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oceans.

152 • 143

136

the first lecture was delivered by Mr. W. T. Brande, sphere, and the islands of the Atlantic and Pacific on 5 May following. Mr. W. R. Grove, Q.C.

The first acquisition to be made by the (afterwards justice) (the inventor of the Voltaic order were Cuba and the Sandwich Islands. The battery which bears his name), was the first pro- knowledge of the existence of this society reached fessor of experimental philosophy, 1840-6. The England in Aug. 1852. institution possesses an excellent library, lectureroom, and laboratory.

LONG ISLAND or FLATBUSII (N. America),

Battle of, 27 Aug. 1776, between the British troops LONDON GAZETTE, see Newspapers. under sir William Howe, and the revolted AmeriLONDON LIBRARY (circulating), at first fought action, losing 2000 men killed and wounded

cans, who suffered a severe defeat, after a wellin Pall-mall, now in St. James's-square, was founded by lord Eliot and others, 24 June, 1840,

and 1000 prisoners. and opened i May, 1841. The latest catalogue was LONGEVITY. Methuselah died, aged 969, printed in 1865.

2349 B.C. (Gen. v. 27). Golour M.Crain of the Isle LONDON PHILANTHROPIC SO

of Jura, one of the Hebrides, is said to have kept CIETY was founded 1841, to supply bread and reign of Charles I., being the oldest man on any

180 Christmasses in his own house, and died in the coal to the poor.

thing approaching to authentic records for upwards LONDON STEAMER, see Wrecks, &c.

of 3000 years. Grcig. In 1014 died Johannes de LONDON STONE. A stone said to have Temporibus, who lived 361 years (!)”. Stou'. been placed by the Romans in Cannon-street, then Thomas Parr, a labouring man of Shropshire, was the centre of the city, 15 B.C., London stone was brought to London by the earl of Arundel, in 1635, known before the time of William I. It was re and said to be his 153rd year, and in perfect moved from the opposite side of the way in 1742; health; he died 15. Nov. in the same year. Henry and again moved to its present position in the wall Jenkins, of Yorkshire, died in 1670, and was buried of St. Swithin's church, 1798. It was against this in Bolton churchyard, 6 Dec. aged 169 years (?) The stone that Jack Cade struck his sword, exclaiming researches of sir G. Cornewall Lewis, professor “Now is Mortimer lord of this city!” 1450. Owen, Mr. Wm. J. Thoms (in his “Human Longe

LONDON, UNIVERSITY OF. The “ Lon- xity,” May, 1873) and others, have disproved many don university'" was founded by the exertions of of lives extending much beyond a century can be

alleged cases of longevity; and few statements lord Brougham, Thomas Campbell, and others ; the relied on. There were no records of baptism till deed of settlement dated 11 Feb. 1826. The build

the 16th century. ing was commenced 30 April, 1827 (when the first

Died,
Alleged instances.

Aged. stone was laid by the duke of Sussex); and was 1656. James Bowles, Killingworth opened by an inaugural lecture from professor 1691. Lady Eccleston, Ireland Bell, 1 Oct. 1828. On 28 Nov. 1836, two charters 1759. James Sheil, Irish yeoman were granted : by one the “London university 1766. Colonel Thomas Winslow, Ireland was changed to "University college,” and by the 1772. Mrs. Clum, Lichfield

1774. William Beeby, Dungarvon (an ensign who other the University of London was established, served at the battles of the Buyne and Augliwith a chancellor and other officers. New charters

rim) were granted to the latter on 5 Dec. 1837 and 21 1780. Robert Mac Bride, Herries April, 1858. It has power to grant degrees to Mr. William Ellis, Liverpool students of the universities of the united kingdom, 1785. Cardinal de Solis and of many collegiate establishments. Its offices 1797. Charles Macklin, actor, London.

1806. Mr. Creeke, of Thurlow were long in Burlington-house, Piccadilly, London.

Catherine Lopez, of Jamaica The university was enfranchised by the Reform 1813. Mrs. Meighan, Donoughmore act of 1867, and Robert Lowe was elected the first 1814. Mary Innes, Isle of Skve M.P. 17. Nov. 1868. The new buildings in Burling 1816. Jane Lewson, Coldbath-fields, Clerkenwell ton-gardens, erected by Mr. Pennethorne, were in

1840. Mrs. Martha Rorke, of Dromore, county of augurated by the queen 11 May, 1870. University 1853. Mrs. Mary Power (aunt of Rd. Lalur Shiel),

27 Aug. 133 Hall, Gordon-square, was founded in 1847.

Ursuline convent, Cork

20 March, 116 LONDONDERRY or DERRY (N. Ireland), 1858. James Nolan, Knockardrane, Carlow mentioned 546. An abbey here was burned by the Danes in 783. A charter was granted to the Lon Died.

Agent don companies in 1615. The town was surprised, 1652. Dr. W. Meade, Ware, Herts.

1481 and sir George Powlett, the governor, and the

1711. Mrs. Scrimshaw, Rosemary-lane entire garrison were put to the sword by rebels, in

1739. Margaret Patten, Christchurch, Westininster.

1741. John Rovin, Temeswar, Hungary 1606. It was besieged by O'Neill in 1641. A grant

1757. Alexander M‘Culloch, Aberdeen was made of Derry, with 210,000 acres of land, to

1759

Donald Cameron, Rannach, Aberdeenshire various companies in London, in 1619, when it took 1763. Mrs. Taylor, Piccadilly its present name. The siege of Derry by James II.'s 1766. John Mount, Langham, Dumfries

136 army, commenced 20 April, 1689. The garrison

John Hill, Leadhills, near Edinburgh. and inhabitants were driven to the extremity of 1771. Mr. Whalley, Rotherlithe

1775. Widow Jones, Campbell famine; but under the rev. George Walker, they

1780. Mr. Evans, Spitalfields defended it until the siege was raised by gen. 1984. Mary Cameron, Braeinar, Aberdeen Kirke, on 30 July. James's army, under the French

1791. Archbi. Cameron, Keith, Aberdeenshire . general Rosen, retired with the loss of about 9000 1851. Jean Golembeski, Hôtel des Invalides, Paris

126

145 138

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127 116

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EXAMPLES FURNISHED BY DR. J. WEBSTER, F.R.S.

Buried at

127 130 172 132 130 131

130 121 125 132 129 122

LONGITUDE, determined by Hipparchus, at LONE STAR, a secret society formed in 1848, Nice, who fixed the first degree in the Canaries, in Alabama and other southern states of the North 162 B.C. Harrison made a time-keeper, in A.D. American Union, for the “extension of the institu- | 1759, which in two voyages was found to correct tions, power, influence, and commerce of the the longitude within the limits required by the act L'nited States over the whole of the western hemi- of parliament 12 Anne, 1714; and obtained the

men.

in all, 475

war.

192

Geo. I. 1727 .

99

• 216

229 • 339

396

456 448

462

1215

reward; see Harrison's Timepiece. The chrono LORDS, HOUSE OF. The peers of England meters of Arnold, Earnshaw, and Bréguet, are were summoned ad consulendum, to consult, in early highly esteemed. Chronometers are now received reigns, and by writ, 6 & 7 John, 1205; but the on trial at Greenwich Observatory. The act relating earliest writ extant' is 49 Hen. VII. 1265. The to the discovery of the longitude at sea was repealed commons did not form a part of the great council of in 1828. The Bureau des Longitudes at Paris was the nation until some ages after the conquest; see established in 1795.

Parliament. The house of lords includes the spiritual

as well as temporal peers of Great Britain. The LONGOBARDI, see Lombardy.

bishops are supposed to hold certain ancient baronies LONG PARLIAMENT met 3 Nov. 1640; under the king, in right whereof they have seats in was forcibly dissolved by Cromwell 20 April, 1653.

this house. Some of the temporal lords sit by de

scent, and some by creation : others by election, LONGWOOD, in St. Helena (S. Atlantic since the union with Scotland in 1707, and with Ocean), the residence of the emperor Napoleon from Ireland, 1801.-Scotland elects 16 representative 10 Dec. 1815 till his death, 5 May, 1821.

peers, and Ireland, 28 temporal peers for life. The LONGWY (N.E. France), a frontier town,

house of lords in Jan. 1873 consisted of 4 princes of was taken by the allied army of Austrians and

the blood, 2 archbishops, 20 dukes, 21 marquises, Prussians, 23 Aug: 1792, the beginning of the great !27 earls, 32 viscounts, 245 barons, and 24 bishops;

It was again taken 18 Sept. 1815. After a bombardment it surrendered to the Germans, 25 House of lords at death of Charles II. 1685 176 peers Jan. 1871.

Will. III. 1702
Anne, 1714

• 209 LOOKING-GLASSES, see Mirrors.

Geo. II. 1760 LOOM: was used by the Egyptians. The weaver's

Geo. III. 1820 otherwise called the Dutch loom, was brought into use

Geo. IV. 1830 in London from Holland, about 1676. There were, in

Will. IV. 1837 1825, about 250,000 hand-looms in Great Britain, In the 18th Vict. 1855 and 75,000 power-looms, each being equal to three 24th Vict. 1860

32nd Vict. 1868

464 hand-looms, making twenty-two yards each per day. The steam-loom was introduced in 1807; see

The king, barons, and clergy enact the constitutions

of Clarendon in Cotton, Electric-loom, Jacquard, Pneumatic-loom.

1164

Obtain Magna Charta in LOOSHAIS, a predatory nomadic Indian Held the government

1264-5 tribe, about 300 miles east of Calcutta. They fre

House of lords abolished by the commons, 6 Feb. 1649

met again, quently robbed the British tea plantations, killing Unite with the commons in making William and

25 April,

1689 expedition to chastise them was successful, Dec. 1871. Reject the great reform bill, 7 oct. 1831 ; pass it,

4 June, 1832 LORD, see Lady. When printed in the Eng- The parliament house destroyed by fire 16 Oct. 1834 glish Bible in small capitals Lord stands for Jeho Take possession of their new house 15 April, 1847 vah, the self-existing God, the name first revealed Oppose successfully the creation of life peerages, to Moses, 1491 B.C. Exod. vi. 3. When Lord is in

7 Feb. 1856 ordinary type, it represesents Adonai, lord or

Voting by proxy abolished by standing order,

31 March, 1863 master.

New regulations respecting committees 2 April, LORD CHAMBERLAIN, CHANCEL- Six new peers were gazetted

17 April, LOR, &c., see Chamberlain, Chancellor, &c.

Bankrupt peers not to sit or vote, decided to Feb.: settled by act

13 July, 1871 LORD'S DAY ACT, 29 Chas. II. c. 7, see

That peers cannot vote for M.P.'s attimed by court Sabbath.

of common pleas on appeal

15 Nov. 1872 LORD'S SUPPER, instituted by Jesus Christ

LORDS JUSTICES, see Justices. (Matt. xxvi. 17), 33, see Sacrament and Transub LORDS LIEUTENANTS, see Lieutenants. stantiation.

LORDS OF THE PALE, see Pale. LORDS.* The nobility of England date their creation from 1966, when William Fitz-Osborn is LORETTO, near Ancona, Italy. Here is the said to have been made earl of Hereford by Wil- Casa Santa, or Holy House, in which it is pretended liam I. ; and afterwards Walter d'Evreux, earl of the Virgin Mary lived at Nazareth, and said to have Salisbury; Copsi, earl of Northumberland; Henry been carried by angels into Dalmatia from Galilee de Ferrers, earl of Derby; and Gerodus (a Fleming) in 1291, and brought here a few years after. The earl of Chester. Twenty.iwo other peers were made lady of Loretto, gaudily dressed, stands upon an in this sovereign's reign. The first peer created by altar holding the infant Jesus in her arms, surpatent was lord Beauchamp of Holt Castle, by rounded with gold lamps. Loretto was taken by the Richard II. in 1387. In Scotland, Gilchrist was

French in 1797; the holy image, which had been created earl of Angus hg Malcolm III. 1037. In

carried to France, was brought back with pomp, 5 Ireland, sir John de Courcy was created baron of Jan. 1803. Kinsale, &c., in 1181; the first peer after the ob L'ORIENT (W. France). Lord Bridport off taining of that kingdom by Henry II.

this port defeated the French fleet, 23 June, 1795Peers of England are free from all arrests of debts, as

The loss of the French was severe that of the being the king's hereditary counsellors; therefore at peer cannot be outlawed in any civil action, and no attach

*

Peerage for life only, with the title of lord Wensleydale

of Wensleydale, was granted to baron sir James Parke, ment lies against his person ; but exeention may be taken upon his lands and goods. For the same reason, they voting as a peer for life, and on 25 July, 1856, he was

10 Jan. 1856 ; the house of lords opposed his sitting and are free from all attendance at courts leet or sherifts. turns; or, in case of a riot, from attending the possc Wensleydale of Walton.

created a peer in the usual way, with the title of loni

He died in 1868. A bill for He can act as a justice of the peace in any part of the kingdom. See Baron, Earl, &c.

creating life peerages was read a second time in the lords, 27 April, 1869; but afterwards rejected.

comitatus.

British inconsiderable. — The French flag-ship, sippi was given to England, 1763. Capital, Baton
L'ORIENT, blew up during the battle of the Nile, i Rouge.
Aug. 1798. Admiral Brueys and about 900 men Restored to France

1801 perished.

Sold to the Americans, 1803 ; and made a state 1812

Gen. Jackson defeated the British at New Orleans, LORRAINE (Lotharingia), formerly a French

8 Jan. 1815 now a German province, became a kingdom under Seceded from the Union by ordinance · 25 Jan. 1861 Lothaire (son of the emperor Lothaire I.) about Adm. Farragut takes New Orleans for the Federals, 855; and was divided at his death, in 869, part of

28 April, 1862 Louisiana restored to the Union

1865 it being made a duchy. From the first hereditary

The state disturbed by factions and civil war: at duke, Gerard, nominated by the emperor Henry III.

Grant parish many negroes massacred 11 April, 1873 in 1048, descended the house of Lorraine, represented now by the emperor of Austria, whose ances LOURDES, Hautes Pyrénées, S. France, see tor, the empress Maria Theresa, married in 1736 France, 1872. Francis formerly duke of Lorraine, then of Tuscany. Lorraine, given to the dethroned king of Poland, residence in the reign of Dagobert, 628. It was a

LOUVRE, in Paris, is said to have been a royal Stanislaus I., for life, was, at his death in 1766, prison-tower constructed by Philippe Augustus in united to France; see Nancy. Lorraine was the seat of war in Aug. 1870, and the chief part was annexed VI. 'made it his palace (about 1364). The new

1204. It afterwards became a library, and Charles to Germany at the peace, 26 Feb. 1871.

buildings, begun by Francis I. in 1528, were enlarged LOTS. Casting lots, as an appeal to God, was

and adorned by successive kings, particularly Louis

XIV.–Napoleon I. turned it into a museum, and sacred among the Jews, Proverbs xvi. 33. It was employed in the division of the land of Canaan, deposited in it the finest collection of paintings, staabout 1444 B.C., by Joshua (xiv.), and in the elec- tues, and treasures of art known in the world. The tion of Matthias the apostle, A.D. 33, Acts i.—Lots chief of those brought from Italy have since been for life or death have been frequently cast. For an restored to the rightful possessors. The magnificert instance, see Wales, 1649, note.

buildings of the new Louvre, begun by Napoleon I.

and completed by Napoleon III., were inaugurated LOTTERIES are said to have originated in by the latter in great state, 14 Aug. 1857. The Florence about 1530, and to have been legalised in library was destroyed and other buildings much inFrance in 1539, and soon became common.

See jured by the communists, May, 1871. Art Union.

LOVE FEASTS, see Agapæ. The first mentioned in English history took place, day and night, at the western door of St. Paul's

LOW COUNTRIES, the Pays Bas, now Holcathedral It contained 40,000 “lots” at ros.

land and Belgium (which see). each lot, the profits were for repairing the harbours, and the prizes were pieces of plate,

LOWER EMPIRE. Some historians make 11 Jan.-6 May, 1569

it begin with the reign of Valerian, 253; others A lottery, granted by the king, in favour of the with that of Constantine, 323.

colony of Virginia (prizes, pieces of plate), drawn near St. Paul's

29 June, 20 July, 1612

LOWERING BOAT APPARATUS, see First lottery for sums of money took place in 1630 | Life-boats. Lotteries established (for more than 130 years yielded a large annual revenue to the crown). 1693

LOW SUNDAY, the first Sunday after Easter, Lottery for the British Museum

said to derive its name from the inferiority of its Cox's inuseum, containing many rare specimens of solemnities to those of Easter Sunday; see Easter.

art and articles of virtú, disposed of by lottery, by an act of parliament

LOYALTY LOANS were raised during the An act passed for the sale of the buildings of the revolutionary wars. The term was applied to one Adelphi by lottery

16 June, opened in London 5 Dec. 1796; in fifteen hours and Irish state lottery drawn

1780 twenty minutes the sum of eighteen millions sterling Lottery for the Leverian Museum

1784-5

was subscribed ; see National Association. For the Pigott diamond, perinitted, Jan. 2, 1801; it

was afterwards sold at Christie's auction for 9500 LUBBOCK'S ACT, Sir John, see Bank Holiguineas

10 May, 1802 days' Act. For the collection of pictures of alderman Boydeit

, by act

1804-5 LÜBECK, Lotteries abolished by 6 Geo. iv. c. 60, Oct. ; the

a city in N. Germany, one of the

four republics of the German confederation, was last drawn

18 Oct. 1826 Act passed declaring that the then pending Glasgow

built in the 12th century, and was chief founder of lottery should be the last

1834

the Hanseatic league about 1240, which lasted till An act passed imposing a penalty of sol. for adver 1630. Lübeck was declared a free imperial city tising lotteries in the newspapers

1836 | about 1226; but was frequently attacked by the Lotteries suppressed in France

1793 and 1836 | Danes. The French took it by assault, 6 Nov. Mr. Dethiers' twelfth-cake lottery, Argyll-rooms,

1806, and Napoleon incorporated it with his empire Hanover-square, suppressed

27 Dec. 1860

in 1810. On his fall in 1814 it became once more a LOUDON-HILL, or DRUMCLOG; see Drum- free imperial city. It joined the North German clog.

confederation 18 Aug. 1866. Population in 1867, LOUIS-D'OR, a French gold coin of 24 francs,

48,538. first struck by Louis XIII. in 1640; it was not LUCANIANS, a warlike people of S. Italy, legal, 1795-1814 ; superseded by the Napoleon, defeated Alexander of Epirus at Pandosia, 332 3.c.; 1810.

were subdued by the Romans, 227; revolted after

the battle of Canna, 216; were reduced by Scipio, LOUISIANA (N. America), one of the United States; discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, 1541;

201 ; again revolted, 90; admitted as Roman cititraversed by M. de Salle, 1682 ; settled by Louis zens, 88. XIV. (from whom it derived its name), 1873. It LUCCA (central Italy), a Roman colony, 177 formed the basis of Law's Mississippi scheme, 1797. B.C.; a Lombard duchy, A.D. 1327; a free city about It was ceded to Spain when all east of the Missis- | 1370; took an active part in the civil wars of the

1753

1773

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1742

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TREATMENT OF THE INSANE.

1792

1839

13:579

123 723 1350

91 1034

94 1279

Italian republics. It was united with Tuscany, and The king shall have the custody of the lands of given as a principality to Eliza Bonaparte by her natural fools," &c., 17 Edw. II.

1324 brother Napoleon I. Lucca, as a duchy, was given Marriages with lunatics declared void, 15 Geo. II. to Maria Louisa, widow of Louis, king of Etruria, in

Act regarding criminal lunatics passed Aug. 1840 1814: It was exchanged by her son Charles-Louis

The numerous laws respecting lunaties were confor Parma and Placentia in 1847; was annexed to solidated and amended by 16 & 17 Vict. cc. 70, 95, Tuscany, and with it became part of the kingdom of

1853 Italy, in 1860.

A new lunaey act for Scotland passed

1858

An act to amend the law relating to commissions of LUCERNE (Switzerland) became independent lunary passed (said to be in consequence of the in 1332, and joined the confederation. The city Wyndham case; see Triols, 1862).

1862 Lucerne is said to derive its name from a light (lucerna) set up to guide travellers. It dates from Till the end of the last century lunatics were treated the 8th century, and was subject to the abbots with cruel severity ; see Conolly “On the Treat

ment of the Insane," 1856. of Murbach, who surrendered it to the house of

The insane were exhibited at Bethlem as a show, Hapsburg. It was taken hy the French in March,

for id, or ad. till

1770 1798, and was for a short tiine capital of the Hel Enlightened principles of treatment were introvetic republic; which, as the focus of insurrection duced by Wm. Tuke, at the Society of Friends' against the French, was suppressed Oct. 1802. As “ Retreat," at York, and by Pinel, at the Bicêtre, a catholic canton, Lucerne was very active on

Paris, with very great success. behalf of education by the Jesuits, 1844 ; see Swit- Esquirol succeeds Pinel, and strongly recommends

instruction in the management of mental disverland.

orders

1810 LUCIA, ST. (West Indies), first settled by Exposure of enormous cruelties in the Bethlem

hospital the English, 1639; expelled by the natives; settled

1815

This led to gradual improvements, and at last to by French in 1650 ; taken by the British several

the total abolition of mechanical restraints at times in the subsequent wars. Insurrection of

Lincoln, 1837; and at Hanwell Asylum (under the French negroes, April, 1795. St. Lucia was the superintendence of Dr. John Conolly) and at restored to France at the peace of 1802 ; but was

other places

Dr. Forbes seized by England, 1803, and confirmed' to her in Psychological Journal first published by

Winslow

1848 1814. Population in 1861, 26,705.

Journal of Mental Science, by Dr. J. C. Buckuill

1852 LUCIFER MATCHES came into use about

See Hospitals. 1834. Friction matches were invented by Walker Lunatics in charge in

PAUPER. of Stockton-on-Tees, 1829. In March, 1842, Mr.

England and Wales, PRIVATE.

I Jan. 1855 Male. Female. Male. Female. Total Reuben Partridge patented machinery for manu

County Asylums 132

6008 In 1845, Schrötter of Hospitals

7316 facturing the splints.

895

1,803 Vienna produced his amorphous phosphorus (by Licensed houses 1448

5,111 Leating ordinary phosphorus in a gas which it cannot absorb), by the use of which lucifers are

2475 2196 7133 8689 rendered less dangerous, and the manufacture less On 1 Jan. 1858, there were in charge in England and unhealthy. Phosphoros (Greek) and lucifer (Latin),

Wales 22, 310 lunatics of all classes ; 1859, 22,853 ; 1860, both signify light-bearer.

17,837; 1861, 23,721 ; 1862, 26,169 ; 1864, 28,285 ; 1865,

29,425 ; 1866, 30,869 ; 1867, 33,123 ; 1868. 33,213; 1809, Mr. Lowe's proposed tax on lucifers (with "e luce

34,681 ; 1870, 35,913 ; 1871, 36,874 ; 1872, 37,176. lucellum on the box) was much opposed and with

In 1851, there were in Ireland nearly 15,000 lunaties of drawn, April, 1871. for their exertions, a drinking all classes; in Scotland in 1851, 3362 in charge ; in 1855, fountain at Bow was inaugurated as a memorial to

7403 : of which only 3328 were under the protection of Bryant and May, 5 Oct. 1872. The match manufacture the law, was made a monopoly in France in Oct. 1872, for 750,000!

LUND-HILL, near Barnsley, in South York

shire. While the miners were dining in the pit, 19 LUCKNOW, the capital of Oude, since 1675; Feb. 1857, the intlammable gas took fire and see Oude, and India, 1857.

exploded. About 189 miners perished. In April LUDDITES. Large parties of men under this and May bodies were still being extricated. There designation, derived from Ned Lud, an idiot, who had been great laxity of discipline in the pit. once broke some frames in a passion, commenced 70001. were subscribed for the bereaved. depredations at Nottingham, breaking frames and

LUNEBURG, see Brunswick. macbinery, Nov. 1811. Skirmish with the military there, 29 Jan. 1812. Serious riots occurred again

LUNEVILLE (France), PEACE OF, conin 1814; and numerous bodies of unemployed arti- cluded between the French republic and the emperor sans committed great excesses in 1816 et seq. Several of Germany, confirmed the cessions made by the of these Luddites were tried and executed, 1813 and treaty of Campo Formio, stipulated that the Rhine, 1818; see Derby.

as far as the Dutch territories, should form the

boundary of France, and recognised the Batavia, LUGDUNUM, see Leyden and Lyons.

Helvetic, Ligurian, and Cisalpine republies, 9 Feb. LUNATICS. Insanity, in a thousand male 1801. patients, bas been traced to

LUPERCALIA, a yearly festival observed at Drunkenness 110 | Religious enthusiasm

29

Rome on 15 Feb. in 'honour of Pan, destroyer of Consequences

of

Unnatural practices 27 wolves (lupi), instituted by the Romans, according disease. Political events

to Plutarch; but according to Livy, brought by Epilepsy 78 Poisonous effluvia

Evander into Italy. These feasts are said to have Ambition

72 Il-usage Excessive labour. 73 Crimes, remorse, and

been abolished in 196, by pope Gelasius, on account Born idiots 71 despair

of their great disorders. Misfortunes. Malformation of the

LUSATIA, a marquisate in N. Germany, Chagrin

given to John of Bohemia, 1319; obtained by Other and unknown Love

Matthias of Hungary, 1478; ceded to Saxony in

88 Accidents

Pretended insanity

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1635.

21 Oct.

LUSIAD, the great epic poem of the Portu The Prussian soldiers retired

Nov. 1867 guese, written in honour of their discoveries in The fortifications finally dismantled

Aug. 1870 India, by Luis de Camoëns, and published by him

The people protest against absorption into Germany, at Lisbon, 1572. The English translations are by They are accused of violating neutrality, and the sir Richard Fanshawe, 1655; and by Wm. Julius abrogation of the treaty is mooted by Prussia, Mickle, 1775.

early in Dec.

The king of Holland, their sovereign, declared that LUSITANIA, see Portugal.

he would maintain the treaty, 15 Dec. ; and the

government protested against the charge, 19 Dec. LUSTRUM, an expiatory sacrifice made for

New treaty with Prussia ; indemnity to be paid for the Roman people, at the end of every five years, breaches of neutrality; fortresses to be garrisoned after the census had been taken, 472 B.C. Every by Germans

Feb. 1871 fifth year was called a lustrum; and ten, fifteen, or

LUXOR, or EL-UKSUR, Egypt, see Thebes. twenty years, were commonly expressed by two, three or four lustra. The number of Roman LUXURY. Lucullus (died 49 B.c.), at Rome, citizens was-in 293 B.C., 272,308; 179 B.C.,

was distinguished for inordinate luxury; see Sump273,294; 70 B.C., 450,000; 28 B.C., 4, 164,000; A.D. tuary Laws. 48, 5,984,072. The last lustrum took place, 74. LYCEUM (originally a temple of Apollo

LUTHERANISM," the form of Christianity Lyceus, or a portico, or gallery, built by Lyceus, professed by the majority of the people of the north where Aristotle taught philosophy; and as he

son of Apollo) was a spot near the Ilissus, in Attica, of Germany, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden. The doctrines are mainly embodied in Luther's cate generally taught as he walked, his pupils were chisms, in the Augsburg Confession, and the

called peripatetics, walkers-about, and his philosoFormula Concordia of the Lutherans, published in

phy that of the Lyceum, 342 B.C. Stanley; see

Theatres. 1580. Their first university was founded at Marburg, in 1527, by Philip, landgrave of Hesse. The LYCURGUS, see Laws. Luther memorial at Worms was unveiled in presence LYCIA (Asia Minor), subject successively to of the king of Prussia and other sovereigns, 25 Cresus (about 500 B.C.), to the Persians (546 B.c.), June, 1868.

to Alexander the Great (333 B.c.), and to his sucLUTZEN, or LUTZENGEN (N, Germany); the Rhodians (188 B.c.). It became nominally free

cessors the Seleucidæ. The Romans gave Lycia to Here Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, defeated the imperialists under Wallenstein, 16 Nov. 1632, by Claudius. The marbles brought from Lycia by

under the Romans, and was annexed to the empire but was himself killed ; and here the French army, commanded by Napoleon, defeated the combined Museum, 1840-46.

sir Charles Fellows were deposited in the British armies of Russia and Prussia, commanded by general Wittgenstein, 2 May, 1813. The battles of Bautzen

LYDIA, or Mæonia, an ancient kingdom in and Wurschen immediately followed (19-21 May), Asia Minor, under a long dynasty of kings, the last both in favour of Napoleon. The allies were com

being Crasus, “the richest of mankind.” The pelled to pass the Oder, and an armistice was

coinage of gold and silver inoney, and other useful agreed to, afterwards prolonged; but, unfortunately inventions, are ascribed to the Lydians. Æsop, the

for the French emperor, this did not produce Phrygian fabulist, Aleman, the first Greek poet, peace.

Thales of Miletus, Anaximenes, Xenophanes, Ana

creon of Teos, Heraclitus of Ephesus, &c., flourished LUXEMBURG, a grand duchy held by the in Lydia. king of Holland. Luxemburg, the capital, once

Argon, a descendant of Hercules, reigns in Lydia, considered the strongest fortified city in the world, Herol.

B.C. 1223 has been many times besieged and taken: by the The kingdom, properly so called, begins under French in 984, 1443, 1479, 1542-3; by the Spaniards Arlysus I. Blair.

797 in 1544; by the French in 1684; restored to Spain Alyattes I. reigus

761 in 1697; taken by the French in 1701; given to

Meles commences his rule

747

Reign of Candaules the Dutch as a barrier town, but ceded to the

735 emperor at the peace in 1713. It withstood several Gyges, tirst of the race Mermnade, kills Candaules,

marries his queen, usurps the throne, and makes sieges in the last century. It surrendered to the great conquests. French after a siege, from Nov. 1794 to July, 1795; Arlysus II. reigns, 678; the Cimbri besiege Sardis, and was retaken by the allies in May, 1814. Popu the capital of Lydia

635 lation of the grand duchy, 1867, 199,958.

The Milesian war, commenced uniler Gyges, is continued by Sadyattes, who reigns

628 The grand duchy was annexed to the Netherlands, Reign of Alyattes II.

617 still remaining a member of the Germanic con Batile upon the river Halys, between the Lvdians

federation, the capital having a Prussian garrison 1815 and Medes, interrupted by an almost total eclipse, A portion given to the new kingdom of Belgium

of the sun. This eclipse had been predicted many After the dissolution of the Germanic confedera

years before by Thales of Miletus. Blair. tion, the emperor Napoleon objected to the Prus

28 May, B.C. 585 sian garrison, and offered to buy the grand duchy Cresus, son of Alyattes, succeeds to the throne, from the king of Holland March, 1867 and conquers Asia Minor

560-50 In consequence of the opposition of Prussia, a con Crosus, dreauling Cyrus, whose conquests' hadi

ference of representatives of the great powers inet reached to the borders of Lydia, crosses the in London, 7-11 May, who agreed upon a treaty

Halys to attack the Medes, with 420,000 inen and guaranteeing the neutrality of the province, the

60,000 horse retirement of the Prussian garrison, and the dis He is lefeated, pursued, and besieged in his capitai mantling the fortress of Luxemburg

7-11 May,

by Cyrus, who orders him to be burned alive;

the pile is already on fire, when Croesus calls * Martin Luther was born at Eisleben, 10 Nov. 1483 : aloud Solon! and Cyrus hearing him, spares his studied at Erfurt, 1501; was professor of philosophy at life. Lydia made a province of the Persian Wittenberg, 1508; resisted the sale of indulgences, 1517;

empire defended himself at Augsburg, 1518 ; at Worins, 1520 ; Sarlis burnt by the lonians was excommunicated, 16 June, 1520 ; began his German Lydia conquered by Alexander bible, 1521 ; married Katherine de Bora, 1525 : published Becomes part of the kingdom of Pergumus

283 his German bible complete, 1534 ; died 18 Feb. 1546. Conquered by the Turks

A.D. 1326

718

1830

548

546 499 332

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