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become a dignity above a priest. The appointment in

EMIXEXT ARCHITECTS.

Born. Died. these countries is referred to the eighth century. There Vitruvius ..

.about B.C.

27

..A.D. 1324-110.5 are seventy-five archdeacons in England (1878). The William of Wickham.

Michael Angelo Buonarotti.

1474-1564 archdeacon's court is the lowest in ecclesiastical polity; A. Palladio

1518-1500 an appeal lies from it to the consistorial court, by 24 Inigo Jones.

1572-1652 Bernini..

1598-1680 Henry VIII. (1532).

Christopher Wren

1632-1723

1670-1726 Archery is ascribed to Apollo, who communicated J. Vanbrugh.

James Gibbs.

1674-1754 it to the Cretans.

R. and J. Adam...

1728-1794 Sir William Chambers.

1726-1796 Ishmael “became an archer” (Gen. xxi. 20). . ........B.C. 1892 Augustus W. Pugin

1811-18.52 The Philistine archers overcime Saul (1 Sam. xxxi. 3).. 1056 Sir Charles Barry.

1795-1860 David commanded the use of the bow to be taught (2 James Fergusson.

1808Sam. i. 18). 1055 Sir George Gilbert Scott.

1811-1878 Aster of Amphipolis, having been slighted by Philip, king

George Edmund Street..

1824of Macedon, at the siege of Methone shot an arrow, on which was written "Aimed at Philip's right eye,''

An Architectural Club was formed in 1791. An Architectural which it put out; Philip drew back the arrow with Society existed in London in 1806. The ROYAL INSTITUTE OF these words: “If Philip take the town, Aster shall be British ARCHITECTS was founded in 1834–Earl de Grey, presi. hanged," and kept his word....

353 dent, 1835-61. The Architectural Society, established in 1831, Archery introduced into England.. .. previous to A.D. 440 was united to the Institute in 1842. The ARCHITECTURAL AsHarold and his two brothers were killed by arrows shot SOCIATION began about 1845. The ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM,

from the cross-bows of the Norman soldiers at the bat. Westminster, opened 21 July, 1869. tle of Hastings

1036 Mr. James Fergusson's History of Architecture” (the Richard I. revived archery in England in 1190, and was best), 2d ed. 1874–6. himself killed by an arrow.

1199 The victories of Crecy (1316), Poictiers (1356), and Agin

Archons. When royalty was abolished at Athens, court (1415) were won chiefly by archers.

in memory of king Codrus, killed in battle, 1044 or 1068 Four thousand archers of the king surrounded the houses

B.C., the executive government was vested in elective of parliament ready to shoot; pacified by the king, 21 Richard II. Stow..

1397

magistrates called archons, whose office continued for life. The citizens of London formed into companies of archers Medon, eldest son of Codrus, was the first archon. The

in the reign of Edward III. ; and into a corporate body office was limited to ten years, 752 B.C., and to one year by the style of “The Fraternity of St. George," 29

683 B.C. Henry VIII.

1538 Roger Ascham's “ Toxophilus, the School of Shooting,

Arcola (Lombardy), the site of battles between the published

1571 Scorton Annual Arrow Meetings-a silver arrow shot for;

French under Bonaparte and the Austrians under fieldarticles agreed to...

14 May, 1673 marshal Alvinzi, fought 14-17 Nov. 1796. The AustriRoyal company of archers, instituted by the marquess of ans lost 18,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners, Athol, as the king's body-guard for Scotland..

1676 four flags, and eighteen guns. The French lost about The long-bow was six feet long, and the arrow three feet; the usual range from 300 to 500 yards. Robin Hood is

15,000, and became masters of Italy. In one contest Bosaid to have shot from 600 to 800 yards. The cross-bow naparte, in most imminent danger, was rescued by the was fixed to a stock, and discharged with a trigger.

impetuosity of his troops. The use of the long bow was taught in Kenyon College,

Ohio, as early as 1833. The archery revival in America Arcot (East Indies). This city (founded 1716) was dates from the year 1877, the first club having been or

taken by col. Clive, 31 Aug. 1751; was retaken, 1758, ganized in that year in Oakland, California. (See Artillery Company, Toxophilites, etc.)

but again surrendered to col. Coote, 10 Feb. 1760; be

sieged and taken by Hyder Ali, when the British unArches, Court of, the most ancient consistory court, der col. Baillie suffered severe defeat, 31 Oct. 1780. chiefly a court of appeal from inferior jurisdictions within Arcot has been subject to Great Britain since 1801; see the province of Canterbury; it derives its name from the India. church of St. Mary-le-Bow (Suncta Maria de Arcubus),

Arctic Expeditions, see Northwest Passage and London, where it was formerly held, and whose top is Franklin's Expedition. On the German Arctic society apraised on stone pillars built archwise.-Cowell. Appeals plying to the German government, a committee of 13 from this court lie to the judicial committee of the privy professors was appointed, who in their report recomcouncil, by statute, 1832. The judge, Dr. Stephen Lush- mended that no more expeditions should be sent out; ington (appointed in 1828), resigned 1 July, 1867; suc- but that stations should be established for scientific obceeded by sir Robert J. Phillimore, who resigned 1875.

servations; 1876. Lord Penzance then became judge in the court of arches.

London Central Arctic Commillee, forined to promote another Architecture (from the Greek dpxitéKTW, chief

expedition, 7 July, 1879. artificer). The five great orders are, the Doric, Ionic, Ardagh, an ancient prelacy in Ireland, founded by and Corinthian (Greek); the Tuscan and Composite St. Patrick, who made his nephew, Mell, the first bishop, (Roman). Gothic began to prevail in the ninth cent- 454. This see, held with Kilmore since 1742, was held ury; see the Orders and Gothic.

in commendam with Tuam (which see). It was united

with Kilmore in 1839, and with Elphin in 1841. The Pyramids of Egypt, begun.

... about B.c. 1500 Solomon's Temple, begun...

1004 Ardahan, a town in Turkish Armenia, ceded to Birs Nimroud, in Assyria..

about 200 Russia by the Berlin treaty, 13 July, 1878. The Doric order begins..

, about 650 Doric temple at Ægina. Temple of Jupiter and Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, founded 616 united: the former was called the bishopric of Kerry;

Ardfert and Aghadoe, bishoprics in Ireland long Babylon built.. The Ionic order begins.

about 500-420 Ert presided in the fifth century. William Fuller, apThe Corinthian order begins..

335 pointed in 1663, became bishop of Limerick in 1667, since Choragic monument of Lysicrates..

335

when Ardfert and Aghadoe have been united to that Architecture flourishes at Athens.

480-320 Erechtheum at Athens.

450-420 prelacy. Near the cathedral an anchorite tower, 120 The Parthenon finished..

4:38 feet high, the lostiest and finest in the kingdom, suddenly The Pantheon, etc., built at Rome..

fell, 1770. The Colosseum (or Coliseum). Hadrian builds temples at Rome, etc.

117

Ardoch, see Grampian. Diocletian's palace at Spalatro..

284 Basilicas at Rome..

330-900 Ardres, see Field of Cloth of Gold. St. Sophia, at Constantinople, begun...

532 Rock-cut temples in India ---Caves of Ellora.

500-800

Areiopagus, or AREOPAGUS, a Greek tribunal, said Canterbury cathedral, founded.

602 to have heard causes in the dark, because the judges Mosque of Omar at Jerusalem..

637 should be blind to all but facts, instituted at Athens York minster (present building) begun.

about 1171

about 1507 B.C.; also ascribed to Cecrops, 1556. The St. Peter's, Rome..

1450-1626 St. Paul's, London..

1675-1710 name is derived from the Greek "ApeLOC Fliyoc. the hill,

550

A.D.

13
70

paus..

tus

514

417

146

of Mars, through the tradition that Mars was the first | The ship in which Phryxus had sailed to Colchis baring who was tried for the murder of Halirrhotius, who had been adorned with the figure of a ram, led to the fiction violated his daughter Alcippe. The powers of this court that the journey was to recover the golden fleece. This were enlarged by Solon about 594 B.C., and diminished is the first naval expedition on record. Many kings and by Pericles, 461 B.C. Paul preached on Mars' hill A.D. heroes accompanied Jason, whose ship was called A rgo, 52 (Acts xvii.).

from its builder. Areometer, or Aræometer (from Greek ápaiós, Argonauts of St. Nicholas, military knights; thin), an instrument for measuring the density and spe- an order founded by Charles III. of Naples, 1382. cific gravity of fluids. Baumé described his areometer in 1768. Others have been made by Nicholson and Mohr. been founded either by Inachus, 1856 B.C., or his son,

Argos, the most ancient city of Greece. said to have Arequipa, Peru, founded by Pizarro, 1539; was de- Phoroneus, 1807, received its name from Argus, the fourth stroyed by an earthquake, 13 Aug. 1868.

of the Inachidæ, 1711 B.C. Arethusa, see Naval Buttles, 1778, and Chichester. Reign of Triopas; Polycuon seizes part of the kingdom

and calls it after his wife, Messenia.

.B.C. 1552 Arezzo, near the ancient Arretium, or Aretinum, an Gelanor, last of the Inachidæ, deposed by Danaus, an Etrurian city, which made peace with Rome for 30 Egyptian....

1475 years, 308 B.C., was besieged by the Galli Senones, about Feast of the Flambeaux, instituted in honor of Hyperm.

nestra, who saved her husband, Lynceus, son of Ægyp283 B.C., who defeated the Roman army Metellus sent to

tus, on his nuptial night, while her forty-nine sisters its relief — a disgrace avenged signally by Dolabella. sacrificed theirs, at the command of their father, Da. Arezzo was an ancient bishopric: the cathedral founded

1425 in 1277. It is renowned as the birthplace of Mæcenas, The kingdom divided by the brothers Acrisius and Pre

Lynceus dethrones Danaus.

1425 Petrarch, Vasari, and other eminent men. Michael An

1344 (1313 Clinton.) gelo was born in the vicinity.

Perseus, grandson of Acrisius, leaves Argos and founds
Mycenæ (which see)..

1313 Argandab, a river in Afghanistan; see Afghanis- The Heraclidæ retake the Peloponnesus, and Temenus tan, 1880.

seizes Argos.

1102 Pheidon's prosperous rule...

770_730 Argaum, in the Deccan, India, where sir Arthur War with Sparta: combat of 300 on each side

347 Wellesley, on 29 Nov. 1803, thoroughly defeated and sub- The Argives fine Sicyon and Ægina for helping their ene. jugated the rajah of Berar and the Mahratta chief Scin

my, Cleomenes of Sparta... Sparta becomes superior to Argos.

495-490 diah.

Themistocles an exile at Argos. .

471 Argentaria, Alsace (now Colmar, N.E. France), The Argives destroy Mycenae and regain their superiorwhere the Roman emperor Gratian totally defeated the Peloponnesian war-Argos, long neutral, joins Athens..

ity.

468

420 Alemanni and secured the peace of Gaul, May, 378. The aristocratical party makes peace with Sparta, and

overthrows the democracy.... Argentine (or La Plata) Confederation (S.

A reaction-alliance with Athens resumed.

395 America), 14 provinces (Buenos Ayres, one). This coun- Pyrrhus of Macedon, besieging Argos, slain.

272 try was discovered by the Spaniards in 1515, settled by Argos governed by tyrants supported by Macedon; freed; them in 1553, and formed part of the viceroyalty of Peru

joins the Achæan league

229 till 1778, when it became that of Rio de la Plata. It subjugated by the Romans.

Argos taken from the Venetians..

A.D. 1686 joined the insurrection in 1811, and became independent Taken by the Turks 1716, who held it until.

1826 in 1816. It was at war with Brazil from 1826 to 1828 United to Greece under king Otho; see Greece... 25 Jan. 1833 for the possession of Uruguay, which became indepen- Argyle (W. Scotland), bishopric of, founded about dent as Montevideo; and at war with France from | 1200, Evaldus being the first bishop; the diocese, preri1838 - 40. Population, in 1869, 1,877,490. See Buenos ously united with Dunkeld, ended 1688. Argyle and Ayres.

the Isles is a post-revolution bishopric, 1847; see BishBuenos Ayres seceded in 1853; reunited..

1859 oprics. An iusurrection in San Juan in Nov. 1860; suppressed in

Argyll Rooms, Oxford Street, London, opened for

Jan. 1862 J. Urquiza, elected president, 20 Nov. 1853, was succeeded

musical and other entertainments early in the nineteenth by Dr. S. Derqui..

.8 Feb. 1860 century; re-erected by Nash, 1818; held by the PhilGen. Bartholomew Mitre, elected for six years, assumed harmonic Society, 1813-30. Here appeared Spohr, 1820; the president's office.

12 Oct. 1862 Lopez, president of Paraguay, declared war against Mi.

Weber, 3 April, 1826; and Mendelssohn, 25 May, 1829. tre, and invaded the Argentine territories, May. Mi.

While held by M. Chabert, the fire-king, the building tre declared war against Paraguay, 16 April; and made was burned down, 5, 6 Feb. 1830. The new building was alliance with Brazil and Uruguay

.4 May, 1865 [See Buenos Ayres for the disputes with that state, and

eventually converted into shops. Brazil for the war with Paraguay.)

Arian, or Aryan (in Sanskrit signifying noble, warCol. Dominique F. Sarmiento elected president for six years

... 12 Oct. 1868 like), a term now frequently applied to the hypothetical He suppresses the insurrection of Corrientes, ..Nov. Indo-Germanic family of nations, including the Greek, Urquiza murdered..

..12 April, 1870 Roman, and Teutonic races. Treaty with Brazil......

Jan. 1873 Defeat of Lopez Jourdan, rebel, announced ..Dec.

Arians, followers of Arius of Alexandria, who Dr. N. Avellaneda inaugurated president for six years, preached against the divinity of Christ, about 315, and

i2 Oct. 1874 died in 336. The controversy was taken up by ConInsurrection of Mitre at Buenos Ayres, Sept. --Nov., suppressed; he submits

..2 Dec.

stantine, who presided at the council of Nice, June to National bank stops; suspension of specie payments by Aug. 325, when the Arians were condemned; but their government..

16 May, 1876 doctrine long prevailed. It was farored by Constantius End of rebellion; capture of Jourdan; announced 12 Dec. Disputes with Buenos Ayres; settled.. ..June-July, 1880

II. 341; and carried into Africa by the Vandals in the Gen. Roca (opposed to supremacy of Buenos Ayres) fifth century, and into Asia by the Goths. Servetus

nominated to become president in Oct., opposed by published his treatise against the Trinity, 1531, and was Dr. Tejedor...

..June-July, Gen. Roca becomes president..

burned, 1553. Leggatt, an Arian, was burned at Smith

...Oct. Tranquillity restored: Buenos Ayres to be definitive cap.

field in 1614; see Athanasiun Creed, Socinians, and Uniital of the republic....

..7 Dec. tarians. Arginusæ, isles between Lesbos and Asia Minor; Arica, Peru, destroyed by an earthquake, and inun. near these Conon and the Athenian fleet defeated the dated by waves of the sea, 13 Aug. 1868. Spartan admiral Callicratidas, 406 B.C.

Arikera, near Seringapatam. Here lord Cornwallis Argonautic Expedition, 1263 B.C. (1225, Clin- defeated Tippoo Sahib, 15 May, 1791. ton), said to have been undertaken by Jason to avenge Aristotelian Philosophy: the most comprethe death of his kinsman Phryxus, and to recover the hensive ever devised by man. Aristotle was born at treasures seized by his murderer, Æëtes, king of Colchis. Stageira (hence termed the Stageirite), 304 B.C.; was a

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pupil of Plato from 364 to 347; becaine preceptor of a powerful Roman city, was made capital of the kingAlexander, son of Philip of Macedon, in 342 ; and died | dom of Provence by Boson in A.D. 879; and of the in 322. He divided the circle of knowledge into meta- kingdom of Arles or Transjurane Burgundy by Rodolph physics and logic, physics (including part of the sci- II. in 933. He was succeeded by Conrad I. 937; and by ence of mind), and ethics. His philosophy was too much Rodolph III. 993; who at his death, 1032, transmitted exalted by the schoolmen during the middle ages, and his kingdom to the emperor Conrad II. After various too much depreciated after the Reformation. His works changes, it was annexed to France in 1486. Many counon natural science contain a vast collection of facts and cils (314-1275) were held at Arles; the most celebrated an extraordinary mixture of sound and chimerical opin- in 314, when British bishops were present. ions. To him is attributed the assertion that nature abhors a vacuum, an opinion now maintained by emi- by Philip II., king of Spain, for the subjugation of Eng

Armada, The INVINCIBLE, collected and equipped nent modern philosophers. An Aristotelian Society, for the systematic study of philoso historical account (accompanying Pine's engravings of

land. The following particulars are taken from Morant's phy, was founded in the spring of 1880; Dr. Shadworth H. Hodgson, president.

the tapestries formerly in the house of lords), printed

1739 : Arithmetic is said to have been introduced from Egypt into Greece by Thales, about 600 B.C. The Chi. It consisted of 132 ships (besides caravels), 3165 cannon, nese used the abacus, or swunpan, at an early period.

8766 sailors, 2088 galley-slaves, 21,855 soldiers, 1355 It is asserted that the ancient Hindus adopted a system

volunteers (noblemen, gentlemen, and their attend.

ants), and 150 monks, with Martin Alarco, vicar of the having ten as a basis.

Inquisition - the whole under the command of the

duke of Medina-Sidonia... The oldest treatise upon arithmetic is by Euclid (7th, 8th, and 9th books of his “ Elements"'). .... about B.C.

The English fleet under lord Charles Howard, sir Francis The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was used...A.D.

Drake, and sir John Hawkins, ready for sea, and three armies on land..

Dec. Diophantus of Alexandria was the author of thirteen books of arithmetical questions (of which six are now

The Armada sailed from Lisbon; soon after dispersed by extant)....

...... about 156
a storm...

.19 May, 1588 Notation by nine digits and zero (Arabic figures), known

Re-collected, entered the Channel off Cornwall. .19 July, at least as early is the sixth century in Hindostan;

Suffered in a series of engagements (the sharpest on 25 introduced from thence into Arabia, about 900; into

July)....

21-7 July, Spain, about 980; into France, by Gerbert, 991; into

Dispersed by fire-ships sent into the midst. ..... 28 July, England, probably in the fourteenth or fifteenth cen

Many vessels sunk or taken by the English. ....29 July,

The remainder retreat northward to Spain, suffering tury. The date in Caxton's "Mirrour of the World," Arabic

much loss by severe storms.. . Aug. and Sept. characters, is..

1480 Computed Spanish loss, 35 ships; 13,000 men. Arithmetic of decimals invented.

1482

The queen attended a most solemn thanksgiving at St.
Paul's...

...24 Nov. John Sherwood, bishop of Durham's "Ludus Arithmo. Machinæ,'' printed at Rome..

An annual thanksgiving sermon was endowed by Mr. First work printed in England on arithmetic (" De Arte

Chapman, who died 1616; it was preached at St. Mary.

1522 Supputandi”') was by Tonstall, bishop of Durham...

le-Bow..

...12 Aug. 1877 The theory of decimal fractions perfected by Napier in his “ Rhabdologia”.

1617 Armagh, N. Ireland, of which it was the metropolis Cocker's Arithmetic appeared in

1677 from the fifth to the ninth century, the seat of the first Nystrom's * Tonal System,” with 16 as a basis, published 1863 ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, Sawyer's - Automatic System” published....

1878

its first bishop, about 444, and said to have built the Arithmometer, see Culculating-machines.

first cathedral, 450. Six saints of the Roman calendar Arizona, a territory of the United States, originally

In the king's book, by

have been bishops of this see. part of New Mexico, was organized 24 Feb. 1863; capi- an extent taken 15 James I., it is valued at 400l. stertal, Tucson. It was colonized by the Jesuits in the sey

ling a year; and until lately was estimated at 15,0001. enteenth century.

per annum. The see was reconstituted (see Pallium)

in 1151.- Beatson. Armagh was ravaged by the Danes Ark. Mount Ararat (which see) is venerated from a

on Easter-day, 852, and by O'Neil in 1564. belief of its being the place on which Noah's Ark rested, after the universal deluge, 2349 B.C. ; see Gen. vi., vii.

Armagnacs, a political party in France, followers Some assert Apamea, in Phrygia, to be the spot; and of the duke of Orleans, murdered by the Burgundians, 23 medals bave been struck there with a chest on the wa- Nov. 1407, derived their name from his father-in-law, ters, and the letters NOE, and two doves; this place is the count of Armagnac. About 3500 of this party were 300 miles west of Ararat. The Ark of the Covenant, massacred at Paris In June, 1418, by their opponents, the made by Moses to contain the two tables of the law, followers of the duke of Burgundy. 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxv.), was placed in Solomon's temple, Armed Neutrality, the confederacy against Eng1004 B.C. (1 Kings viii.).

land, formed by Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 1780; Arkadi, a Greek blockade-runner during the Cretan ended, 1781; renewed, and a treaty ratified in order to insurrection, was destroyed by the Turkish vessel Ized-cause their flags to be respected by the belligerent powdin, off Crete, 19 Aug. 1867, after at least 22 successful ers, 16 Dec. 1800. The principle that neutral flags pro

tect neutral bottoms being contrary to the maritime sysvoyages.

tem of England, the British cabinet remonstrated, war Arkansas, originally part of Louisiana, ceded by ensued, and Nelson and Parker destroyed the fleet of Spain to France, 1763; and purchased by the United Denmark before Copenhagen, 2 April, 1801. This event, States in 1803; was made a territory, 1819; and a state and the murder of the emperor Paul of Russia, led to the 1836; seceded from the Union 6 May, 1861 ; national dissolution of the Armed Neutrality. authority re-established, and a loyal government organized 1864; readmitted to representation in Congress,

Armenia, Asia Minor. Here Noah is said to bave 1868. Several battles were fought in this state in 1862 resided when he left the ark, 2347 B.C. Armenia, after and 1863. Pop. 1880, 802,564. Capital, Little Rock. forming part of the Assyrian, Median, and Persian emArklow (in Wicklow), where a battle was fought the defeat of Antiochus the Great, 190 B.C. The Romans

pires, became subject to the Greek kings of Syria, after between the insurgent Irish, amounting to 31,000, and a established the kingdoms of Armenia Major and Minor, small regular force of British, which signally defeated but their influence over them was frequently interrupted them, 10 June, 1798. The town was nearly destroyed by the aggressions of the Parthians. In all their politiby the insurgents in May previous.-Native gold was cal troubles the Armenians have maintained the profesdiscovered in Arklow in Sept. 1795. Phil. Trans. sion of Christianity, and their church is governed by vol. 86.

patriarchs, not subject to Rome. Since 1715 an ArmeArles (Arelatum, from the Celtic Ar-lait, near the nian convent has existed at Venice, where books on all waters), S. France (said to hare been founded 2000 B.C.), subjects are printed in the Armenian language.

95

83

20

199

City of Artaxarta built....

.....B.C. 186

Armor Plates, see Iron and Mary of England. Antiochus Epiphanes invades Armenia..

165 Tigranes the Great reigns in Armenia Major.

Armorial Bearings became hereditary in families Becomes king of Syria, and assumes the title of King of Kings

at the close of the twelfth century. They were employDefeated by Lucullus, 69; he lays his crown at the feet ed by the Crusaders, 1100. The lines to denote colors in of Pompey..

66 arms, by their direction or intersection, were invented His son, Artavasdes, reigns, 64; he assists Pompey by Columbière in 1639. The armorial bearings of the

against Julius Cæsar, 48; and the Parthians against Marc Antony

36 English sovereigns are given under the article England. Antony subdues, and sends him loaded with silver chains Armorial bearings were taxed in 1798, and again in 1808. to Egypt...

34 The tax produced 64,5151. in the year ending 31 March, Artaxias, his son, made king by the Parthians.

33 Deposed by the Romans, who enthrone Tigranes II.

1868; 1872, 64,228l. ; 1876, 83,5271.; 1878, 83,1041.; 1879. Armenia subjected to Parthia

A.D 15 81,8541. The tax is now 21. 28.; if not on carriages, it is Reconquered by Germanicus, grandson of Augustus. 18 11. 18. annually (1880). Sir Bernard Burke's “General After many changes Tiridates is made king by the Romans..

58

Armory," 1878, contains the arms of above 65,000 British The Parthian conquerors of Armenia are expelled by Tra.

families. jan....

115 Severus makes Volagarses king of part of Armenia ....

Armorica, now Brittany, N. France, was conquered Christianity introduced

..between A. D. 100-300 by Julius Cæsar, 56 B.C. Many Gauls are said to have Armenia added to the Persian empire..

232 retired there and preserved the Celtic tongue, A.D. 584 ; Tiridates obtains the throne through Diocletian, 286; is expelled by Narses, 294; restored by Galerius.

298 see Brittany. On his death, Armenia becomes subject to Persia, 342;

Arms. The club was the first offensive weapou; is made neutral by Rome and Persia, 384; who divide it by treaty..

443 then followed the mace, battle-axe, pike, spear, javelin, Armenia conquered and reconquered by the Greek and sword and dagger, bows and arrows. Pliny ascribes the Persian sovereigns....

-577-887 invention of the sling to the Phænicians; see articles on And by the Greek emperors and Mahometans. .693-1065 The Armenian church reconciled to Rome.. about 1330 the various weapons throughout the volume. Leon VI., last king of Armenia, taken prisoner by the Saracens, 1375; released, he dies at Paris.

1393

Arms, see Armorial Bearings and Heraldry. Overrun by the Mongols, 1235; by Timour, 1383; by the

Turks, 1616; by the Persians, 1534; by the Turks... 1583 Arms Bills, for the repression of crime and insurShah Abbas of Persia surrenders Armenia to the Turks, rection in Ireland, were passed 1807, 1810, 1823, 1829,

but transports 22,000 Armenian families into his own and 15 Oct. 1831. The guns registered under the last states..

1604 Armenia overrun by the Russians..

1828

act at the close of the first year scarcely amounted to Surrender of Erzeroum. .

.9 July, 1829 3000, and the number was equally small of all other (See Syria and Russo-Turkish Wars, I. and II.) kinds of arms. The new Arms bill, passed 22 Aug. 1813, By the Berlin Treaty, Kars, Ardahan, and Batoum were ceded to Russia, with other changes. ...

has been since renewed, but was not rigidly enforced till ......July, 1878

1867. Another Arms bill has been passed by the comArmenian Era commenced on 9 July, 552; the mons entitled “ An act to amend the law relating to the ecclesiastical year on 11 Aug. To reduce this last to carrying and possession of arms, and for the preservation our time, add 551 years and 221 days; and in leap-years of public peace in Ireland,” to last till 1 June, 1886; roysubtract one day from 1 March to 10 Aug. The Arme- al assent, 21 March, 1881; see Ireland. nians used the old Julian style and months in their correspondence with Europeans.

Armstrong Gun, see under Cunnon. Armillary Sphere, an astronomical instrument Army Ninus and Semiramis had armies amountcomposed of brass circles disposed in such a manner that ing to nearly two millions of fighting-men, 2017 B.C. the greater and lesser circles of the sphere may be seen The first guards and regular troops as a standing army in their natural position and motion. It is said to have were formed by Saul, 1093 B.C.-Eusebius. The army been invented by Eratosthenes about 255 B.C., and was of Xerxes invading Greece is said to have been 1,700,000 employed by Tycho Brahe and others.

foot and 80,000 horse, 480 B.C. One of the first standing Arminians, or REMONSTRANTS, derive their former armies of which we have any account is that of Philip name from James Arminius (or Harmensen), a Protestant of Macedon. The army which Darius opposed to Alexdivine of Leyden, Holland (uied 19 Oct. 1609); the lat- ander the Great (332 B.C.) is set down as between ter name from his followers having presented a Remon- 750,000 and a million. The first standing army which strance to the states-general in 1610. They separated existed as such, in modern times, was maintained in from the Calvinists, objecting to their views respecting France by Charles VII. in 1445. The chief European predestination, etc. Their doctrines were condemned in nations have had in their service the following armies: 1619 at the synod of Dort (which see); they were exiled Spain, 150,000 men; Great Britain, 310,000; Prussia, till 1625. The Calvinists were sometimes styled Go- 350,000; Turkey, 450,000; Austria, 500,000; Russia, marists, from Gomar, the chief opponent to Arminius. 560,000; and France, 1,000,000. Estimated number in James I. and Charles I. favored the Arminian doctrine.

Europe in 1863, 6,000,000 soldiers, 1,000,000 horses, Armor.

11,000 guns. The European powers are still increasing That of Goliath is described (about 1063 their armies. B.c.) 1 Sam. xvii. ). Skins and padded hides were early used, and brass and iron armor, in plates or scales, fol- Jan. 1875—Germany.

2,800,000

France. lowed. The body armor of the Britons was skins of wild

1,750,000) Russia

3,300,000 beasts, exchanged, after the Roman conquest, for the

Great Britain.

226,931 well-tanned leathern cuirass.-- Tacitus. Hengist is said

Reserves, volunteers, etc..

536, 411 to have had scale armor, A.D. 449.

Army, British, mainly arose in the reign of Charles The Norman armor formed breeches and jacket.

1066 The hauberk had its hood of the same piece.

II. in 1661, in consequence of the extinction of feudal John wore a surtout over a hauberk of rings set edge. tenures. The first five regiments of British infantry ways...

1199 were established between 1633 and 1680. James II. esThe heavy cavalry covered with a coat of mail. Some

tablished several regiments of dragoon guards (1685-8). horsemen had vizors and skull-caps.

about 1216 Armor exceedingly splendid...

.. about 1350 In 1685 the army consisted of 7000 foot and 1700 cavalBlack armor, used not only for battle, but for mourning, ry. Stunding armies were introduced by Charles I. in Henry V

1413 Armor of Henry VII. consisted of a cuirass of steel, in

1638: they were declared illegal in England, 31 Car. II. the form of a pair of stays.

about 1500 1679; but one was then gradually forming, which was Armor ceased to reach below the knees, Charles I.. 1625 maintained by William III., 1689, when the Mutiny Act In the reign of Charles II. officers wore no other armor

was passed. Grose's “llistory of the British Army tban a large gorget, which is commemorated in the di. minutive ornament known at the present day.- Mey

was published in 1801; sce Regiments, Militia, and volrick.

unteers.

1100

300,000

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BRITISH ARMY.

A report of a commission in 1858 causes great sanitary

Men. Sum voted. improvements in the army, barracks, etc., under d rec. 1780, Time of war: troops of the line.. 110,000 £7,847,000 tion of Mr. Sidney Herbert...

.. 1859-60 1800, War...

168,082 17,973,000 A commission recommend thc establishment of a recruit. 1810, War: army, including foreign

ing department, increase of pensions, etc. ......31 Oct. 1866 troops

300,000 26,748,000 Flogging restricted to insubordination (with violence) 1815, Last year of the war.. 39, 150,000 and indecency.

March (?), 1867 1820, Time of peace: war encum.

New Army Enlistment Act (limiting period of enlistment brances. 88,100 18,253,000 to 12 years, etc.) passed..

.20 June, 1830, Peace.

89,300 6,991,000 Increased pay to all soldiers (except to life-guards) from 1840, Peace. 93,471 6,890, 267 1 April, 1867; by warrant, dated.

.29 June, 1850, Peace.

99,118 6,763,488 Act to form a reserve of men in the militia to join the 1852, l'eace (except Kaffir war) 101,937 7,018, 104 army in the event of war, passed..

20 Aug. 1854, War with Russia..

112,977 7,387,000 “War Department Stores" Act passed... 20 Aug Sum voted (in

Sir Henry Storks appointed controller-in-chief. ...1 Jan. 1868 Total In India,*

cluding ord. Flogging abolished in time of peace, by an amendment nance, etc.). in the Mutiny Act...

March, 1835-56, War with Russia... 223, 224

9 Dec. 29,629 £32,006, 603 Edward Cardwell

, secretary for war. 1856–57, War with Persia.. 265, 466 26,363 20,811,242 Royal commission on military education appointed, 23 1857–58, Indian Mutiny 175,858 30,197 14,405,850

June, 1868; report with recommendations issued about

Oct. 1869 1858-59

222,874 92,739 13, 294,814 1859-50, Chinese War.

229,551 91,897 14,915,243 Army Service Corps, to be composed of volunteers com1860-61 228,854 71,528 18,013,896

manded by regular officers, established by royal war1861-62 212,773 60,041

.12 Nov. rant.

16,854, 299 1862-63

228, 973 83,523 16, 264, 790 Royal commission on the purchase system, etc., appoint1863-64 220,918 72,676 14,723,976

ed 5 April; report recognizes the “over regulation 1864-65 219,450 72,684 14,382,672 payments" hitherto ignored.....

.Aug. 1870 1865-66

213,521 71,044 14,569,279 Regulations under the new “ Army Enlistment Act” is. 1866-67 203, 404

sued...

65,827 14,675,540 1867-68, Abyssinian War. 204, 455 65,292 15,418,582 2,000,0001. voted to increase the army by 20,000 men, 1868-69 203, 157

1 Aug. 64, 466 15,000,000 1869-70 191,073 63,907 13,565, 400

Deaths in the army reduced from 17 per 1000 to 9), in 1870–71, Franco-German War. . 178,000 62,963 13, 430, 400

consequence of sanitary improvements, etc. (out of 1871-72

197,911 62,864 15,521,580 175, 460 men, 33,797 under 20, 18,614 under 19). - Lord 1872-73 196,606

Northbrook. 62,957 14,729,700

..June, 1871 1873-74

187,928 62,924 14, 426,990 Army Regulation bill (the abolition of the purchase sys. 1874-75 224,835 62.840 14,591, 434

tem, etc.) passed in the commons, 289-231, early 4 July; 1875-76 225,931 62,850

introduced in the lords, 13 July; able speech of the 1876–77 132,884 62,849 15, 281,600

duke of Cambridge in its favor, 14 July; rejected (155– 1877-78 133, 720 62,632 15,919, 492

.18 July,

130), 2 a.m... 1879_90

135,625

13,019,900

Purchase system abolished by royal warrant (in pursu1880-81

131,859
62,588 12,797,900

ance of acts 5 and 6 Edw. VI. c. 16, and 49 Geo. III. c.
126) on and after 1 Nov. 1871...

. 20 July, Total home and colonial establishments, 632,649; cost, 16,641, Regulation of the Forces Act passed. 3001.

Autumn campaign in Hampshire; about 40,000 men enEstimate, 1881-2, 15,887,3001., 16, 109,5001. (Feb. 1881).

gaged; the duke of Cambridge and others umpires; Expended by army purchase commission:

the prince of Wales and prince Arthur engaged; for

eign oflicers present. 1871-2.

£340,000 Maneuvres according to the Prussian system; field days, 1872-3..

683,500
etc...

.8–12 Sept. 1873-4.

713,974 Invading force of 24,000, under Staveley and Carey; 18745...

579, 115 marching towards Loudon, opposed by sir Hope Grant, Regular troops for home service:

13 Sept. 1863. 1875.

Series of battles near the Hog's Back, Aldershot; Grant

1878. Cavalry. 7.606 declared victor.

....16-19 Sept. 12,945 15,098

Battle of Fox's-hill; Carey defeats Staveley.....21 Sept. Artillery.

8.710 18,853 30,695 Engineers.. 1,039

(Reported results : artillery magnificent; cavalry superb;

4,074 4,273 Infantry. 53,651 63,371 110,578

infantry very good; transport insufficient; greater dis

tribution of responsibility among officers needed. ] 71,003 99,243 160,644 Sham fight; Chatham stormed. .

.. 24 Oct. Volunteers in Great Britain, in 1862, 167,921 ; in 1872, 172, Warrant published, 30 Oct., inaugurating the new sys891; in 1875, 161, 150; in 1878, 193,026, (with staff) 245,648.

tem of promotion of officers (partly by seniority and Militia, 1872, 139,018; 1880, 139,111; școmanry, 1872, 15,455; New organization of the army proposed by Mr. Cardwell:

partly by selection) on...

.1 Nov. 1880, 14,511. Recruits of all classes in 1871, 23,198.

brigade districts, England, 49; Scotland, 8; Ireland, 8; =65

.Feb. 1872 The Mutiny Act passed annually since 1689; alterations

The duke of Cambridge's favorable report was laid bemade in this act and in the Articles of War...........

fore parliament early in...

March, 1855

Army estimates passed in commons (234-63)..12 March, (See below 1879.) Army Service Acts: 12 and 13 Vict. c. 37 (21 June, 1847),

Review of 14,000 men by the queen at Aldershot, 5 July,

Autumn manauvres in Wiltshire: 50,000 men command. and 18 Vict. c. 4.....

...27 Feb Officers in the service of the East India Company to have

cd by sir John Mitchell supposed to land at Weymouth,

and march towards London, opposed by sir R. Walpole; the same rank and precedence as those in the regular

.25 April,

campaign begins; skirmishes near Blandford. .21 Aug army.. The office of Master-General of the Ordnance abolished,

Sir A. Horsford repulses gen. Brownrigg at Winchamp

ton... and the civil administration of the army and ordnance

.27 Aug.

Prince of Wales arrives at Salisbury. ....3 Sept. vested in the hands of lord Panmure, the minister of

Battle of Wishford, 7 Sept. ; battle of the Avon, 10 Sept. ; war.

25 May, Examination of staff officers previous to their appoint.

grand march past near Beacon Hill..

..12 Sept. ment ordered...

The new drill and tactics for the army were published ..9 April, 1857

23 Nov. The army largely recruited for Indian war..... 1857-8 The East India Company's army was transferred to the

Mr. Cardwell's estimates; proposes increasing pay of sol

diers; and establishment of a chief of the staff 24 Feb. 1873 queen... Much dissatisfaction arose in that army in consequence

1859 Review of troops at Windsor, before the Shah..24 June, of no bounty being granted; and threatenings of mu

Autumn manauvres at Dartmoor, Cannock Chase, and at tiny appeared, which subsided after an arrangement

the Curragh, Dublin...

.July, Aug. was made granting discharge to those who desired it..

Royal Commission on compensation to officers for Examination of candidates for the Military Academy,

changes; appointed...

.11 Oct. previously confined to pupils from Sandhurst, was

Report issued (admits cause for compensation; and con.

siders that officers will be satisfied with whatever the ihrown open, 1855; the principle of this measure was affirmed by the house of commons by vote... 26 April, 1858 Change of ministry; Mr. Gathorne Hardy (afterwards

nation chooses to decide for them)...

..June, 1874 By 22 and 23 l'ict. c. 42, provision made for a reserve force, not to exced

Lord Cranbrook), secretary for war...... 21 Feb. 20,000 men, who had been in her majesty's service..

The victorious troops from Ashantee reviewed by the

1859 Flogging virtually abolished in the army: First class

queen..

..30 March,

Summer manæuvres at Aldershot. soldiers to be degraded to second class before being

..June, liable to it.....

New regulations respecting first applications for commis: ......9 Nov. sions, issued....

.Sept.

Royal commission on more rapid promotion; gazetted * Supported by the Indian government.

10 Nov. Ending March 31.

Manæuvres at Aldershot..

...July, 1875

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