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Arabic, Persian,
English. Hebrew,or Chaldaic.





Ş Mesck, Ar.


Mesk, Per. Marc (ancient name,) A horse

Merc, Chal. whence Marcshluagh Cavalry

A horse. Marcach


Marc, German Moladh

Praising Moalakat, Ar.& Per. In praise.*

A child Pechè, Per. A child.
Children Pechégan, Per.

Paishgeara A midwife Peshkari, Per. A midwife.
Pog pose, or buse A kiss

Puse, or buse, in Whence Pogadh Kissing

A kiss, or lip

Per. Posadh

Marriage Rathad, or Rad, from

A road, or

Rah, Per. Rath, a wheel,

I highway. and Aite, place; SA road, or

A prince, or i. e. a place made highway

Rajah, Per.

chief of a diseasy for carriages

trict. Rahee, Per. A traveller. Ranach, Heb.

A frog name for

Ranah, Egypt.
A sack Sac, Heb.

A sack.

A knife
Skian, Ar.

A knife.


to pass

Ran, the ancient } A frog



There is a poem in Arabic called Moalakat (i. e.) In Praise, written by Prince Amaralkeis, a cotemporary of Mahomet. It is in praise of a great action, and the following line has a great analogy to the Gaelic.

Fakalit yaminalahi ma lika hilatown," which signifies “ And she said, by the right hand of God, you shall not be deceived." There is a poem in Clark's Caledonian Bards called “Oran Molla," a song of praise.

+ It deserves notice, that a certain class of nouns in the Gaelic, form their plurals by adding an to the singular number, and the same holds in the Persian by adding gan or an, as in the above example.

Arabic, Persian,
Hebrew,or Chaldaic.




over, &


Sipher, Per.

Sen, or sean

Sen, Heb.


The name for Sen-ar

Old land
Senar, Heb.

Noah's mount. Teine


Tannur, Heb. Fire.

Top, or sumTar

Tar, Per.

mit of a above.


Tauro, taur, Ch.) Tarabh

A bull

Syriac, & Ar. A bull.
Tor, Heb.

To produce, or
The earth, soil Atla, Per.


A spirit, from Taibhse An apparition Tabish, Ar.

Tabi, a fol

lower. Taoiseach A chieftain Taasil, Ar.

Chiefs. Tigh, pronounced Ti, A house Ti, Heb.

A house. Tog

Toger, in Malabar, To lift up.

To lift it up

We cannot conclude these desultory etymological * researches, without noticing a Celtic proverb mentioned by Mr. Cambry of the Celtic Academy in France, * which from, its affinity with the Gaelic now spoken, is peculiarly striking, both as to the pronunciation and sense of the words. He says, “ that the people of Britanny have preserved the true etymology of Paris in a Celtic proverb, of which the style manifests its being of the most remote antiquity: namely,

* Monumens Celtiques, p. 361.

A ba ouè beuzet ar ghar a Is,
Ne-d-eus ket kavet par da Baris.”

which, according to the Gaelic orthograpy, is thus :

A bha ou bàuisg ar caer a Is,
Ne'n deas cait' gheibt' par da Bharis.

and is thus translated into Latin and English: Ex

quo aqua inundavit civitatem Is Haud apparet ubi inveniatur par


Since the water has overflowed the city Is,
There does not appear an equal to Paris.

The city of Is, alluded to in the Celtic proverb, is celebrated in ancient geography, and which tradition places in the Bay of Douarnenez, in the southwest of Britany near Quimper, and is said to have been submerged. The Celtic word par, signifying equal, or like, renders, when joined to Is, what is called, in the French language, un jeu de mots, viz. Par-is, which means equal, or like Is, the name of the ancient city alluded to.

Thus we have endeavoured to demonstrate the analogy of the Greek, Latin, and Oriental languages to the Gaelic. From the proofs adduced, and examples given, whereof, were it necessary, many hundreds equally applicable might be added, we may safely venture to assert, that no language ancient or modern contains more primitive roots than the Celtic or Gaelic.



For the sake of perspicuity, we shall divide this head into three branches, viz. 1. The Gaelic, which is confessedly a dialect of the Celtic, has been a written language in the Highlands of Scotland, and in parts of Ireland, from very remote periods. 2. The poems ascribed to Ossian commemorating the achievements of Fingal and his warriors, have been for


recited and sung to music in the Highlands and isles of Scotland, and have for time immemorial been the entertain. ment of the people. 3. The poems translated by Mr. Macpherson, were collected by him from oral tradition and manuscripts procured in the Highlands; and that similar collections have been made by other persons at different periods, prior to his translation.

1. That the Gaelic was a written language from very remote periods, may be deemed sufficiently proved by the observation already made in Note E to Cesarotti's Dissertation; and by the facts and authorities noticed under the second general head of these Supplementary Observations.* It may

therefore suffice to touch briefly on some particular points of evidence, which when summed up with those already adduced, will incontrovertibly establish the truth of our position, as well as the fallacy of Doctor Johnson's assertion, that the Caledonians had been

* See page 386 et seq.

always a rude and illiterate people, and that they never had


written language. When the druids who spoke the Gaelic language, and to whom writing was familiar, * had been driven from the rest of Britain, a few of them retired to Caledonia, and took up their residence in Iona, afterwards called Icolmkill,t where they founded a college, and lived and taught unmolested, until they

• Cæsar's Com. B. VI. c. 13.

+ The original name of Icolmkill, prior to Columba's settling there, was Hy. During Columba's Life, it was called Iona, and after his death, it received the name of Icolmkill, that is, the isle of Columba's chapel, compounded of I, island, colm, Columba, and cill, or kill, chapel, church-yard, or inclosed place.

Mr. Pennant, in his Tour, Vol. I. p. 284, second edition, mentions that the Dean of the Isles, and after him Buchanan, describe the tombs of the kings existing at Icolmkill in the time of the Dean. On one was inscribed Tumulus Regum Scotiæ : in which were deposited the remains of forty-eight Scottish kings, beginning with Fergus II. and ending with the famous Macbeth. In another was inscribed Tumulus Regum Hiberniæ : in which were deposited the remains of four Irish monarchs ; and in a third, Tumulus Regum Norwegiæ, were deposited eight Norwegian princes, or more probably vice-roys of the Hebrides, while they were subject to that crown.

That so many crowned heads, from different nations, should prefer this as the place of their interment, is said to be owing to the following ancient Gaelic prophecy :

Seachd blithna roimh 'n bhraa
Thig muir thar Eirin re aon tra'
'Sthar Ile ghuirm ghlais

Ach snámhaidh IcHoLUM clairich.
Which is thus literally translated :

“ Seven years before the conflagratios
The sea at one tide shall cover IRELAND,
And also the green-headed ISLAY,
But the Isle of COLUMBA of the harp shall swim

(above the flood.)


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