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floating upon the waves before the state this establishment in the detail vessel. The ship having passed of its organization, and we are under through this brilliant part, the crew the necessity of confining our observadiscovered that the prodigious light tions upon it to its general features, was occasioned by an immense num- its bearings upon civil liberty, and the ber of small animals which swarın at marks it carries of the mind of its different depths, and appeared to founder, as influenced by his liberal assume various forms. Those which or illiberal habits.

were deepest looked like red hot The first chapter, "The general cannon balls, whilst those on the organization of the University," may surface resembled tubes of red hot be given entire. iron. Some of them were soon Article . Public instruction, caught, and they were found to vary throughout the whole empire, is conin size from three to seven inches. fided exclusively to the University. All the exterior surface of the animal "2. No school, or establishment for was bristled with thick oblong tuber- instruction of any kind, may be formed cles, shining like so many diamonds; out of the Imperial University, and and these seemed to be the principal without the authority of its head. seat of its wonderful phosphorescence. "3. No one can open a school, or In the inside also there appeared a teach publicly, without being a Memmultitude of little oblong narrow her of the Imperial University, and glands, which possessed the phospho- graduated by one of its faculties. Neric property in a high degree. The vertheless, instruction in the semina colour of these animals, when at rest, ries is dependant upon the Archis an opal yellow, mixed with green; bishops and Bishops, each in his diobut on the slightest motion, on spon- cese. They appoint and dismiss the faneous contraction, the animal be- directors and professors. They are comes, instantly, like red hot iron, merely bound to conform to the rules and of a most brilliant splendour. for the seminaries, approved by us. As it loses phosphorescence, it passes 4. The Imperial University shall successively through a number of be composed of as many academies as tints which are extremely pleasing, there are Courts of Appeal. such as red, orange, green, and azure blue; this last shade is particularly lively and pure.


"5. The schools belonging to each academy shall be arranged in the tol lowing order:1. The Faculties, for THE NEW IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, the more profound sciences, and the This establishment, which has been conferring of degrees. 2. The Lyconfirmed by a decree of the 17th uit. ceums, for the ancient languages, bisis by some persons supposed as calcu- tory, rhetoric, logic, and the elements Jated to effect a counter-revolution in of the mathematical and natural scifavour of regal and church establish- ences. 3. The Colleges, (secondary ments, and to be as powerful an engine schools of the Communes) for the under the new dynasty, as the system elements of the ancient languages, of the Jesuits was under the old. Im- the first principles of history, and the partiality induces us to state the ob- sciences. 4. (Les Institutions) viz. jections to the plan of the Imperial Schools kept by private masters, in University, though we believe the which the instruction approaches that charges are prematurely brought for- of the colleges. 5. Boarding Schools ward. The great structure which is (Pensions) also belonging to private now formed operates by connecting masters, and devoted to studies less all the schools and academies, or col- severe than those of the Institutions. leges, of France together, under the 6. The lower schools, or primary title of The University, under the au- schools, where reading, writing, and thority and governinent of which, the first rules of arithmetic are every establishment for education of taught." every description is brought. The Respecting this organization it is decree comprises 144 articles, and said, there is one remark which cannot forms a minutely elaborate and well- fail to obtrude itself even upon the organised system. Our contined limits most careless reader, and which will do not allow us to examine, or even painfully impress those who still flatter

themselves that the immense misery a large kingdom. Hence, while theUniversities of Germany have been the means of dispersing all the learning and science of that great collection of states, the colleges of France were scarcely heard of; they became little more than grammar-schools for larger boys. Academical titles too were not frequent, nor much respected. Now, however, Bonaparte has resolved to outdo even Germany in the number of his graduates.

which the revolution occasioned, may be compensated by some advantages for succeeding races: It is this, that the education of the rising race, is monopolised by the State. All the benefits resulting from the free exereise of individual judgment are destroyed. The generous and laudable conflict of emulation, the expansion of mind arising from freedom, is repressed; and all that the Legislator can do, is done, to introduce a slavish Chap. 2. Of the Faculties.-They uniformity of opinion, whose perni- are increased to the number of five. cious tendency has been recognized 1. Theology; 2. Law; 3. Medicine; by all liberal minds in this country. 4. The Mathematical and Physical Lest this should not be apparent, we Sciences; 5. Literature, (Lettres). remind the reader, that by the existing These two latter faculties are great laws of France, it is a criminal offence innovations on the ancient scholastic for any school-master to use in his establishments, far out-doing the anoschool any book, though but a gram- malous degree of Doctor of Music, at mar, a spelling-book, or primer, which Oxford. Doubtless the sciences and has not been sanctioned by the sign literature should give high honour to manual of the Emperor. the professors of them, in a certain As confirming this statement, we degree; but the line between vulgar add the 5th Chapter. Of the Basis of attainment, and what is properly learnInstruction in the Schools of the Uni- ing, is not easy to be drawn in these versity. departments.

Art. 38. "All the schools of the The Bishops and Archbishops preImperial University take as the basis sent the D.D.'s to the Grand Master of their instruction, 1. The precepts of the University. There are as many of the Catholic Religion; 2. Fidelity theological faculties as there are meto the Emperor, to the imperial mo- tropolitan churches; and there will be narchy, the depository of the felicity of one at Strasburg and one at Geneva, nations, (du bonheur des peuples, in the for the Calvinists, pour la religion plural number) and to the Napoleon reformée. dynasty, as the preserver of the unity There are to be twelve faculties for of France, and of all the liberal ideas (!!) law, and five for medicine. At Paris, proclaimed by the constitutions. 3. the faculty of the sciences will consist Obedience to the statutes of the in- of an union of the professors of the structing body, whose object is uni- great establishments there, viz. Le formity of instruction, and which tend College de France, L'Ecole Polytechto form for the state citizens attached nique, Le Muséum et Histoire Naturelle, to their religion, their prince, their Les Lycées. The faculty of letters is country, and their family. 4. All the composed in a similar manner. professors of theology are bound to Chap. 3.-Of the Degrees.-In each conform to the provisions of the edict faculty there are Bachelors, Licenof 1682, concerning the four proposi- ciates, and Doctors. It is sufficient to tions contained in the declaration of notice the qualifications for a Doctor's the clergy of France of the same year. hat. The Doctor of Literature must But to return to some other parti- support two theses, one on rhetoric culars of this imperial establishment. and logic, the other on ancient literaThough universities originated in ture; and, singularly enough, the France, they have for many years been former only must be in Latin. The declining in that country; being in Doctor of Sciences must support two their nature better suited to the ad- theses, at his option, on topics of me ministration of little independent chanics and astronomy, or chemistry, Princes, who were emulous of the ho- or natural history, in one of its three Lour of promoting literature, as in branches. The degrees in Law and Germany, than to the government of Medicine remain according to exist

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ing regulations. A Doctor in Divinity He is assisted by a Council of 30 memmust be twenty years old at least, and bèrs. Each academy has its Rector have maintained several theses, one and Council.

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in Latin. Very minute regulations The greater part of the laws respect are made concerning the rauk and the several details of their formation, titles of the Officers of the University. which have no general interest. Many The 6th Chap. "On the obliga- of their regulations are good and tions contracted by the Members of useful; and certainly as far as the the University," contains several pro- establishment of the University may visions establishing the absolute au- contribute to the extension of any thority of the Government over all the education to the lower classes. it may professors, tutors, and functionaries of be viewed with pleasure. Unfortu the Universities, for such only appear nately, this part is the most vague and to be designated by the term Member, indeterminate: we see no provision They, to use the terms of the law, for securing to all, the inestimable promise obedience to the Grand attainments of reading and writing. Master in all that he shall cominand 800,000 livres are assigned far the sup them for our service, and for the be- port of the University, besides the fees nefit of instruction." They are pro- on taking degrees, examinations, &c. hibited leaving the instructing body in the academies, and a twentieth of (le corps enseignant) and their func- the sum paid by every scholar for his tions, without his permission (which, education, in every school of the em on certain terms, he is obliged to pire. grant). They are subject to the regulations of a kind of correctional When Mr. Pratt published his censorship, in which, it is remarkable Gleanings in 1794, he observed, that that the same sort of discipline which a traveller in Holland would see every is applied to the students of our Uni- eye so busy, every foot so hard at work, versities is here employed towards the and every head so full, that catching masters. They may be suspended in the spirit of the objects before him, their functions, that is rusticated, and he would think it as good and as natheir names may be struck off the tural for mau to be in motion as at University roll: this latter punishment rest. But a late traveller says, brings with it the incapacity of being indolent person would now find many employed in any public administra- a companion in traversing the streets tion, and they can accept no public of Amsterdam. Fortunately for the or private employment for which a Dutch, it was looked upon as shamesalary is received, without the au- ful behaviour, if a person lived up to thenticated permission of the Grand his income, and did not lay by a little Master. Finally, every year, for his old age, his wife, Art. 46. The Members of the Uni- or children. By this practice, which versity will be bound to inform the was almost without exception, the inGrand Master and his officers of what- habitants of Holland have been able ever may come to their knowledge in to endure adversity and the loss of the Establishments of Public Instruc- trade much longer than any other tion, which is contrary to the doctrines nation. Notwithstanding the consi and principles of the Instructing derable sums they have been obliged Body." to pay to the French, and the great capitals they have lost at sea, it is surprising that no national bankruptcy has yet taken place.”


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The Grand Master nominates of course to all the high offices of the University, and is himself nominated by, and removable at the will of, the Emperor., Among other acts of pre- The late Sir W. Jones, it has been rogative, he may remove the Principals recently asserted, was much delighted of the Colleges and Professors of the with a Persian work, which he perused Lyceums from one academy to ano- in manuscript, and thonght it threw ther (as is done here to excisemen), great light on the original history of taking the advice of three members of the human race. A part of this work, the Council; and he also fixes the which is called Dubestan, may be regulations for the different schools, found in the Asiatic Miscellany, trans


lated by Mr. Gladwin of Calcutta ; but this has only excited a greater A late statistic account of this vast desire for the whole, which, as a empire makes it appear, that its inhálearned orientalist has asserted, con- bitants constitute at least 80 separate tains many interesting particulars, nations, who differ essentially as well relative not only to Hindoos and in their primary origin as in customs Parses, but also to Jews and Christians; and a very beautiful translation into Persian of some passages of the Hebrew Scriptures. A complete version, therefore, of the Dabestan into Hebrew or Latin, is a literary deside


and language. Such an extraordinary number, united in one political body, may justly challenge the whole world to produce a parallel. The Jews and Gipsies are not included, among a number of other erratic individuals, who find a home every where.

MEMOIRS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS. NAPTAIN THOMAS MORRIS, who ceeded where bravery and numbers Mary-street, Fitzroy-square, in the Capt. Morris was once made prisoner 74th year of his age, was a man of a by the Indians, and condemned to die highly cultivated mind. He was born at the stake; at the instant when the in the environs of London, where his women and children were preparing father passed the evening of a well to inflict those tortures upon him spent life, on an income sufficient, which are even shocking to relate, his through economy, to enable him to fornier humanity to an old Indian educate his children in those arts that Sachem, whose life he had saved, elevate and embellish human nature. pleaded in his behalf; and this old man, Mr. Morris, having exhibited a very happening to be present, snatched early passion for reading, his father him from impending death. He was was resolved that a disposition so con- unbound, and permitted to return to genial to his own, should not want for his friends, who had given him up for cultivation, and he accordingly placed lost. But, notwithstanding all the him under a gentleman of known taste trials and hardships which Captain and classical learning. Young Morris, Morris underwent while he was anong in the course of a few years, could not the North American Indians, he was so only translate the writers of Greece attached to them and their rude way and Rome, but comment upon them of life, that he used often to declare also. As his father wished to supply they were the only race worthy of the his want of fortune by putting him name of MEN. into some honourable pursuit, he On his return from America to availed himself of the partiality of a England, he gave himself up entirely materual uncle, a military man, who to literature and the conversation of a soon procured for his nephew an en- few learned and enlightened friends. signey, rightly judging the army the In this list the Rev. David Williams, best field for the natural gaiety of his the translator of Voltaire, and the disposition. founder and advocate of that laudable

Having been sent upon a recruiting institution, the Literary Fund, was not party to Bridgwater, Somersetshire, the last in his estimation. It may be be there married a Miss Chubb, a supposed, that a mind so eminently beautiful and accomplished woman, qualified for enjoying the charms of by whom he had several children. philosophic converse, would be fully Unfortunately they lost their mother, gratified; yet, in the midst of this while the eldest was but young. Mr. "feast of reason and flow of soul," he Morris having afterwards been pro- has been known to steal a sigh for the moted to the rank of Captain, went rude, but grand imagery of nature in with his regiment to America, and America, and to have listened in was engaged in several conflicts with thought to the dashing cataracts of the French and Indians, in each of Columbia, and the wild murmurs of which he displayed that courage and the rivers that roll there through resources of mind which often suc mountains, woods, and desarts. Hav UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. IX. 3 G

ing met with some disappointment, But biography consists neither in forthat his philosophy, which was no small mal narration, nor splendid descripportion, was still insufficient to sup- tion. A tedious and minute chronicle of port, he sought for a spot in the neigh- events and transactions, which made bourhood of London, where he might up the life of any individual, would pass the rest of his days in retirement. not alone give us a knowledge of his This he at length found out, in a nur- character. A dull representation of sery garden, belonging to a Mr. Bowel, artificial manners, or a record of the in Paddington. This was a small cot- childish gossipings of eminent men, tage, in which he sat down to compare may gratify vanity or curiosity, but Mr. Pope's translation of Homer with they can add little to the theory of the original, in which he was assisted the human constitution: these are at by Mr. George Dyer, a gentleman well best but secondary objects of attenqualified for so pleasing a task. In this tion. The biographer should exhibit pursuit he passed some years, which the man divested, as much as possihe declared to a friend were the hap- ble, of the unnatural and superficial piest in his life. colouring which he derives from the He had translated Juvenal into Eng- ever-changing customs and forms of Jish, and enriched it with many notes; sociey. He should present a philobut he could never be prevailed upon sophical analysis of character; an to publish it. He was also the author accurate view of the mind of the inof a little poem, called Quashi, or the dividual, elucidated and explained by Coal-black Maid, published some years a reference to those events of his life ago: the scene is in the West Indies, which had any influence in modify and the story highly pathetic. While ing his opinions, in directing his in America, also, he collected a num- exertions, or in determining the na ber of curious and interesting mate- ture and extent of his enjoyments. rials for the natural and civil history Discussions of this kind unquesof that country. Towards the close of tionably embrace by far the most imhis life, his temper was frequently pet- portant part of the labour of the tish, and he seemed to have a touch of biographer. A comprehensive and the misanthrope in his composition; well constructed theory of the cha this, however, was only a transient racter of any individual is always inshade. His property, which is hand- teresting, and none perhaps is more some, devolves to his children of so than that of a literary man. A per


son who devotes himself to study has not eradicated the common feelings

Account of the Life and Character of of his nature. Though much of his the late WILLIAM BARRON, A. M. F. R. S. Edinburgh, and Professor of Belles Lettres and Logic in the Unicersity of St. Andrews.

time may be spent in solitary contemplation, yet he is not dead to the affairs of the world. The motives and principles which regulate the deterTHE HE history of the lives of lite- minations of other men, have not rary men has in general been lost their power over him. The rank, represented as destitute of those therefore, which he should hold in topics which ought to attract the no- the estimation of society, can never tice of the biographer. Although be ascertained by the bare inspection there may be some degree of bold- of a record of his studies and his ness in questioning the validity of works, while we exclude every thing a position which has met with uni- which was descriptive of him as a versal consent, we are nevertheless moral agent, or bury the remem disposed to think that it rests on no brance of his good or bad qualities solid foundation. If the biographer in a pompous catalogue of doubtful propose to himself no other object virtues.

than to trace the hero of his tale In the present instance various reathrough dangers and difficulties, and sons prevent us from carrying these to present a lively picture of striking views fully into execution. In the incidents and adventures, the lives of short notice, however, which follows, most literary men will afford him but several facts and observations will be few inaterials for such an undertaking, found illustrative of the character ofa

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