Their chief, Alboin, established a kingdom which lasted from 568 to 774. The last king, Desiderius, was dethroned by Charlemagne. (For a list of the Lombard kings; see Italy.) About the end of the 9th century the chief towns of Lombardy fortified themselves, and became republics. The first Lombard league, consisting of Milan, Venice, Pavia, Modena, &c., was formed to restrain the power of the German emperors, in 1167. On 29 May, 1176, they defeated the emperor Frederick Barbarossa at Legnano, and eventually compelled him to sign the peace of Constance in 1183. In 1226 another league was formed against Frederick II., which was also successful. After this, petty tyrants rose in most of the cities, and foreign influence quickly followed. The Guelf and Ghibelline factions greatly distracted Lombardy; and from the 15th century to the present time, it has been contended for by the German and French sovereigns. The house of Austria obtained it in 1748, and held it till 1797, when it was conquered by the French, who incorporated it with the Cisalpine republic, and in 1805 with the kingdom of Italy. On the breaking up of the French empire in 1815, the LOMBARDO-VENETIAN KINGDOM was established by the allied sovereigns and given to Austria, who had lost her Flemish possessions. Lombardy and Venice revolted, and joined the king of Sardinia in March, 1848; but they did not support him well, and were again subjected to Austria after his defeat at Novara, 23 March, 1849. An amnesty for political offences was granted in 1856. Great jealousy of Sardinia was felt by Austria after 1849. In 1857 diplomatic relations were suspended; and in April, 1859, war broke out; the Austrians crossing the Ticino and entering Piedmont. The French emperor declared war against Austria, and immediately sent troops into Italy. The Austrians were defeated at Montebello, 20 May; Palestro, 30, 31 May; Magenta, 4 June; and Solferino, 24 June. By the peace of Villafranca (11 July), the largest part of Lombardy was ceded to Louis Napoleon, who transferred it to the king of Sardinia. It now forms part of the new kingdom of Italy, to which Venetia was also surrendered by the treaty of Vienna, 3 Oct. 1867.

LONATO (Brescia, N. Italy). Here Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Wurmser and the Austrians, 3 Aug. 1796.

LONDON. Some assert that a city existed on the spot 1107 years before the birth of Christ, and 354 years before the foundation of Rome, that it was the capital of the Trinobantes, 54 B.C., and long previously the seat of their kings. In A.D. 61 it was known to the Romans as Lundinium, or Colonia Augusta, and the chief residence of the merchants. It is said, but not truly, to have derived its name from Lud, an old British king, who was buried near where Ludgate formerly stood; but its name is from Llyn-Din, the "town on the lake." It

*The fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth state that London was founded by Brute, a descendant of the Trojan Eneas, and called New Troy, or Troy-novant, until the time of Lud, who surrounded it with walls, and gave it the name of Caer Lud, or Lud's town, &c. Leigh.

The original walls of London, said to have been the work of Theodosius, Roman governor of Britain, 379: but they are supposed to have been built about 306. There were originally four principal gates, but the number increased; and among others were the Prætorian

became the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Essex, and was called Lundenceaster. In 1860, London and the suburbs were estimated to cover 121 square miles, II miles each way, being three times as large as in 1800. The population of the metropolitan districts in 1851, was 2,362,236; in 1861, it was 2,808,862; in 1871, 3,264,530. The population of "the city" in 1851, was 127,869; in 1861, it was 112,063; in 1871, 74,732. Revenue of the corporation in 1862, 437,3411. The "port" of London extends from London Bridge to the North Foreland. See Docks, Mayors, and Treaties.

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She is defeated by Suetonius, 80,000 Britons are
massacred, and she takes poison
Bishopric said to have been founded by Theanus
London rebuilt and walled in by the Romans.
800 vessels said to be employed in the port of Lon-
don for the export of corn

Bishopric revived by St. Mellitus

St. Paul's church founded by Ethelbert
A plague ravages London.

Great fire which nearly consumed the city.
London pillaged by the Danes
Alfred repairs and strengthens London
Easterlings settle in London before.
Tower built by William I.
Another great fire.

978

982 1078 First charter granted to the city by the same king* 1079 Another great fire, St. Paul's burnt. 606 houses thrown down by a tempest Charter granted by Henry I.

1086
1090
1100

St. Bartholomew's priory founded by Rahere, about
London-bridge built, 1014; burnt
Old London-bridge begun

Henry Fitz-Alwhyn, the first mayor (served twenty

four years) Massacre of Jews

Charter granted by Henry II.
First stone bridge finished
Charter of king John; mayor and common council
to be elected annually.

35

179 306

Water brought from Tyburn to West Cheap
Expulsion of the Jews by Edward I. (16,511).
Livery companies incorporated
Charter granted by Edward III.

359

604 610

644 798

839

884

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1136 1176

1189

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11541209

1214 1199-1220 . 1233 about 1242 1253

Foreign merchants invited, settle here
Charter of Henry III.
Aldermen appointed

1259

Watch in London, 38 Henry III. Privileges granted to the Hanse merchants (which see) Tax called murage, to keep the walls and ditches in repair about 1282 1285 . 1290 . 1327 1328

way, Newgate, Dowgate, Cripplegate, Aldgate, Aldersgate, Ludgate, Bridegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate, and the Postern on Tower-hill. Eight gates were removed in 1760-1, and the only one of the city boundaries now remaining is Temple-bar, rebuilt 1670-2, and its removal is expected.

This

* It is still preserved in the city archives. charter is written in beautiful Saxon characters, on a slip of parchment six inches long, and one broad, and is in English as follows:-"William the king greeteth William the bishop, and Godfrey the portreve, and all the burgesses within London friendly. And I acquaint you, that I will that ye be all there law-worthy as ye were in king Edward's days. And I will that every child be his father's heir, after his father's days. And I will not suffer that any man do you any wrong. God preserve you."

Stow incorrectly states this charter to have been given in 1209, but it bears date May 19th in the 16th year of king John's reign, which began in 1199. This charter was acted on at that period in various instances, as many of the mayors were afterwards continued in their offices for several years together; and the same right was exerted in the case of Mr. Alderman Wood, who filled the office of lord mayor during two succeeding years, those of 1816 and 1817. Leigh,

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*This terrible pestilence broke out in India, and spreading itself westward through every country on the globe, reached. England. Its ravages in London were so great, that the common cemeteries were not sufficient for the interment of the dead; and various pieces of ground without the walls were assigned for burial-places. Amongst these was the waste land now forming the precincts of the Charter-house, where upwards of 50,000 bodies were then deposited. This disorder did not subside till 1357. Leigh.

This proclamation or decree was dated from Nonesuch, 7 July, 1580, and it was forbidden to erect new buildings where none had before existed in the memory of man. The extension of the metropolis was deemed calculated to encourage the increase of the plague; create a trouble in governing such multitudes; a dearth of victuals; multiplying of beggars, and inability to relieve them; an increase of artisans more than could live together; impoverishing other cities for lack of inhabitants. The decree stated that lack of air, lack of room to walk and shoot, &c., arose out of too crowded a city. A proclamation to the same effect was also issued by James I.

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Hungerford-market opened
Houses of parliament burnt.
City of London school founded
The queen dines at Guildhall
Royal Exchange burnt

Railway opened from London to Birmingham,

17 Sept.; to Greenwich
Penny-postage begun
Railway to Southampton opened.
Wood pavement tried: fails
London library established
Railway to Bristol opened
Blackwall railway opened
Railway to Brighton opened
Thames Tunnel opened.

Royal Exchange opened by the queen
Erection of baths and wash-houses begins.
Fleet prison taken down.

New building act begins operation
Penny steamboats begun
Model lodging houses built
Railway mania .

1823

1825

11 Feb. 1826

1827 1829

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29 Sept.

New metropolitan police began Covent-garden market rebuilt Memorable political panic, 5 Nov.; and no lord 9 Nov. New London-bridge opened. 1 Aug. 1831 General Fast on account of the cholera in England,

mayor's show.

99

6 Feb. 1832 3 July, 1833 16 Oct. 1834

1835

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1830

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Nov. 1837

10 Jan. 1838

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. 28 Dec. 10 Jan. 1840 11 May,

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30 June, 2 Aug. 21 Sept. 25 March, 1843 28 Oct. 1844

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