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On the coming into force of the present Convention, the French Government will transmit a certified copy to the Powers which under the Treaties of Peace have undertaken to accept and observe it, and are in consequence placed in the same position as the Contracting Parties. The names of these Powers will be notified to the States which adhere.
In faith whereof, the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention.
Done at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the tenth day of September, one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, in a single copy which will remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, and of which authenticated copies will be sent to each of the signatory Powers.
(Signed) Frank L. Polk, Henry White, Tasker H. Bliss, Hymans,
van den Heuvel, E. Vandervelde, Arthur James Bal-
And whereas, the said Convention was ratified on the part of the United States of America on the seventh day of March, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine, subject to the following reservation: "Should any dispute whatever arise between any of the high contracting parties and the United States relative to the application of the present convention which can not be settled by negotiation, such dispute shall be submitted to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague established by the convention of October 18, 1907, or to such other arbitral tribunal upon which the parties to the dispute may agree";
And whereas, the instrument of ratification by the Government of the United States of the said Convention, as above recited, was, in conformity with Article XI thereof, deposited with the Government of the French Republic on March 22, 1929;
And whereas, the said Convention has been duly ratified also on the parts of Belgium, the British Empire, France, Japan and Portugal, and their instruments of ratification have been deposited with the Government of the French Republic;
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Herbert Hoover, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Convention to be made public, to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof, subject to the aforesaid reservation. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this twenty-sixth day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and [SEAL] twenty-nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and fifty-third.
By the President:
(Signed) Herbert Hoover.
Frank B. Kellogg, Secretary of State.
SPITSBERGEN-TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS RELATING THERETO
Signed at Paris, February 9, 1920; ratification advised by the Senate, February 18, 1924; ratified by the President, March 4, 1924; ratification of the United States, deposited with the Government of France, April 2, 1924; proclaimed, June 10, 1924
(Treaty Series, No. 686; 43 Statutes at Large, 1892)
The President of the United States of America; His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, Emperor of India; His Majesty the King of Denmark; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Majesty the King of Norway; Her Majesty the Queen of The Netherlands; His Majesty the King of Sweden,
Desirous, while recognising the sovereignty of Norway over the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, including Bear Island, of seeing these territories provided with an equitable régime, in order to assure their development and peaceful utilisation,
Have appointed as their respective Pienipotentiaries with a view to concluding a Treaty to this effect:
The President of the United States of America:
Mr. Hugh Campbell Wallace, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America at Paris;
His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, Emperor of India:
The Right Honourable the Earl of Derby, K. G., G. C. V. O., C. B., His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Paris; and For the Dominion of Canada: The Right Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, K. C. M. G., High Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom;
For the Commonwealth of Australia: The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for Australia in the United Kingdom:
For the Dominion of New Zealand: The Right Honourable Sir Thomas MacKenzie, K. C. M. G., High Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom;
For the Union of South Africa: Mr. Reginald Andrew Blankenberg, O. B. E., Acting High Commissioner for South Africa in the United Kingdom;
For India: The Right Honourable the Earl of Derby, K. G., G. C. V. O., C. B.;
His Majesty the King of Denmark:
Mr. Herman Anker Bernhoft, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Denmark at Paris;
The President of the French Republic;
Mr. Alexandre Millerand, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
His Majesty the King of Italy;
The Honourable Maggiorino Ferraris, Senator of the Kingdom; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan;
Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris;
His Majesty the King of Norway;
Baron Wedel Jarlsberg, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Norway at Paris;
Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands;
Mr. John Loudon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Queen of the Netherlands at Paris;
His Majesty the King of Sweden;
Count J.-J.-A. Ehrensvärd, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Sweden at Paris;
Who, having communicated their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to recognise, subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, the full and absolute sovereignty of Norway over the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, comprising, with Bear Island or Beeren-Eiland, all the islands situated between 10° and 35° longitude East of Greenwich and between 74° and 81° latitude North, especially West Spitsbergen, North-East Land, Barents Island, Edge Island, Wiche Islands, Hope Island or Hopen-Eiland, and Prince Charles Foreland, together with all islands great or small and rocks appertaining thereto (see annexed map). ARTICLE 2. Ships and nationals of all the High Contracting Parties shall enjoy equally the rights of fishing and hunting in the territories specified in Article 1 and in their territorial waters.
Norway shall be free to maintain, take or decree suitable measures to insure the preservation and, if necessary, the re-constitution of the fauna and flora of the said regions, and their territorial waters; it being clearly understood that these measures shall always be applicable equally to the nationals of all the High Contracting Parties without any exemption, privilege or favour whatsoever, direct or indirect to the advantage of any one of them.
Occupiers of land whose rights have been recognised in accordance with the terms of Articles 6 and 7 will enjoy the exclusive right of hunting on their own land: (1) in the neighbourhood of their habitations, houses, stores, factories and installations, constructed for the purpose of developing their property, under conditions laid down by the local police regulations; (2) within a radius of 10 kilometres round the headquarters of their place of business or works; and in both cases, subject always to the observance of regulations made by the Norwegian Government in accordance with the conditions laid down in the present Article.
ARTICLE 3. The nationals of all the High Contracting Parties shall have equal liberty of access and entry for any reason or object whatever to the waters, fjords and ports of the territories specified in Article 1; subject to the observance of local laws and regulations, they may carry on there without impediment all maritime, industrial, mining and commercial operations on a footing of absolute equality.
They shall be admitted under the same conditions of equality to the exercise and practice of all maritime, industrial, mining or com
mercial enterprises both on land and in the territorial waters, and no monopoly shall be established on any account or for any enterprise whatever.
Notwithstanding any rules relating to coasting trade which may be in force in Norway, ships of the High Contracting Parties going to or coming from the territories specified in Article I shall have the right to put into Norwegian ports on their outward or homeward voyage for the purpose of taking on board or disembarking passengers or cargo going to or coming from the said territories, or for any other purpose.
It is agreed that in every respect and especially with regard to exports, imports and transit traffic, the nationals of all the High Contracting Parties, their ships and goods shall not be subject to any charges or restrictions whatever which are not borne by the nationals, ships or goods which enjoy in Norway the treatment of the most favoured nation; Norwegian nationals, ships or goods being for this purpose assimilated to those of the other High Contracting Parties, and not treated more favourably in any respect.
No charge or restrictions shall be imposed on the exportation of any goods to the territories of any of the Contracting Powers other or more onerous than on the exportation of similar goods to the territory of any other Contracting Power (including Norway) or to any other destination.
ARTICLE 4. All public wireless telegraphy stations established or to be established by, or with the authorisation of, the Norwegian Government within the territories referred to in Article 1 shall always be open on a footing of absolute equality to communications' from ships of all flags and from nationals of the High Contracting Parties, under the conditions laid down in the Wireless Telegraphy Convention of July 5, 1912, or in the subsequent International Convention which may be concluded to replace it.
Subject to international obligations arising out of a state of war, owners of landed property shall always be at liberty to establish and use for their own purposes wireless telegraphy installations, which shall be free to communicate on private business with fixed or moving wireless stations, including those on board ships and aircraft.
ARTICLE 5. The High Contracting Parties recognise the utility of establishing an international meteorological station in the territories specified in Article 1, the organisation of which shall form the subject of a subsequent Convention.
Conventions shall also be concluded laying down the conditions under which scientific investigations may be conducted in the said territories.
ARTICLE 6. Subject to the provisions of the present Article, acquired rights of nationals of the High Contracting Parties shall be recognised.
Claims arising from taking possession or from occupation of land before the signature of the present Treaty shall be dealt with in accordance with the Annex hereto, which will have the same force and effect as the present Treaty.
ARTICLE 7. With regard to methods of acquisition, enjoyment and exercise of the right of ownership of property, including mineral rights, in the territories specified in Article 1, Norway undertakes to
grant to all nationals of the High Contracting Parties treatment based on complete equality and in conformity with the stipulations of the present Treaty.
Expropriation may be resorted to only on grounds of public utility and on payment of proper compensation.
ARTICLE 8. Norway undertakes to provide for the territories specified in Article 1 mining regulations which, especially from the point of view of imposts, taxes or charges of any kind, and of general or particular labour conditions, shall exclude all privileges, monopolies or favours for the benefit of the State or of the nationals of any one of the High Contracting Parties, including Norway, and shall guarantee to the paid staff of all categories the remuneration and protection necessary for their physical, moral and intellectual welfare.
Taxes, dues and duties levied shall be devoted exclusively to the said territories and shall not exceed what is required for the object in view. So far, particularly, as the exportation of minerals is concerned, the Norwegian Government shall have the right to levy an export duty which shall not exceed 1% of the maximum value of the minerals exported up to 100,000 tons, and beyond that quantity the duty will be proportionately diminished. The value shall be fixed at the end of the navigation season by calculating the average free on board price obtained.
Three months before the date fixed for their coming into force, the draft mining regulations shall be communicated by the Norwegian Government to the other Contracting Powers. If during this period one or more of the said Powers propose to modify these regulations before they are applied, such proposals shall be communicated by the Norwegian Government to the other Contracting Powers in order that they may be submitted to examination and the decision of a Commission composed of one representative of each of the said Powers. This Commission shall meet at the invitation of the Norwegian Government and shall come to a decision within a period of three months from the date of its first meeting. Its decisions shall be taken by a majority. ARTICLE 9. Subject to the rights and duties resulting from the admission of Norway to the League of Nations, Norway undertakes not to create nor to allow the establishment of any naval base in the territories specified in Article 1 and not to construct any fortification in the said territories, which may never be used for warlike purposes. ARTICLE 10. Until the recognition by the High Contracting Parties of a Russian Government shall permit Russia to adhere to the present Treaty, Russian nationals and companies shall enjoy the same rights as nationals of the High Contracting Parties.
Claims in the territories specified in Article 1 which they may have to put forward shall be presented under the conditions laid down in the present Treaty (Article 6 and Annex) through the intermediary of the Danish Government, who declare their willingness to lend their good offices for this purpose.
The present treaty, of which the French and English texts are both authentic, shall be ratified.
Ratifications shall be deposited at Paris as soon as possible. Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe may confine their action to informing the Government of the French Republic, through their diplomatic representative at Paris, that their