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referred with great acuteness to the slight inclination of the sun's powerful and original mind left notable traces of its working. axis of rotation to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the He studied the properties of the cycloid, and attempted the earth finds herself in the plane of the sun's equator, which occurs problem of its quadrature; and in the infinitesimals,” which he at two opposite points of her orbit, the spots, travelling in circles was one of the first to introduce into geometrical demonstrations, parallel with that plane, necessarily appear to describe right lines; was contained the fruitful germ of the differential calculus. but when the earth is above or below the equatorial level, the But the method which was peculiarly his, and which still forms paths of the spots open out into curves turned downwards or the open road to discoveries in natural science, consisted in the upwards, according to the direction in which they are seen. But. combination of experiment with calculation-in the transformathe explanation of this phenomenon is equally consistent with the tion of the concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous comgeocentric as with the heliocentric theory of the solar system. parison of results. The first-fruits of the new system of investigaThe idea of a universal force of gravitation seems to have hovered tion was his determination of the laws of falling bodies. Conceiv. on the borders of this great man's mind, without ever fully ing that the simplest principle is the most likely to be true, he entering it. He perceived the analogy between the power which assumed as a postulate that bodies falling freely towards the earth holds the moon in the neighbourhood of the earth, and compels descend with a uniformly accelerated motion, and deduced thence Jupiter's satellites to circulate round their primary, and the that the velocities acquired are in the direct, and the spaces attraction exercised by the earth on bodies at its surface;but traversed in the duplicate ratio of the times, counted from the he failed to conceive the combination of central force with beginning of motion; finally, he proved, by observing the times tangential velocity, and was disposed to connect the revolutions of descent of bodies falling down inclined planes, that the postuof the planets with the axial rotation of the sun. This notion, it lated law was the true law. Even here, he was obliged to take for is plain, tended rather towards Descartes's theory of vortices granted that the velocities acquired in descending from the same than towards Newton's theory of gravitation. More valid height along planes of every inclination are equal; and it was not instances of the anticipation of modern discoveries may be found until shortly before his death that he found the mathematical in his prevision that a small annual parallax would eventually be demonstration of this not very obvious principle. found for some of the fixed stars, and that extra-Saturnian planets The first law of motion-ihat which expresses the principle would at some future time be ascertained to exist, and in his of inertia-is virtually contained in the idea of uniformly conviction that light travels with a measurable, although, in accelerated velocity. The recognition of the second-that of the relation.to terrestrial distances, infinite velocity.

independence of different motions-must be added to form the The invention of the microscope, attributed to Galileo by his true theory of projectiles. This was due to Galileo. Up to his first biographer, Vincenzio Viviani, does not in truth belong to time it was universally held in the schools that the motion of a him. Such an instrument was made as early as 1590 by Zacharias body should cease with the impulse communicated to it, but Jansen of Middleburg; and although Galileo discovered, in 1610, for the "reaction of the medium” helping it forward. Galileo a means of adapting his telescope to the examination of minute showed, on the contrary, that the nature of motion once impressed objects, he did not become acquainted with the compound is to continue indefinitely in a uniform direction, and that the microscope until 1624 when he saw one of Drebbel's instru- effect of the medium is a retarding, not an impellingone. Another ments in Rome, and, with characteristic ingenuity, immedi- commonly received axiom was that no body could be affected by ately introduced some material improvements into its more than one movement at one time, and it was thus supposed construction.

that a cannon ball, or other projectile, moves forward in a right The most substantial, if not the most brilliant part of his work line until its first impulse is exhausted, when it falls vertically to consisted undoubtedly in his contributions towards the establish the ground. In the fourth of Galileo's dialogues on mechanics, ment of mechanics as a science. Some valuable but isolated facts he demonstrated that the path described by a projectile, being the and theorems had been previously discovered and proved, but result of the combination of a uniform transverse motion with a it was he who first clearly grasped the idea of force as a mechanical uniformly accelerated vertical motion, must, apart from the agent, and extended to the external world the conception of the resistance of the air, be a parabola. The establishment of the invariability of the relation between cause and effect. From the principle of the composition of motions formed a conclusive time of Archimedes there had existed a science of equilibrium, but answer to the most formidable of the arguments used against the the science of motion began with Galileo. It is not too much to rotation of the earth, and we find it accordingly triumphantly say that the final triumph of the Copernican system was due in brought forward by Galileo in the second of his dialogues on the larger measure to his labours in this department than to his systems of the world. It was urged by anti-Copernicans that a direct arguments in its favour. The problem of the heavens is body flung upward or cast downward would, if the earth were in essentially a mechanical one; and without the mechanical motion, be left behind by the rapid translation of the point from conceptions of the dependence of motion upon force which which it started; Galileo proved on the contrary that the Galileo familiarized to men's minds, that problem might have reception of a fresh impulse in no way interfered with the moveremained a sealed book even to the intelligence of Newton. The ment already impressed, and that the rotation of the earth was interdependence of motion and force was not indeed formulated insensible, because shared equally by all bodies at its surface. into definite laws by Galileo, but his writings on dynamics are His theory of the inclined plane, combined with his satisfactory everywhere suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of definition of “. momentum," led him towards the third law of dynamical problems involve their recognition. The extra- motion. We find Newton's theorem, that " action and reaction ordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge are equal and opposite," stated with approximate precision in his were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical treatise Della scienza meccanica, which contains'the substance of analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician he was, lectures delivered during his professorship at Padua; and the it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his same principle is involved in the axiom enunciated in the third pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of his mechanical dialogues, that "the propensity of a body to of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with fall is equal to the least resistance which suffices to support it.” Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or The problems of percussion, however, received no definitive Leibnitz. Still, even in the region of pure mathematics, his solution until after his death. 1 The passage is sufficiently remarkable to deserve quotation in the

His services were as conspicuous in the statical as in the original:-" Le parti della Terra hanno tal propensione al centro di kinetical division of mechanics. He gave the first satisfactory essa, che quando ella cangiasse luogo, le dette parti, benchè lontane demonstration of cquilibrium on an inclined plane, reducing it to dal globo nel tempo delle mutazioni di esso, lo seguirebbero per tutto; the level by a sound and ingenious train of reasoning; while, by continuamente da Giove. L'istesso si deve dire della Luna, obbligata establishing the theory of " virtual velocities," he laid down the a seguir la Terra."-Dialogo dei massimi sistemi, Giornata terza, fundamental principle which, in the opinion of Lagrange, conP. 351 of Albèri's edition.

tains the general expression of the laws of equilibrium. He studied with attention the still obscure subject of molecular Galilée, son procès, sa condemnation, published in 1867 in the Revue cohesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on the des questions historiques. He was followed by M. Karl von Gebler, question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, first Galileo Galilei und die römische Curie (Stuttgart, 1876), sought to

who, in an able and exhaustive but somewhat prejudiced work, brought by him within the scope of mechanical theory. In his impeach the authenticity of a document of prime importance in Discorso intorno alle cose che stanno l'acqua, published in 1612, the trial of 1633. He was victoriously answered by Signor Domenico he used the principle of virtual velocities to demonstrate the more

Berti, in Il Processo originale di Galileo Galilei (Rome, 1876), and by important theorems of hydrostatics, deducing from it the 1877). The touching letters of Galileo's eldest daughter, Sister Maria

M. de l'Epinois, with Les pièces du procès de Galilée (Rome, Paris, equilibrium of Auid in a siphon, and proved against the Aristo- Celeste, to her father were printed in 1864 by Professor Carlo Arduini, telians that the floating of solid bodies in a liquid depends not in a publication entitled La Primogenita di Galileo Galilei. upon their form, but upon their specific gravities relative to such

The issue of a “national edition" of the Works of Galileo, in liquid.

20 large volumes, was begun at Florence in 1890. It includes a In order to form an adequate estimate of the stride made by collected by the indefatigable director, Professor Antonio Favaro,

mass of previously inedited correspondence and other documents, Galileo in natural philosophy, it would be necessary to enumerate among whose numerous publications on Galilean subjects may be the confused and erroneous opinions prevailing on all such

mentioned: Galileo e lo studio di Padova (2 vols., 1883); Scampoli subjects in his time. His best eulogium, it has been truly said, Galileo Galilei e Suor Maria Celeste (1891). See also Th. Henri

Galileani (12 series, 1886–1897); Nuovi Studii Galileani (1891); consists in the fallacies which he exposed. The scholastic Martin's Galilée, les droits de la science et la méthode des sciences distinctions between corruptible and incorruptible substances, physiques. (1868): Private Life of Galileo (by Mrs Olney, 1870); between absolute gravity and absolute levity, between natural). IFabie's Galileo; his Life and Work (1903); Galilée e Marius, and violent motions, they did not wholly disappear from by A. C, Oudemans and J. Bosscha (1903). The relations of

Galileo to the Church are temperately and ably discussed by F. R. scientific phraseology, ceased thenceforward to hold the place Wegg-Prosser in Galileo and his Judges (1889), and in two articles of honour in the controversies of the learned. Discarding these published in the American Catholic Quarterly for April and July obscure and misleading notions, Galileo taught that gravity and 1901.

(A. M. C.). levity are relative terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even GALION, a city of Crawford County, Ohio, U.S.A., about 75 m. those which, like the air, are invisible; that motion is the result S.W. of Cleveland. Pop. (1890) 6326; (1900) 7282 (703 foreignof force, instantaneous or continuous; that weight is a continuous born); (1910) 7214. It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, force, attracting towards the centre of the earth; that, in a Chicago & St Louis, and the Erie railways, and by an interurban vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal velocities; that the electric railway. The city is about 1165 ft. above sea level, and “inertia of matter” implies the continuance of motion, as well has extensive railway shops (of the Erie railway) and manuas the permanence of rest; and that the substance of the factories of brick and tile machinery, carriages and wagons, and heavenly bodies is equally “ corruptible" with that of the earth. grain and seed cleaners. The municipality owns and operates These simple elementary ideas were eminently capable of its electric-lighting plant. Galion was laid out as a town in 1831, development and investigation, and were not only true but the was incorporated as a borough in 1840, and was chartered as a prelude to further truth; while those they superseded defied city in 1878. inquiry by their vagueness and obscurity. Galileo was a man GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH (1758–1828), anatomist, physiologist, born in due time. He was superior to his contemporaries, but not and founder of phrenology (9.0.), was born at Tiefenbrunn near isolated amongst them. He represented and intensified a growing | Pforzheim, Baden, on the 9th of March 1758. After completing tendency of the age in which he lived. It was beginning to be the usual literary course at Baden and Bruchsal, he began the suspected that from Aristotle an appeal lay to nature, and some study of medicine under J. Hermann (1738-1800) at Strassburg, were found who no longer treated the ipse dixit of the Stagirite whence, attracted by the names of Gerhard van Swieten (1700as the final authority in matters of science. A vigorous but 1772) and Maximilian Stoll (1742–1788), he removed to Vienna ineffectual warfare had already been waged against the blind in 1781. Having received his diploma, he began to practise as traditions of the schools by Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and a physician there in 1785; but his energies were mainly devoted Campanella, and the revolution which Galileo completed had been to the scientific investigation of problems which had occupied prepared by his predecessors. Nevertheless, the task which he so his attention from boyhood. At a comparatively early period effectually accomplished demanded the highest and rarest quality he formed the generalization that in the human subject at least of genius. He struck out for himself the happy middle path a powerful memory is invariably associated with prominent between the a priori and the empirical systems, and exemplified eyes; and further observation enabled him, as he thought, also with brilliant success the method by which experimental science to define the external characteristics indicative of special talents has wrested from nature so many of her secrets. His mind was for painting, music and the mechanical arts. Following out eminently practical. He concerned himself above all with what these researches, he gradually reached the strong conviction, fell within the range of exact inquiry, and left to others the not only that the talents and dispositions of men are dependent larger but less fruitful speculations which can never be brought to upon the functions of the brain, but also that they may be inferred the direct test of experiment. Thus, while far-reaching but basty with perfect exactitude and precision from the external appeargeneralizations have had their day and been forgotten, his work ances of the skull. Gall's first appearance as an author was has proved permanent, because he made sure of its foundations made in 1791, when he published the first two chapters of His keen intuition of truth, his vigour and yet sobriety of argu- a (never completed) work entitled Philosophisch-medicinische ment, his fertility of illustration and acuteness of sarcasm, made Untersuchungen über Natur u. Kunst im kranken u. gesunden him irresistible to his antagonists; and the evanescent triumphs Zustande des Menschen. The first public notice of his inquiries of scornful controversy have given place to the sedate applause of in cranioscopy, however, was in the form of a letter addressed to a long-lived posterity.

a friend, which appeared in C. M. Wieland's Deutscher Mercur in The first complete edition of Galileo's writings was published at 1798; but two years previously he had begun to give private Florence (1842-1856), in 16 8vo vols., under the supervision of

courses of phrenological lectures in Vienna, where his doctrines Signor Eugenio Albèri. Besides the works already enumerated, it contained the Sermones de molu gravium composed at Pisa between

soon attracted general attention, and met with increasing success 1589 and 1591; his letters to his lriends, with many of their replies, until, in 1802, they were interdicted by the government as being as well as several of the essays of his scientific opponents; his dangerous to religion. This step on the part of the authorities laudatory comments on the Orlando Furioso, and depreciatory had the effect of greatly stimulating public curiosity and increasing great merit, together with the sketch

of a comedy; finally, a reprint Gall's celebrity. of Viviani's Life, with valuable notes and corrections. The original In March 1805 he finally left Vienna in company with his documents from the archives of the Inquisition, relating to the friend and associate J. C. Spurzheim, and made a tour through of Count Rossi, and now in the Vatican Library, were to a limited Germany, in the course of which he lectured in Berlin, Dresden, extent made public by Monsignor Marino- Marini in 1850, and Magdeburg and several of the university towns. His expositions, more unreservedly by M. Henri de l'Epinois, in an essay entitled I which he knew how to make popular and attractive, were mucb

resorted to by the public, and excited considerable controversy in 1885-1896). In December 1898 an Anglo-Egyptian force entered the scientific world. He had almost reached the zenith of his Gallabat. The Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result fame when, in 1807, he repaired to Paris and established himself of frontier arrangement the town was definitely included in the there as a medical practitioner, at the same time continuing his Sudan, though Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue. Since activity as a lecturer and writer. In 1808 appeared his Introduc- 1899 the trade of the place has revived, coffee and live stock tion au cours de physiologie du cerveau, which was followed in being the most important items. 1809 by the Recherches sur le système nerveux en général, et sur The town and district form a small ethnographical island, celui du cerveau en particulier (originally laid before the Institute having been peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri of France in March 1808), and in 1810 by the first instalment from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place of the Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, el for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained du cerveau en particulier, avec des observations sur la possibilité permission from the negus of Abyssinia to make a permanent de reconnaire plusieurs dispositions intellectuelles et morales de settlement. They are an industrious agricultural race, and l'homme et des animaux par la configuration de leurs tales. The cultivate cotton with considerable success. They also collect Recherches and the first two volumes of the Anatomie bear the honey in large quantities. The Takruri possess jagged throwing conjoint names of Gall and Spurzheim. The latter work was knives, which are said to have been brought from their original completed in 1819, and appeared in a second edition of six home in the Upper Congo regions. volumes in 1822-1825. In 1811 he replied to a charge of GALLAIT, LOUIS (1810-1887), Belgian painter, was born at Spinozism or atheism, which had been strongly urged against Tournay, in Hainaut, Belgium, on the 9th of May 1810. He him, by a treatise entitled Des dispositions innées de l'âme et first studied in his native town under Hennequin. In 1832 bis de l'esprit, which he afterwards incorporated with his greater first picture, “ Tribute to Caesar,” won a prize at the exhibition work. In 1819 he became a naturalized French subject, but his at Ghent. He then went to Antwerp to prosecute his studies efforts two years afterwards to obtain admission to the Academy under Mathieu Ignace Van Brée, and in the following year of Sciences, although supported by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, exhibited at the Brussels Salon “ Christ Healing the Blind.”. were unsuccessful. In 1823 he visited London with the intention This picture was purchased by subscription and placed in the of giving a series of phrenological lectures, but his reception was cathedral at Tournay. Gallait next went to Paris, whence he not what he had anticipated, and he speedily abandoned his sent to the Belgian Salons “ Job on the Dunghill," "Montaigne plans. He continued to lecture and practise in Paris until the Visiting Tasso in Prison"; and, in 1841, “The Abdication of beginning of 1828, when he was disabled by an apoplectic seizure. Charles V.," in the Brussels Gallery. This was hailed as a His death took place at Montrouge near Paris, on the 22nd of triumph, and gained for the painter a European reputation. August 1828.

Official invitations then caused him to settle at Brussels, where he GALL (a word common to many Teutonic languages, cf. died on the 20th of November 1887. Among his greater works Dutch gal, and Ger. Galle; the Indo-European root appears in may be named: “The Last Honours paid to Counts Egmont Gr. xoań, and Lat. sel; possibly connected with "yellow," and Horn by the Corporations of the Town of Brussels," now with reference to the colour of bile), the secretion of the liver at Tournay; “ The Death of Egmont," in the Berlin gallery; known as “ bile," the term being also used of the pear-shaped the “Coronation of Baudouin, Emperor of Constantinople," diverliculum of the bile-duct, which forms a reservoir for the bile, painted for Versailles; “ The Temptation of St Anthony," more generally known as the“ gall-bladder " (see LIVER). From in the palace at Brussels; “ The Siege of Antioch," “ Art and the extreme bitterness of the secretion, “gall," like the Lat. Liberty," a“ Portrait of M. B. Dumortier " and " The Plague at se, is used for anything extremely bitter, whether tually Tournay," all in the Brussels gallery. A Gipsy Woman and metaphorically. From the idea that the gall-bladder was the her Children" was painted in 1852. “M. Gallait has all the dominating organ of a bitter, sharp temperament, "gall” was gifts that may be acquired by work, taste, judgment and formerly used in English for such a spirit, and also for one very determination," wrote Théophile Gautier; his art is that of ready to resent injuries. It thus survives in American slang, a man of tact, a skilled painter, happy in his dramatic treatment with the meaning " impudence” or “ assurance."

but superficial. No doubt, this Walloon artist, following the “Gall,” meaning a sore or painful swelling, especially on a example of the Flemings of the Renaissance and the treatment borse, may be the same word, derived from an early use of the of Belgian classical painters and the French Romantic school, word as meaning "poison.” On the other hand, in Romanic sincerely aimed at truth; unfortunately, misled by contemporary languages, the Fr. galle, Sp. agalla, a wind-gall or puffy distension taste, he could not conceive of it excepting as dressed in sentiof the synovial bursa on the fetlock joint of a horse, is derived mentality. As an artist employed by the State he exercised from the Lat. galla, oak-apple, from which comes the English considerable influence, and for a long period he was the leader of "gall,” meaning an excrescence on trees caused by certain public taste in Brussels. insects. (See GALLS.)

See Teichlin, Louis Gallait und die Malerei in Deutschland (1853); GALLABAT, or GALABAT, called by the Abyssinians Matemma. Dujardin, L'Art flamand (1899); C. Lemonnier, Histoire des (Metemma), a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in 13° N. beaux-arts en Belgiqué (1881). 36° 12' E. It is built, at the foot of a steep slope, on the left bank GALLAND, ANTOINE (1646–1715), French Orientalist and of a tributary of the Atbara called the Khor Abnaheir, which archaeologist, the first European translator of the Arabian forms here the Sudan-Abyssinian frontier. Gallabat lies 90 m. Nights, was born on the 4th of April 1646 at Rollot, in the W. by N. of Gondar, the capital of Amhara, and being on the main department of Somme. The completion of his school education route from Sennar to Abyssinia, is a trade centre of some import- at Noyon was followed by a brief apprenticeship to a trade, ance. Pop. about 3000. The majority of the buildings are grass from which, however, he soon escaped, to pursue his linguistic lukls. Slaves, beeswax, coffee, cotton and hides were formerly studies at Paris. After having been employed for some time the chief articles of commerce. The slave market was closed in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sor. about 1874. Being on the frontier line, the possession of the town bonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the Frerch embassy at Conwas for long a matter of dispute between the Sudanese, and later stantinople; and in 1673 he travelled in Syria and the Levant, the Egyptians, on the one hand and the Abyssinians on the other. where he copied a great number of inscriptions, and sketched, About 1870 the Egyptians garrisoned the town, which in 1886 and in some cases removed historical monuments. After a brief was attacked by the dervishes and sacked. . From Gallabat a visit to France, where his collection of ancient coins attracted dervish raiding party penetrated to Gondar, which they looted. some attention, Galland returned to the Levant in 1676; and in In revenge an Abyssinian army under King John attacked the 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by the dervishes close to Gallabat in March 1889. The dervishes French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert; suffered very severely, but King John being killed by a stray on the expiration of this commission he was instructed by the bullet, the Abyssinians retired (see EGYPT: Military Operations, government to continue his researches, and had the title of

"antiquary to the king " conferred upon him. During his pro- | he returned to Germany for the campaign against Gustavus longed residences abroad he acquired a thorough knowledge of the Adolphus. In command of a corps of Wallenstein's army, he Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages and literatures, which, on covered Bohemia against the Swedes in 1631-1632, and served his final return to France, enabled him to render valuable assist at the Alte Veste near Nuremberg, and at Lützen. Further good ance to Thevenot, the keeper of the royal library, and to service against Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar commended General Barthélemy d'Herbelot. After their deaths he lived for some Gallas to the notice of the emperor, who made him lieutenanttime at Caen under the roof of Nicolas Foucault (1643-1721), general in his own army. He was one of the chief conspirators the intendant of Caen, himself no mean archaeologist; and there against Wallenstein, and after the tragedy of Eger was appointed he began the publication (12 vols., 1704-1717) of Les mille et to the command of the army which Wallenstein had formed and une nuits, which excited immense interest during the time of its led. At the great battle of Nördlingen (23rd of August 1634) appearance, and is still the standard French translation. It had in which the army of Sweden was almost annihilated, Gallas no pretensions to verbal accuracy, and the coarseness of the commanded the victorious Imperialists. His next command was language was modified to suit European taste, but the narrative in Lorraine, but even the Moselle valley had suffered so much was adequately rendered. In 1701 Galland had been admitted from the ravages of war that his army perished of want. Still into the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1709 he was appointed more was this the case in northern Germany, where Gallas comto the chair of Arabic in the Collège de France. He continued manded against the Swedish general Banér in 1637 and 1638. to discharge the duties of this post until his death, which took At first driving the Swedes before him, in the end he made a place on the 17th of February 1715.

complete failure of the campaign, lost his command, and was Besides a number of archacological works, especially in the depart. subject to much ridicule. It was, however, rather the indiscipline ment of numismatics, he published a compilation from the Arabic, of his men (the baneful legacy of Wallenstein's methods) than his Persian and Turkish, entitled Paroles remarquables, bons mols et maximes des orientaux (1694), and a translation from an Arabic

own faults which brought about his disastrous retreat across manuscript, De l'origine et du progrès du café (1699). The former of North Germany, and at a moment of crisis he was recalled to these works appeared in an English translation in 1795. His Contes endeavour to stop Torstenson's victorious advance, only to be et fables indiennes de Bidpai et de Lokman was published (1724) after shut up in Magdeburg, whence he escaped with the barest remnant, translation of the Koran and a Histoire générale des empereurs turcs. of his forces. Once more relieved of his command, he was again His Journal was published by M. Charles Schefer in 1881.

recalled to make head against the Swedes in 1645 (after their GALLARATE, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of victory at Jankow). Before long, old and warworn, he resigned Milan, from which it is 25 m. N.W. by rail. Pop. (1901) 12,002. his command, and died in 1647 at Vienna. His army had earned The town is of medieval origin. It is remarkable mainly for its for itself the reputation of being the most cruel and rapacious textile factories. It is the junction of railways to Varese, force even in the Thirty Years' War, and his Merode Brüder have Laveno and Arona (for the Simplon). Six miles to the w. survived in the word marauder. Like many other generals of are the electric works of Vizzola, the largest in Europe, where that period, he had acquired much wealth and great territorial 23,000 h.p. are derived from the river Ticino.

possessions (the latter mostly his share of Wallenstein's estates). GALLARS (in Lat. GALLASIUS), NICOLAS DES (C. 1520- He was the founder of the Austrian family of Clam-Gallas, which 6. 1580), Calvinistic divine, first appears as author of a Defensio furnished many distinguished soldiers to the Imperial army. of William Farel, published at Geneva in 1545, followed (1545- GALLAS, or more correctly Galla, a powerful. Hamitic 1549) by translations into French of three tracts by Calvin. people of eastern Africa, scattered over the wide region which In 1551 he was admitted burgess of Geneva, and in 1553 made extends for about 1000 m. from the central parts of Abyssinia to pastor of a country church in the neighbourhood. In 1557 he the neighbourhood of the river Sabaki in British East Africa. was sent to minister to the Protestants at Paris; his conductor, The name

“ Galla

appears to be an Abyssinian Nicolas du Rousseau, having prohibited books in his possession, nickname, unknown to the people, who call themselves Ilm' was executed at Dijon; des Gallars, having nothing suspicious Orma, sons of men sons of Orma," an eponymous hero. about him, continued his journey. On the revival of the In Shoa (Abyssinia) the word is connected with the river Gála in Strangers' church in London (1560), he, being then minister at Guragie, on the banks of which a great battle is said to have Geneva, came to London to organize the French branch; and been fought between the Galla and the Abyssinians. Arnaud in 1561 he published La Forme de police ecclésiastique instituée d d'Abbadie says that the Abyssinian Moslems recount that, Londres en l'Église des François. In the same year he assisted when summoned by the Prophet's messenger to adopt Islam, the Beza at the colloquy of Poissy. He became minister to the Pro-chief of the Galla said “ No,"—in Arabic kál (or gal) la, -and the testants at Orleans in 1564; presided at the synod of Paris in Prophet on hearing this said, “ Then let their very name imply 1565; was driven out of Orleans with other Protestants in 1568; their denial of the Faith.” Of all Hamitic peoples the Galla and in 1571 was chaplain to Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre. are the most numerous. Dr J. Ludwig Krapf estimated them Calvin held him in high esteem, employing him as amanuensis, (c. 1860) at from six to eight millions; later authorities put them and as editor as well as translator of several of his exegetical at not much over three millions. Individual tribes are said to be and polemical works. He himself wrote a commentary on able to bring 20,000 to 30,000 horsemen into the field. Exodus (1560); edited an annotated French Bible (1562) and Hardly anything is definitely known as to the origin and early New Testament (1562); and published tracts against Arians home of the race, but it appears to have occupied the southern (1565-1566). His main work was his edition of Irenaeus (1570) part of its present territory since the 16th century. According to with prefatory letter to Grindal, then bishop of London, and Hiob Ludolf and James Bruce, thc Galla invaders first crossed the giving, for the first time, some fragments of the Greek text. Abyssinian frontiers in the year 1537. The Galla of Gojam (a His collaboration with Beza in the Histoire des Églises Réformées district along the northern side of the river Abai) tell how their du royaume de France (1580) is doubted by Bayle.

savage forefathers came from the south-east from a country on See Bayle, Dictionnaire hist. et crit.; Jean Senebier, Hisl. the other side of a bahr (lake or river), and the Yejju and Raia littéraire de Genève (1786); Nouvelle Biog: gén. (1857). (A. Go.")

Galla also point towards the east and commemorate the passage GALLAS, MATTHIAS, COUNT OF CAMPO, DUKE OF LUCERA of a bahr. Among the southern Galla tradition appears to be (1584-1647), Austrian soldier, first saw service in Flanders, and mainly concerned with the expulsion of the race from the in Savoy with the Spaniards, and subsequently joined the forces country now occupied by the Somali. Their original home was of the Catholic League as captain. On the general outbreak possibly in the district cast of Victoria Nyanza, for the tribes near of hostilities in Germany, Gallas, as colonel of an infantry Mount Kenya are stated to go on periodical pilgrimages to the regiment, distinguished himself, especially at the battle of Stadt- mountain, making offerings to it as if to their mother. A theory lohn (1623). In 1630 he was serving as Gencral-Feldwachtmeister has been advanced that the great exodus which it seems certain under Collalto in Italy, and was mainly instrumental in the took place among the peoples throughout eastern Africa during capture of Mantua. Made count of the Empire for this service, I the 15th century was caused by some great eruption of Kenya

or

“ Gala

or

and other volcanoes of equatorial Africa. As a geographical years later, and his only sister in 1777. Although left an orphan term Galla-land is now used mainly to denote the south-central at nine, he was by no means lonely or unprotected. His grandregions of the Abyssinian empire, the country in which the Galla parents, a large circle of near relatives and Mlle Catherine are numerically strongest. There is no sharp dividing line be- Pictet (d. 1795), an intimate friend of his mother, cared for bim tween the territory occupied respectively by the Galla and by the during his boyhood. He was thoroughly educated at the schools Somali.

of Geneva, and graduated with honour from the college or In any case the Galla must be regarded as members of that vast academy there in 1779. His grandmother then wished him to eastern Hamitic family which includes their neighbours, the enter the army of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve Somali, the Afars (Danakil) and the Abyssinians. As in all the “ a tyrant,” and a year later slipped away from Geneva and eastern Hamites, there is a perceptible strain of Negro blood in embarked for the United States. A competent fortune, good the Galla, who are, however, described by Sir Frederick Lugard prospects, social position, and a strong family connexion were as “a wonderfully handsome race, with high foreheads, brown all thrown aside in order to tempt fate in the New World. His skins, and soft wavy hair quite different from the wool of the relatives very properly opposed his course, but they nevertheless Bantus.” As a rule their features are quite European. Their did all in their power to smooth his way, and continued to treat colour is dark brown, but many of the northern Galla are of a him kindly. In after life he himself admitted the justice of their coffee and milk tint. The finest men are to be found among the opinions. The temper of the times, a vague discontent with the Limmu and Gudru on the river Abai.

established order of things, and some political enthusiasm The Galla are for the most part still in the nomadic and pastoral imbibed from the writings of Rousseau, are the best reasons stage, though in Abyssinia they have some agricultural settlements which can now be assigned for Gallatin's desertion of home and generally built under trees. Their wealth consists chiefly in cattle friends. and horses. Among the southern tribes it is said that about seven In July 1780 Gallatin and his friend Henri Serre (d. 1784) or eight head of cattle are kept for every man, woman and child; landed in Massachusetts. They brought with them youth, hope and among the northern tribes, as neither man nor woman'ever thinks of going any distance on foot, the number of horses is very

and courage, as well as a little money, and at once entered into large. The ordinary food consists of flesh, blood, milk, butter and business The times, however, were unfavourable. The great honey, the last being considered of so much importance by the convulsion of the Revolution was drawing to a close, and everysouthern Galla that a rude system of bee-keeping is in vogue, and thing was in an unsettled condition The young Genevans the husband who fails to furnish his wife with a sufficient supply failed in business, passed a severe winter in the wilds of Maine, monogamy is the rule, but in the north the number of a man's wives and returned to Boston penniless. Gallatin tried to earn á is limited only by his wishes and his wealth. Marriage-forms are living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not numerous, that of bride-capture being common. Each tribe has without success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New its own chief, who enjoys the strange privilege of being the only England repelled him, and he made his way to the South. In the merchant for his people, but in all public concerns must take the backwoods of Pennsylvania and Virginia there seemed to be advice of the fathers of families assembled in council. The greater proportion of the tribes are still pagan, worshipping a supreme god better chances for a young adventurer. Gallatin engaged in land Waka, and the subordinate god and goddess Oglieh and Atetich, speculations, and tried to lay the foundation of his fortune in a whose favour is secured by sacrifices of oxen and sheep. With a frontier farm. In 1789 he married Sophie Allègre, and every strange liberality of sentiment, they say that at a certain time of the year Waka leaves them and goes to attend to the wants of their prospect seemed to be brightening. But clouds soon gathered enemies the Somali, whom also he has created. Some tribes, and again After only a few months of wedlock his wife died, and notably the Wollo Galla, have been converted to Mahommedanism Gallatin was once more alone. The solitary and desolate írontier and are very bigoted adherents of the Prophet. In the north, where life became now more dreary than ever; he flung himseli into ization has taken place, to the extent at least that the people are politics the only outside resource open to him, and his long and familiar with the names of Maremma or Mary, Balawold or Jesus, eventful public career began. Girgis or St George, &c.; but to all practical intents paganism is still in force. The serpent is a special object of worship, the northern Gallatin, with his dislike of strong government still upon him,

The constitution of 1787 was then before the public, and Galla believing that he is the author of the human race. 'There is a belief in were-wolves (buda), and the northern Galla have sorcerers

threw himself into opposition and became one of the founders who terrorize the people. Though cruel in war, all Galla respect their of the Anti-Federalist, or, as it was afterwards called, the pledged word. They are armed with a lance, a two-edged knife, and Republican party. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Coda shield of buffalo or rhinoceros hide. A considerable number findstitutional Convention of 1789-1790, and of the Pennsylvania employment in the Abyssinian armies.

Among the more important tribes in the south (the name in cach Assembly in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and rose with surprising instance being compounded with Galla) are the Ramatta, the rapidity, despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak Kukatta, the Baõle, the Aurova, the Wadjole, the llani, the Arrar and English with correctness or fluency. He was helped of course by the Kanigo Galla: the Borani, a very powerful tribe, may be con- his sound education; but the true cause of his success lay in this sidered to mark the division between north and south; and in the north we find the Amoro, the Jarso, the Toolama, the Wollo, the strong sense, untiring industry, courage, clear-sightedness and assil, Aijjo, and the Azobo Galla.

great intellectual force. In 93 he was chosen United States See C. T. Beke, “On the Origin

of the Gallas," in Trans. of Bril, senator from Pennsylvania by the votes of both political parties. Assoc. (1847); J. Ludwig Krapf, Travels in Eastern Africa (1860); No higher tribute was ever paid to character and ability than that d'Abbadie, Douze Ans dans la llaute-Ethiopie (1868); Ph. Paulitschke, conveyed by this election. But the staunch Federalists of the Ethnographie Nord-Ost-Afrikas; Die geistige Kultur der Dan'akil, senate, who had begun to draw the party lines rather sharply. Galla u. Somál (Berlin, 1896); P. M. de Salviac, Les Galla (Paris, found the presence of the young Genevan highly distastelul. 1901).

They disliked his French origin, and suspected him to be a man of GALLATIN, ALBERT (1761-1849), American statesman, was levelling principles His seat was contested on account of a born in Geneva (Switzerland) on the 29th of January 1761. The technical flaw in regard to the duration of his citizenship, and in Gallatins were both an old and a noble family. They are first February 1794, almost three months after the beginning of the heard of in Savoy in the year 1258, and more than two centuries session, the senate annulled the election and sent him back to later they went to Geneva (1510), united with Calvin in his Pennsylvania with all the glory of political martyrdom. opposition to Rome, and associated their fortunes with those of The leading part which Gallatin had taken in the “ Whisky the little Swiss city. Here they remained, and with one or two Insurrection” in Western Pennsylvania had, without doubt, other great families governed Geneva, and sent forth many been an efficient cause in his rejection by the senate. He inrepresentatives to seek their fortune and win distinction in the tended fully to restrain within legal bounds the opposition service of foreign princes, both as soldiers and ministers. On the which the excise on domestic spirits had provoked, but he made eve of the French Revolution the Gallatins were still in Geneva, the serious mistake of not allowing sufficiently for the character occupying the same position which they had held for two hundred of the backwoods population When legal resistance developed years. Albert Gallatin's father died in 1765, his mother five l into insurrection, Gallatin did his best to retrieve his error and

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