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From 100 parts of best Sicilian Wheat
Good English Wheat, 1803
"From this analysis may fairly be weight of insoluble matter, or bran, deduced, that bread made of the Hour is no more than 2 per cent. when comof spring wheat is more nutritious than pared with good English winter wheat. that made of winter wheat; because spring wheat contains a larger proportion of gluten, or half-animalized matter; and also that a miller ought not to deduct from the price of spring colnshire where it is best known. Both wheat more than 2 per cent. on the these qualities are probably owing to money price of winter wheat of the the excess of gluten contained it it,” same weight, as the excess of the
"Bread made of spring wheat is rather less white than that made of the better sorts of winter wheat; but it is allowed to be more palatable in Lin
BIOGRAPHY OF REMARKABLE PERSONS.
Memoir of the DUKE of BRUNSWICK. part of both Austria and France; but THE HE princes of Germany being the Duke afterward became reconciled bred to the profession of arms from to the measure. their infancy, the events of their lives are uniformly found to embrace a great deal of military history, and the Duke of Brunswick being descended from a long race of ancestors eminently warlike, he was accordingly brought up under that great general, Prince Ferdinand, his uncle, in the science of war, and to whose example and instructions he attended with unabating
His father, the Reigning Duke of Brunswick, and the elder brother of the celebrated Prince Ferdinand, being desirous of averting from his dominions the evils arising from the Convention of Closterseven, at a time when the French armies were overrunning Hanover, under Marshal Richlien, concluded a treaty with the contending powers then at war, by virtue of which his troops were to depart from the camp of the allies, and his dominions to be considered as neutral. His intentions, however, were frustrated by Prince Ferdinand, who, hav- the Prince, Chabot surrendered. This ing the command of the army of the first exploit of the young warrior was allies, acting against the troops of heightened by the circumstance of his the king of France, took it upon him not being provided with heavy artilto detain the forces of the Duke of lery to besiege the place, and the eneBrunswick, among which was the my in some force advancing to relieve Hereditary Prince, as he was then the Count.
The Hereditary Prince, who had served the latter campaigns in the troops of his father, signalized himself in a short time by his conduct and extraordinary acts of bravery. His first exploit was the taking of Hoya, towards the end of February 1758. Having been detached with four battalions, some light troops and dragoons, to dislodge the Count de Chabot, then posted in the neighbourhood of that town, he passed the Weser at Bremen, with part of his detachment, while the rest advanced on the other side of the river, and the enemy being attacked in front and rear, were in a short time thrown into confusion. In this action, the bridge over the river being aban-" doned, and the force under the Hereditary Prince having made seven hundred prisoners, the Count de Chabot, with two battalions of French infantry, threw himself into the castle, and soon after proposed terms of capitulation, which having been agreed to by
Having thus signalized himself, he called, notwithstanding the treaty signed by his brother. This circum- marched to attack Minden, which he stance was looked upon by the Belli- invested on the 5th of March, and on gerent Powers as a breach of faith, and the 14th the garrison surrendered at it produced a solemn protest on the discretion. When the French were UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.
retreating in great disorder towards the but being attacked by the Hereditary Rhine, he was extremely active in the Prince with his accustomed spirit and pursuit of them, and at the battle of resolution, that his troops were totally Crevelt, in which his uncle Prince defeated, with the loss of six pieces of Ferdinand intrusted him with the cannon, and a considerable number of command of the left wing, he evinced killed, wounded, and prisoners. equal ability and courage in that important station.
The Duke of Wirtemberg having taken possession of Fulda, he resolved to beat up the quarters of that Prince, and on the 28th of November marched from Marpurg, with a select body of troops to effect his purpose. The night following he defeated the volunteers of Nassau, and afterwards marched directly to Fulda, where the Duke of
Prince Ferdinand having determined from various circumstances to repass the Rhine, accordingly made the necessary dispositions for forcing the strong pass of Wachendonck, an island surrounded by the Niers, of very difficult approach, and situated exactly in his route to the former river. The Wirtemberg was far from expecting onemy having drawn up the bridge, a visit of that nature. The Heredi the Hereditary Prince, to whom this tary Prince having reconnoitred in service had been assigned, rushed into person, took such measures, that the river at the head of his grenadiers, the troops of Wirtemberg, being scatdrove the enemy back at the point of tered in small bodies, would inevitably the bayonet, and cleared the bridge have been cut off, if they had not hasfor the passage of the grand army then tily retired into the town, where, howadvancing towards Rhinebergen. ever, they found no shelter The Prince forced open the gates, and they retired to the other side of the town, where four battalions were made prisoners, while the Duke himself and the remainder of his forces filed off another way. Two pieces of cannon, two pair of colours, and all their baggage fell into the hands of the victors.
The scheme of operations for the campaign of 1759, being formed between the King of Prussia and Prince Ferdinand, several skirmishes took place early in the year, between the contending armies. On the 31st of March the Hereditary Prince, with a body of Prussian hussars, fell upon the Austrians at Molichstadt, where he routed a regiment of Hohenzollern curiassiers, and a battalion of the troops of Wurtsburg; he, next day, advanced with a body of horse and foot to Meinungen, where he found a considerable greatFrederick,at Freyberg in Saxony. magazine, took two battalions prisoners, and surprised a third posted at Wafungen, after having defeated some Austrians, who were marching to its relief.
At the close of this campaign, the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick was detached with 15,000 men, to join the King of Prussia, and had the satisfaction to fight under the orders of the
In the beginning of the year 1760 he began his march from Cheninity in Saxony, for Westphalia, where he safely arrived, and was detached in the month of May, with some battalions of grenadiers, and two regiments
At the battle of Minden, which was fought on the first of August, and of English dragoons, and advanced to where the allies, under the command Fulda, where he surprized and took of his uncle, Prince Ferdinand, gain- several parties of the enemy. At his ed a complete victory, he contributed return from this expedition, he was considerably to the eventual success posted on the left of the army, and had resulting from it, by encountering on to oppose the greatest efforts of Marthe same day the Duke of Brissac, in shal de Broglio, at the battle of Corthe neighbourhood of Coveltd, and bach, and though obliged to retreat, having overcome that officer and his he maintained his reputation by redetachment, prevented the Marshal de peated proofs of abilities and valour. Contades from making his retreat, as In this affair he received a slight he proposed doing, by the defiles of wound in his shoulder. Wittlekendthein. The Duke de Brissac had been advantageously encamped, with his left to the village of Coveldt, having the Werne in his front, and his right extending to the salt-pits,
Prince Ferdinand being obliged to abandon the strong position of Sachsenhausen, and evacuate the country of Hesse, resolved to use his utmost endeavours to keep his communica
He order invested Wesel on both banks of the Rhine. But his measures in this wellconcerted enterprize were defeated; the place having been provided by the Marquis de Castries with provisions, ammunition, and troops, and the continued heavy rains, and the consequent swelling of the Rhine, impeded, and ultimately frustrated all the operations of the siege.
tion with Westphalia free.
The Prince having been informed that the Marquis de Castries had marched with a strong body of troops, set out by forced marches and resolved On the 5th of August, the Heredi- to encounter him, arriving at Rhyntary Prince set out with a detachment berg on the 14th of October, where on an expedition to break up the quar- his light troops were posted. The ters of a body of French forces can- Prince was compelled to abandon this toned at Zirenberg, at a small distance position, notwithstanding all his efforts, from the French camp. He marched commanding in person, and appearwith so much caution and secrecy, and ing in the warmest parts of this short all his measures were so judiciously but bloody action. The enemy posted taken, that the troops were surprized, five battalions and some squadrons at and had no time to assemble in any Rhynberg, marched by the left, and considerable number; but having fired encamped at Clostercamp, near the from the windows, the allied forces convent of Cawpen. burst open the houses and slaughtered without mercy. The Prince made 400 prisoners, including 40 officers, besides 12 pieces of cannon, and the British troops, who formed a part of the detachment, displayed both great courage and activity.
The troops under general Bulow having been beaten by the Count de Stainville, near Minden, the Hereditary Prince came to his assistance by forced marches, and obliged the French general to retire towards Frankenberg.
The Prince far from being discou raged by these two unsuccessful attempts, resolved to carry his project into execution, by surprizing the French in their camp. For this pur pose he began his march about ten o'clock in the evening of the 15th of October, after having left four battalions and five squadrons under General Rook, with instructions to observe Rhynberg, and attack that post, in case the attempt on Clostercamp should succeed. His march was so well concerted, that he arrived at the French camp, without being perceived by Fisher's troops and the outposts. He was not 60 paces from the front of the camp, when an officer of the regi ment of Auvergne was stopped, and ordered, with fixed bayonets presented to his breast, to be silent; but he nobly sacrificed his life to his duty, and ex claimed with all the power of utterance, "Auvergne, here is the enemy." This call was repeated by the centinels; the naked soldiers ran to aims, and though attacked suddenly with impetuosity by the Prince, the regiments of Auvergne and Alsace fought with so much resolution and bravery, that the rest of the army had the necessary time to be drawn up in order of battle, in which several regiments were judiciously posted. The
But while the war was carrying on in this manner by small detachments, and Prince Ferdinand and Marshal Broglio, the commanders in chief of the two contending armies, were practising every means to deceive each other as to their real projects, Prince Ferdinand's design to cut off the communication of the Marshal with France, by the Lower Rhine, was made known in September by the narch of the Hereditary Prince through Westphalia, with 20 batta, lions and as many squadrons. The Prince on his march surprised a detachment of Austrians, under Fisher, a German partisan, crossed the Rhine at Dusseldorff, Rees, and Emmerick, advanced to Cleves, forced its garrison to surrender prisoners of war, and
Prince, whose horse was killed under him, after repeated attacks, seeing no prospect of success, thought proper to give orders for a retreat, which was effected without confusion.
The next day the enemy attacked an advanced body of the allies, posted in a wood before Elverick, and extending along the Rhine, while another column of the French army marched through Walach, and took post among the thickets, at the distance of a quarter of a league in the front of the Prince's army. His position became every minute more critical and dangerous; the Rhine being so much swelled by the rains, and the banks so overflowed, that it was necessary to repair and move the bridge, which had been thrown over that river lower down. This work was performed in the presence of the enemy, and the Prince passing without molestation, proceeded to Bruymen, where he fixed his head quarters. His crossing the Rhine under the eye of a victorious army, and so much superior to him in number, afforded him the greatest honour.
In the month of November, when he was encamped in the neighbourhood of Shermbeck, a body of the enemy attempted to dislodge him; but by well combined dispositions, he routed them with the loss of 300 men; after which he marched to join the army of the allies, which Prince Ferdinand was determined to bring again into the field.
While the French were masters of the whole territory of Hesse, enjoyed extended winter quarters, abundantly provided with all necessary provisions, and secured by many fortresses, Prince Ferdinand had been forced to retire, about the middle of December, into winter quarters, at Uslar and Paderborne, in a narrow and exhausted country. Sensible of the inconveniences of his own situation, and of the advantage the enemy had over him, he resolved to strike the first blow; having for this purpose, on the 9th of February 1761, assembled all his forces with the greatest secrecy, he entrusted the command of the troops on the right to the Hereditary Prince, who pushed forward with the utmost expedition, into the heart of the French quarters; leaving the country of Hesse a little
to the east, he attacked Fritzlar, tried to take it by assault; but the spirited defence of the garrison obliged him to withdraw. After having spread alarms in the French army, and harassed it in his retreat, he was ordered to cover the front of the main army, which was occupied in the siege of Cassel, and the blockade of the other fortresses, and at the same time to watch the motions, and oppose any sudden attempt of Marshal de Broglio. As soon as the general had collected his forces, he advanced with his whole army against the Hereditary Prince, who, notwithstanding his great exertions, could not prevent a column of 2,000 men from being cut off and taken prisoners by the French; but he acted with so much spirit and caution in this arduous retreat, that Prince Ferdinand had sufficient time to recal his various detachments, and put together his whole army, which safely evacuated the country of Hesse, and retired into the former winter quarters.
After the battle of Fellinghausen, fought on the 16th of July, the French armies were disunited the rest of the campaign. The party under the Prince de Soubise passed the Lippe, and the Hereditary Prince was detached with an inferior army to check his progress: in this he succeeded, and by a well concerted attack upon the French garrison at Dorsteck, where ovens had been constructed, with the preparations for the siege of Munster, he put an effectual stop to their progress, and compelled the Prince de Soubise to retire from the Lippe. But the Hereditary Prince was soon called from this enterprize, in order to defend the dominions of his father. The Count de Broglio and Prince Xavier of Saxony, having taken possession of Wolfenbuttel,and afterwards invested Brunswick, he forced them to evacuate the first place, and to abandon their enterprize with such precipitation as to leave their cannon behind them.
In the campaign which took place in 1762, the French army on the Lower Rhine being entrusted to the Prince of Condé, the hereditary Prince was posted with a strong detachment in the bishopric of Munster to check his progress. The Marshal
d'Etrees and the Prince de Soubise fion; and he became one of the prinhaving been defeated by Prince Fer- cipal generals of that renowned modinand near Grabenstern, called to narch. their assistance the army of the Lower A little time after the action which Rhine, the Hereditary Prince followed has been just described, peace was up his motions with so much alacrity restored between the belligerent naand ability, that possessing himself of tions, and his Serene Highness rethe heights of Joannlberg, the 31st of turned to his own country to cultiAugust, he prevented the junction of vate the blessings resulting from a the two French armies, and waited state so opposite to war. Being unonly for his artillery to anuoy the employed, and intending to settle in army of Condé, stationed in a lower life, he turned his thoughts to maground; but this prince, sensible of trimony, and fixed on the Princess the danger, and convinced that no Augusta, daughter of Frederick, other means were left to extricate Prince of Wales, and sister to his himself out of his position but a bold Britannic Majesty: the marriage was and sudden attempt, he ordered a accordingly solemnized on the 12th regiment distinguished for undaunted of January, 1764, and he soon became courage, to march up to the enemy the father of a numerous progeny. without firing, and to drive them Shortly after his marriage he was with fixed bayonets from the heights. elected a Knight of the most noble It is necessary to observe, that this order of the Garter, an honour conregiment was not formed in column, ferred on few foreign princes. but drawn in a line of battle of five battalions, the first being composed of its companies of grenadiers and rangers. They marched with quick step the length of a mile, on a steep and gradually ascending ground, had three discharges of the enemy's artillery to sustain, by which they lost more than 500 men and 40 officers, the chef d'œuvre of the art, because killed and wounded, without being there was nothing but marches and at all discouraged or relaxing in their counter marches in it, had its merits march; the troops under the Heredi- appreciated by a better judge, Fretary Prince, astonished at such intre- deric himself, who declared it would pidity, gave way after their third dis- have been highly ridiculous if secret charge, in the very moment when the negociations had not at every turn cannon of the assailants had reached retarded the military progress and the summit of the heights. The He- operations. reditary Prince made every effort to rally his troops, and in that attempt was dangerously wounded and very near being taken prisoner, while his cannon and a great number of his soldiers fell into the hands of the victors. Though this affair proved unsuc- sidered as a model for the imitation cessful, yet the firmness, the courage, in the governments of the sovereigns and the resources of the Hereditary on the continent. He acquired, as Prince, together with his free and indeed he merited, the most glorious open disposition, stamped him a hero, of all titles, "The Father of his on whom contending Europe turned Country."
Having become one of the principal generals of the great Frederick, he in that quality commanded a body of the Prussian army in the war in 1778, for the succession in Bavaria, to which the Emperor Joseph fondly aspired. This campaign, which certain declaimers loudly affirmed to be
Two years after this event, the Duke of Brunswick died, and the Hereditary Prince succeeded to the titles and dominions of his father. To the amelioration of the condition of his people he devoted a large portion of his time, and he was always con
her eyes with looks of complacency On the death of the old king of and regard. Brought up by Prince Prussia, his successor wrote a letter Ferdinand his uncle, and having to the Duke of Brunswick with his studied in the school of Frederick the own hand, in which, after extolling Great, who in his camps, his court, his services, he intimated that he and his writings, incessantly gave him had conferred on him the rank of proofs of his distinguished predilec- Field Marshal.