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was begun on April 1, 1913, to protect the entrance of D ío. 1, Dry Dock No. 2, the entrance basin, and coal-pocket as, was completed by placing 103,116 cubic yards of materi ty was experienced through a portion of the double-tra giving way and moving outward after dumping from it h ced, but this was overcome by reinforcing the outer toe g material from barges and the cofferdam was complete kage through it is relatively small and can be controlled In excavating for Dry Dock No. 1 and Dry Dock No. 2, ckets and entrance basin, the old Balboa machine sh he work to be confined to the center and south sides unt er, when they were demolished and the last obstacle to i was removed. The total amount taken out from the site ck No. 1 during the year was 358,282 cubic yards, 48,838 ent which were classified as earth and the balance as rock, m tal of 466,975 cubic yards excavated from this area up the year. The division cost for the year was $1.0250 rd, and the average division cost of the total was $0.9946 pe rd. From the site of Dry Dock No. 2, which is located j the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1, there were removed duri 41,548 cubic yards of earth and 52,129 cubic yards of m Ferage division cost of $0.8129 per cubic yard. Steam-sho ns deepened the excavation from -13.5 to the final gra entire area of the approach basin inside of the cofferdam. of 351,333 cubic yards were removed at a division cost per cubic yard. The area required for the storage of the travel of unloading towers measures 800 feet in lep ut 400 feet in width, measured from the outer edge of all. The total amount of excavation during the year cubic yards, 79,837 cubic yards of which were earth and rock. The average division cost was $0.7984 per cubic y erial excavated from the site of the dry docks, entrance bus pocket was removed by means of steam shovels, three ere worked 8 hours a day until February, 1914, when on nat month the shovels were placed on a 12-hour basis shovel added. These shovels worked on split shifts Hay, continuously to the end of the year; one shovel w June. The contract entered into October 12, 1912, for a

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storage pile, and will support the old Pacific division berm cranes which will be reerected to rehandle the coal. The material was mixed by a 1-yard mixer and placed by a locomotive crane. At the close of the fiscal year all but three of the piers over the deep coal pockets were up to the construction joint, where the girders which carry the rail are to be set. The retaining wall between the high and low storage pockets was up to elevation 12 for three-fourths of its length. The rubble retaining wall on the south side of the low storage area was completed, as well as a part of the small rubble retaining wall at the east end of the high area. There were placed during the year 1,330 cubic yards of concrete and 808 cubic yards of rubble masonry at an average division cost of $7.4811 per cubic yard. There were also placed in the foundations for the berm cranes 2,620 cubic yards of concrete at a division cost, exclusive of reinforcements, of $7.4464 per cubic yard.

The total amount of excavation accomplished, including the work for dry docks, entrance basin, coaling plant, shops, quay walls, and piers, aggregated 1,513,048 cubic yards, of which 1,477,843 cubic yards were placed in fills and embankments, the remainder being hand excavation wasted in the excavation of foundations for shops, and orange-peel excavation thrown to one side during the excavation for foundations for wharves and piers. The excavated material was used to bring the shops' yard up to elevation 18 to make the fill behind the quay wall, piers, and the area to be occupied by the Panama Railroad yards, which lie east of the head wall of the permanent piers, for the Naos Island Breakwater, and part was wasted on the Balboa dumps.

teel miter-gate leaves and fixed irons was completed duri year, and the material is stored on the Isthmus await The moving machines for operating the leaves, togethe ors, controls, and covers, are also delivered.

= coaling station.-Upon completion of the excavation ng plant, work was begun on masonry for the crane ru which extend east and west through the center of

Shops.-Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, United States Army, inspector of shops, was in immediate charge of the design and installation of the machinery of the new Balboa shops until March 6, 1914, when he was relieved from duty with the canal. The steelwork was carried on by contract and completed during the year. The total amount of material delivered was 11,657,429 pounds, and the cost of the material and erection in place under contract was $427,203. The work was completed. The buildings have cement tile roofing, the tiles being manufactured on the Isthmus and erected in place under contract; the total amount of standard red tile squares put on was 6,441.18; gutter-tile squares, 201.15; ridge roll, 7,351 linear feet; ribbed glass pieces, 11,188; and the total cost was $102,659.98. The remaining work on the foundations was pushed so as to be prepared for the contractor for the steelwork, and 3,221 cubic yards of concrete were placed during the year. All the shop area had been brought up to grade and surfaced with crushed stone, excepting the space occupied by the incline from the dry-dock excavation and a small area between the roundhouse yard and the foundry. The

foundations of two of the buildings were interfered with by the sand dock and considerable trouble was experienced in placing founda tions, due to obstructions in the mud below low tide, consisting of old barges and other French equipment and old metal which had been dumped into the area and subsequently covered up.

The installation of machine foundations in the various buildings progressed rapidly as soon as it was possible to start work inside the buildings. In this connection 4,944 cubic yards of concrete were used. The shops' tunnel, which runs through the building and yard parallel to the axis of the dry dock, was completed. A proper drainage system was provided over the entire area.

The mechanical division abandoned Gorgona in August, 1913, and, together with the foundry and planing mill, moved direct to Balboa. The other shops were transferred temporarily to Empire, and, commencing March 1, 1914, were gradually moved to Balboa. At the close of the year practically all of the machines were erected in the permanent locations and in operation. The total amount expended on the shops, including the cost of moving and installing the machies, was $2,384,967.33. The shops office building is the last one under construction. At the close of the year the steel framework and cement tile roofing were completed and the construction division of the supply department was putting in the walls and floors, and engaged in the completion of the building. The total amount expended on the office building was $59,494.90.

Breakwaters.-As stated in the last annual report, it was decided to construct a detached breakwater on the east side of Colon Harbor to protect the interior harbor against the waves caused by the trade winds, its general direction extending out from Coco Solo to a point 2,000 feet east of the outer extremity of the west breakwater. The breakwater, as originally approved, was to be 7,200 feet long, its inner end being 3,893 feet from the end of the shore fill. Investigations were made in various localities for the purpose of securing suitable core and armor rock for use in its construction, with a view to doing away with the necessity of the further use of Porto Bello. Upon the examination of comparative estimates of costs bearing on different sources of supply of rock to be used, it was decided to obtain the rock from the Sosa Hill quarry and transport it across the Isthmus. A double-track trestle was extended out from Coco Solo and about 11,093 linear feet were completed at the close of the year. A railroad connection was completed between the root of the breakwater and the railroad extending from Mount Hope to Margarita Point. Auxiliary lines and sidings were built in the vicinity of Coco Solo Point and along the Margarita Point railroad. In all 5.2 miles of new track were laid. A dock 16 by 100 feet, with trestle and track connections, was built for the unloading of materials, and

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ons of two of the buildings were interfered with by the
d considerable trouble was experienced in placing found
e to obstructions in the mud below low tide, consisting of
nd other French equipment and old metal which had bee
into the area and subsequently covered up.
stallation of machine foundations in the various building
d rapidly as soon as it was possible to start work inside
. In this connection 4,944 cubic yards of concrete we
e shops' tunnel, which runs through the building and a
to the axis of the dry dock, was completed. A pro
system was provided over the entire area.
chanical division abandoned Gorgona in August, 1913, an
vith the foundry and planing mill, moved direct to Ball
shops were transferred temporarily to Empire, and, co
March 1, 1914, were gradually moved to Balboa. At the
r practically all of the machines were erected in the pern
ions and in operation. The total amount expended on t
luding the cost of moving and installing the machies,
33. The shops office building is the last one under
At the close of the year the steel framework and ceme
g were completed and the construction division of t
partment was putting in the walls and floors, and engaged
etion of the building. The total amount expended on t
ing was $59,494.90.

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ters.-As stated in the last annual report, it was dec et a detached breakwater on the east side of Colon Har the interior harbor against the waves caused by the tr general direction extending out from Coco Solo to a p east of the outer extremity of the west breakwater. I , as originally approved, was to be 7,200 feet long. being 3,893 feet from the end of the shore fill. Investi made in various localities for the purpose of securing nd armor rock for use in its construction, with a vie y with the necessity of the further use of Porto Be examination of comparative estimates of costs bearing urces of supply of rock to be used, it was decided to c rom the Sosa Hill quarry and transport it across A double-track trestle was extended out from Coco & 11,093 linear feet were completed at the close of the connection was completed between the root of the br the railroad extending from Mount Hope to Marga xiliary lines and sidings were built in the vicinity of Cr and along the Margarita Point railroad. In all 5.2 k were laid. A dock 16 by 100 feet, with trestle and tr , was built for the unloading of materials, and a

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harbor for the landing of launches and tugs towing piles was excavated by the dredge Sandpiper, necessitating the removal of 58,650 cubic yards of sand. A 6-inch water main was laid from the Margarita Point main at the Coco Solo turnout, and a 50,000-gallon storage tank was erected for watering locomotives and for additional fire protection. The Coco Solo yard was filled in to elevation plus 3.3, and the approach tracks for the trestle were raised to elevation plus 14.5. Practically all of the tracks have been ballasted to the main line of the Panama Railroad, for which 64,506 cubic yards of fill were used in addition to 11,512 cubic yards of gravel ballast and 522 cubic yards of crushed-rock ballast.

With the abolition of the Atlantic division on February 1, the west breakwater work in Colon Harbor and the operation of Porto Bello quarry were transferred to the division of terminal construction. Armor rock was procured from Porto Bello on the old crushed-rock quarry level above the two lower levels referred to in the last annual report. On December 1, 1913, the working hours in the quarry were reduced from 12 hours to 8 hours a day, and on April 30 the operation of the quarry ceased. During the year 207,654 cubic yards of armor rock were produced and shipped at a division cost of $4.0182 per cubic yard. Auxiliary excavation by steam shovels amounted to 302,893 cubic yards, which were wasted on the shore dump. In May, 1914, the quarry was closed down in such a manner that it can be reopened if found necessary later in connection with the east breakwater. Of the 207,654 cubic yards of rock shipped from Porto Bello, 162,951 cubic yards were placed by three derrick barges and 44,703 cubic yards were placed by three cranes at a division cost of $0.9673 per cubic yard. Rock removed by dredges to the extent of 18,254 cubic yards was placed in the breakwater. The work was completed in May, 1914, at a division cost of $3,492,781.27. It contains 1,945,733 cubic yards of material, consisting of 669,254 cubic yards of dredged rock, 819,930 cubic yards of Toro Point rock, and 456,549 cubic yards

of Porto Bello rock.

Work on the Naos Island Breakwater was continued throughout the year. With the closing down of dry excavation in Culebra Cut on October 10, a borrow pit was opened in the side of Sosa Hill, as from the action of the breakwater it had been concluded that too much soft material had been used in its construction and that nothing but rock should be put in to secure its completion. The work at Sosa Hill continued from October 10, 1913, until March, 1914, when the output from the dry dock, together with the character of the material warranted the use of the spoil from this locality for breakwater purposes. At the beginning of the year all the trestle had been completed to elevation plus 14 and had been filled in with the exception of 600 feet. At the close of the year the average elevation of the

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breakwater was plus 18.5 and it was finished to its full width. average settlement during the last two weeks of the year was foot with the exception of one stretch about 600 feet in length 1 settled at the rate of about one-half an inch per day. During a tion of the last three months of the year there was a settleme about 2 feet a day at the south end of the breakwater immedi north of Naos Island, whereas the settlement at the end of the at this point amounted to only 34 inches per day. During the year 652,587 cubic yards were placed at an average division co $0.6088 per cubic yard. .

Cristobal coaling plant.-Drilling and blasting channel mat in the vicinity of the Cristobal coaling plant was started by dredging division in July, 1913, and the removal of the materia a pipe-line suction dredge was continued through the year. dredged material was pumped ashore where most needed. B largely clean coral rock and sand, it has been used to bring the in which coal will be stored in the dry, measuring about 300 by 1,200 feet, up to elevation plus 2. Work was pushed on the struction of trestles for use in setting the 6-foot caissons, and the construction of the two concrete walls supported on piles, at 700 feet in length, that carry the tracks for the stocking and recla ing bridges. At the end of the year the trestle construction about 25 per cent completed. The caissons are of steel, 6 feet diameter, and by the end of the year 78 of the cylinders had b set, and 6 of these were driven to rock with a steam hammer advance of any excavation. The total amount of concrete plat

. was 3,123 cubic yards, at an average division cost of $5.4986 per cu yard.

A contract was entered into for furnishing the materials, necessa machinery, and the erection in place of the coal-handling plan The coal-handling plants are designed for the storage of 485,000 to at Cristobal and 215,000 tons at Balboa. Of the former, 100,000 to are to be wet storage, and in the latter case 50,000 tons.

Fuel-oil plant.--A contract was entered into on October 1, 191 for four fuel-oil storage tanks 93 feet in diameter and 35 feet i height, each having a capacity of 40,000 barrels, to be completed at cost of $62,800. Two of them are located at Mount Hope and two o the Balboa dump southeast of Sosa Hill. Plans have been prepare and advertisements issued for the necessary pumping plants in con nection with these tanks, one to be located at Balboa and one a Mount Llope. Provision is made for the installation of three pump in onch plant, two of which will be purchased at the present time They will be able to handle oil from Balboa to Miraflores tank, and from Mount Llope to Gatun tank, at the rate of about 400 barrels Han lour. On the Atlantic side as much of Docks 13 and 14 as is

ter was plus 18.5 and it was finished to its full width. T settlement during the last two weeks of the year was 0 the exception of one stretch about 600 feet in length whi the rate of about one-half an inch per day. During a p he last three months of the year there was a settlement feet a day at the south end of the breakwater immediate Naos Island, whereas the settlement at the end of the ya int amounted to only 3 inches per day. During the fis 587 cubic yards were placed at an average division cost er cubic yard.

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al coaling plant.-Drilling and blasting channel mater cinity of the Cristobal coaling plant was started by t division in July, 1913, and the removal of the material he suction dredge was continued through the material was pumped ashore where most needed. Be ean coral rock and sand, it has been used to bring the coal will be stored in the dry, measuring about 300 f feet, up to elevation plus 2. Work was pushed on the of trestles for use in setting the 6-foot caissons, and ruction of the two concrete walls supported on piles, s in length, that carry the tracks for the stocking and rec res. At the end of the year the trestle construction per cent completed. The caissons are of steel, 6 feet and by the end of the year 78 of the cylinders had be 6 of these were driven to rock with a steam hammer of any excavation. The total amount of concrete pla cubic yards, at an average division cost of $5.4986 per c

year.

act was entered into for furnishing the materials, neces
7, and the erection in place of the coal-handling pl
handling plants are designed for the storage of 485.00
al and 215,000 tons at Balboa. Of the former, 100.000
wet storage, and in the latter case 50,000 tons.
plant.-A contract was entered into on October 1, 19
fuel-oil storage tanks 93 feet in diameter and 35 fer
h having a capacity of 40,000 barrels, to be completed
2,800. Two of them are located at Mount Hope and tw
a dump southeast of Sosa Hill. Plans have been prep

tisements issued for the necessary pumping plants in
ith these tanks, one to be located at Balboa and one
pe. Provision is made for the installation of three p
ant, two of which will be purchased at the present t
be able to handle oil from Balboa to Miraflores tank
nt Hope to Gatun tank, at the rate of about 400 ba
On the Atlantic side as much of Docks 13 and 14

necessary will be used as oil docks, and the tank field will be located between the east diversion and the Mount Hope Road, where there are suitable locations for 40 or 50 tanks. The pumping plant will be located immediately east of the Mount Hope filtration plant. At the Pacific terminal there will be a berth for oil vessels 75 feet wide by about 2,000 feet long immediately adjoining the canal channel and south of the old French pier. There will be three oil cribs, two of which will be constructed at once, consisting of steel and concrete deck supported by 6-foot concrete cylinders. The pumping plant will be located on the lower level of Balboa dump, opposite the oil cribs. The tank field has been laid out on the higher level of Balboa dump. An area has been reserved for the accommodation of 33 lots each 200 feet square. To the end of the fiscal year there has been expended on the fuel-oil plant at the Pacific terminal $50,289.33, including the cost of dredging berth for ships, for which there were removed 60,776 cubic yards, at a division cost of $0.0983 per cubic yard, and on that at the Atlantic terminal $49,694.15.

Quay walls and pier.-Work was continued on the quay walls and pier at the Pacific end of the canal during the year. These consist of reinforced-concrete deck supported by cylinders sunk to rock. When completed the total length of the quay wall or wharf will be 2,662.65 feet, averaging 60 feet wide. Of this amount 648.78 feet were built for the Panama Railroad as a lumber dock, as reported in the previous annual report. The remaining portions of the wharf extend to the north and south of this lumber dock. The north portion is supported upon cylindrical concrete caissons sunk to rock and filled with concrete, reinforced with steel rails. The cylinders themselves are reinforced concrete 7 feet 6 inches in diameter, with 8-foot bottom section 5 feet in length. Of the section north of the lumber dock, 1,238.42 feet, 16 caissons remained to be sunk during the year, most of the substructure having been completed during the previous year. There are 136 caissons in this dock. The superstructure consists of reinforced girders, beams, and floor slab, with vitrified-brick surface. The work was begun in July, 1913, and was completed on February 1, 1914. The paving brick were laid on a sand cushion. There were 75,683 square feet of brick laid on the floor of this dock, and it was completed on April 1, 1914.

To counteract any outward pressure against the cylinders "dead men" were placed in the ground about 85 feet behind the rear edge of the wharf and opposite each transverse girder, each with an effective bearing area of 48 square feet, constructed of reinforced concrete. They were connected to the dock by steel rods 24 inches in diameter, drawn tight by means of turnbuckles, and encased in

concrete.

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