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N LV.-Vol. IX.)

For JUNE, 1808.

[New Series.

“ We shall never envy the honours which wit and learning obtain in any oilier cause, if we can be numbered among the writers who have given ardour to vinne, and confidence to truth."-DR. JOHNSON.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. Major General Sir Samuel Auch- the well-known trial of Sir John Bure

goyne. This office he filled with THIS officer was born at New much reputation for several years with T

York, in America, on the 22d a liberal salary of 3,000l. per annum; of June, 1758. He is the eldest son when, being desirous of promoting of the late Rev. Samuel Auchnuty, a his military prospects, the Marquis respectable clergyman of the same sent himn to Bombay as brigade-major place; and he is descended from the to the king's troops. He there joined family of Auchmuty, in Scotland, the staff of General Meadows, on the The Rev. Dr. Auchnuty had but two removal of whom to Madras, Colonel sons, the youngest of whom is a mer. Abercrombie succeeded to the governchant in North America. He had ment of Bombay, and selected Sir also three daughters, who are all Samuel Auchmuty as his confidential married.

staff officer. In this situation he When the American war broke served until his return to England in out, that fatal error of an obstinate 1797. Sir Samuel Auchmuty was cabinet, Dr. Auchmuty lost his ec- many years adjutant-general in India, clesiastical preferment; and at this and military secretary to the Comtime his son was a student at the mander in Chief. college of New York, in which he In the year 1799, Colonel Auchobtained the degree of bachelor of muty left England for the Red Sea, arts. It is said, that he displayed on board his Majesty's ship Romney, some power of mind while here. Captain Sir Hoine Popham, and at His father destined him for the the Cape of Good Hope assumed the church, but the activity of his son's command of a brigade, which he took character made him averse from such out with him to Suez. Having joine a mode of lite. His wishes pointed ed the Indian army under his friend towards a military capacity; and these Sir David Baird, he crossed the desert wishes commenced in his earliest with it into Egypt, where he becaine years. In the year 1776, therefore, adjutant-general. he joined the royal army under Sir In 1802 he returned to England, William Howe, and obtained an and at the commencement of the

preensigncy in the 45th regiment, in sent war was appointed to the comwhich he saw much active service, mand of the Island of Thanet, where having been present at most of the he remained until he was ordered to actions in that and the subsequent South Ainerica. In the month of campaign.

October, 1800, Sir Samuel AuchOn the return of his majesty's muty sailed from England with an troops from North America, Sir Sa- expedition destined to reinforce Gemuel Auchmuty exchanged into the neral Beresford in Buenos Ayres. 52d regiment, and accompanied that On his arrival, however, in the Rio corps to India, where he served during de la Plata, he found that city no the Mysore war, and against the longer in possession of the British Rohillas. Here he attracted the at- troops. tention of Lord Cornwallis, by whom The conduct of General Anchmuty, he was appointed Deputy Judge Ad- in the assault of the important fortress vocate General of Madras, prior to of Monte Video, is universally known, UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL.IX.

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and has received no less applause than my boys, iny life is but that of a com. so gallant an action deserved. The mon soldier." critical situation in which he was After the disasters which succeedplaced made it necessary to adopt ed, Sir Samuel Auchmuty embarked those measures, which proved even- on board the Saracen frigate for Eng. tually successful. He had not powder land, where he arrived on the 12th of remaining sufficient for two days, and September, and brought the first ina formidable attack on his rear was telligence to Europe of our misforhourly expected, as an army of 7 or tunes in South America. 8000 Spaniards were approaching to Since his return to England, Sir raise the siege. These circumstances Samuel has resided at bis seat in

couvinced the General of the neces- Kent, near Fevershan), calle S; ndale • sily of carrying the town by, assault House. On the 8th of May of the without loss of time. Though he was present year, he was promoted to the perfectly sensible that his loss would rank of major-general. be extremely severe, and though he There are few officers in the ser. felt reluctant at the sacrifice he must vice who have had the advantage of a unavoidably make, yet he saw that it more liberal education than Sir Såwas necessary by a partial evil to avert muel Auchmuty, or who possess a that fate which would in all proba- greater fund of military information, bility have awaited the whole of bis in his character there is nothing subrave troops, had the assault been de- perficial, volatile, vain-glorious, or layed but another day:-(See Univer- self-sufficient; it is marked by the sál Mag, vol. vii. p. 378.)

most unassuming modesty, a trait Sir Samuel Auchmuty continued which ever accompanies true merit, to exercise the chief command in and gives additional lustre to the other Monte Video until the arrival of Ge- qualificaticns by which he is adorned. neral Whitelocke on the 10th of May. During the period of his government, Mr. Hayley a Borower from Tromhis justice and clemency gained him the affection of all the inhabitants. Sir, The grateful sense they entertained of


KNOW not that it has been obhis lenity on the day of victory, and of served by any reader of Mr. Heya the mildness of his administration, ley's Life of Cowper, that the conwill be seen in the address of the Ca- cluding lines of his epitaph upon that bildo, presented to Colonel Brown poet seems to have been imitated from after the departure of Sir Samuel, and a passage in Thomson's Winter. I previous to the evacuation of the allude to the following, where, speakplace.

ing of Pope, he says, At the attack on Buenos Ayres, Sir For tho' not sweeter his own llomer singi, Samuel Auchmuty headed the right Yet is his life the more endearing sang: wing, which advanced against the

Irinter, l. 554. Plaza de los Toros.

Now these lines appear to me to In this enterprise, which was at have been palpably imitated in the tended with such complete success, following couplet on Cowper : he displayed the utmost personal in- His highest honors to the heart belong, trepdity and valour. He put himself His virtues form'd the magic of his song: at the head of his grenadiers, and by Life of Couper, z. iv. p. 189. Sro. Ed. his example inspired them with a re- If this literary scrap be worth your sistless enthusiasm. In the midst of notice it is at your service, and the hottest and most destructive fire,

I remain, &c. his gallant conırades falling around June 19, 1808. him in every direction, he continued undauntedly to rush on, exclaiming, Observations on the AFFINITIES OF while he waved his hat in the air, NATURE in Birds and ANIMALS. • Follow me, my brave lads, the day By J. J. VIREY. is ours.” When they earnestly, en. treated him not to expose himselfso A Sithe ascending degrees of intel.

ligence in quadrupeds seem to much, he replied, “Think not of me, be terminated by the family of apes,



the poles.

so in birds, parrots seem to hold. haps, the utmost extent of mind in the same rank in the scale of nature. the dog, and in the elephant; but

If strength, courage, or arms alone who has ever examined that of the gave empre in nature, the lion orang outang? We have treated apes would be the king of the earth, hitherto only as slaves; we speak to the eagle the tyrant of the air, and them with the whip in our hands, the shark the lord of the ocean. and with menaces on our tongues: in But, whatever may be the power of no respect have we sought to make these depredatory animals, it disap- them familiar, domestic, or attentive. pears before the human species : to We amuse ourselves with their grihim alone belongs the sceptre of the maces and their dexterity, but have world, and the fiercest beings are never observed them with philosocompelled to submit to his yoke. phic attention. We have taught them

It is less to the vigour of his body to please, not to display all the rethan to the power of his mind, that sources of their organization, all the manowes his conquests and his powers extent of their conceptions. It is not in the universe. What a disparity is possible that they should be more dull there between the strength of man than dogs, being better organized and that of an elephant or a whale! than they; for we constantly observe Yet, he tames the one and harpoons that the intellectual faculties of ani. the other, even under the ice of mals are in proportion to their organi

The musquet subdues zation. Because we are unacquainted the eagle in the midst of his towering with all the intellectual powers of the flight, and teaches him the inefficacy apes, are we therefore to conclude of his wings against his powerful that they are, in fact, few? They enemy.

are very distant from the human We must not, therefore, consider species, it must be confessed; but living beings under the relation of they are not so distant as the dog. physical power, but under that of in- Besides, what other animals carry telligential or mental energy. Man, the imitative faculty to so high a deindeed, is so elevated and so supreme gree? This extreme pliability of above other animals, that we know their organs, supposes also a great not whom to place after him: he deal in their moral faculties which seems out of his place in the grada- put them in motion. Man, in his tion of the universe. But let us sup- most acute productions, in his most pose

that he did not exist, and that ingenious acts, does but imitate nahe had not imparted any of his intel- ture; the ape imitates nan; the ligence to the dog and to the domestic young quadruped imitates its parents, elephant, to which of the wild uncul- and each being has its education more tivated animals should we decree the or less perfect, according to its faculsuperiority of mind? Doubtless to ties. All imitation necessarily supthose which might have the greatest poses comparison, and all comparianalogies with our species: for if son becomes judgment. we consider instinct alone independ- Independently of these considera: ently of intelligence, we must place tions, we meet with analogies between the bee and the beaver in the first viviparous quadrupeds and bids; rank, and man himself would descend analogies, so much the more striking, below the brute, because instinct is as they are not confined to some par. less active in him than in other ani- ticular case, but extend through the mals.

whole class and under different rela. But the moral qualities of living lions. It seems as if nature took beings are more perfect in proportion pleasure in tracing these reminisas they offer greater affinities with cences from one class to the other: as those of man, who is at the very top if she felt a regret at abandoning the of the scale in this particular. What first track of her work. Thus, the ever may be the intelligence of the family of cats, panthers, leopards, dog, of the elephant, and of the beaver &c. has its counterpart in the difiein a state of nature, their organization rent species of ow]s, &c. which have is not so susceptible of perfection as a large head, sparkling eyes, and that of apes. We alrearly know, per- crooked claws. These two species

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