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the bishop's bailiff, and the holders of the burgages composed | was born at Burnham, Essex, in 1809. She carly began to draw the juries of the bishop's courts leet and baron. No charter of and to etch on copper, being a regular visitor to the print-room incorporation is extant, but in 1563 contests were carried on of the British Museum from the age of ten. She also illuminated under the name of the bailiffs, burgesses and commonally, and on vellum, copying the old strawberry borders and designing a list of borough accounts exists for 1696. The bishop appointed initials. In 1839 Margaret Scott married the Rev. Alfred Gatty, the last borough bailifi in 1681, and though the inhabitants in D.D., vicar of Ecclesfield near Sheffield, subdean of York 1772 petitioned for a bailiff the town remained under a steward cathedral, and the author of various works both secular and reand grassmen until the 19th century. As part of the palatinate ligious. In 1842 she published in association with her husband a of Durham, Gateshead was not represented in parliament until life of her father; but her first independent work was The Fairy 1832. At the inquisition of 1336 the burgesscs claimed an annual Godmother and other Tales, which appeared in 1851. This was fair on St Peter's Day, and depositions in 1577 mention a borough followed in 1855 by the first of five volumes of Parables from market held on Tuesday and Friday, but these were apparently Nature, the last being published in 1871. It was under the nom extinct in Camden's day, and no grant of them is extant. The de plume of Aunt Judy, as a pleasant and instructive writer for medieval trade seems to have centred round the fisheries and the children, that Mrs Gaity was most widely known. Bclore startneighbouring coal mines which are mentioned in 1364 and also ing Auni Judy's Maguzine in May 1866, she had brought out by Leland.
Aunl Judy's Talcs (1858) and Auni Judy's Lellers (1862), and GATH, one of the five chief citics of the Philistines. It is among the other children's books which she subsequently frequently mentioned in the historical books of the Old Testament, published were Auni Judy's Song Book for Children and The and from Amos vi. 2 we conclude that, like Ashdod, it fell to Mother's Book of Poetry. " Aunt Judy” was the nickname given Sargon in 711. Its site appears to have been known in the 4th by her daughter Juliana Horatia Ewing (9.0.). The editor of the century, but the name is now lost. Eusebius (in the Onomasticon) magazine was on the friendliese terms with her young correplaces it near the road from Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin) to spondents and subscribers, and her success was largely due to the Diospolis (Ludd) about five Roman miles from the former. The sympathy which enabled her to look at things from the child's Roman road between these two towns is still traceable, and its point of view. Besides other excellences her children's books milestones remain in places. East of the road at the required are specially characterized by wholesomeness of sentiment and distance rises a white cliff, almost isolated, 300 ft. high and cheerful humour. Her miscellaneous writings include, in addition full of caves. On the top is the little mud village of Tell eş-Şafi to several volumes of tales, The Old Folks from Home, an account (“the shining mound "), and beside the village is the mound of a holiday ramble in Ireland; The Travels and Adventures of which marks the site of the Crusaders' castle of Blanchegarde | Dr Wolf the Missionary (1861), an autobiography edited by (Alba Custodia), built in 1144. Tell eş-Şafi was known by its her; British Sca l'ecds (1862); Waifs and Strays of Natural present name as far back as the 12th century; but it appears History (1871); A Book of Emblems and The Book of Sunnot improbable that the strong site here existing represents Dials (1872). She died at Ecclesfield vicarage on the 4th of the ancient Gath. The cliff stands on the south side of the October 1873. mouth of the Valley of Elah, and Gath appears to have been GAU, JOHN (c. 1495-? 1553), Scottish translator, was born at near this valley (1 Sam. xvii. 2, 52). This identification is not Perth towards the close of the 15th century. He was educated certain, but it is at least much more probable than the theory in St Salvator's College at St Andrews. He appears to have been which makes Gath, Eleutheropolis, and Beit Jibrin one and the in residence at Malmö in 1533, perhaps as chaplain to the Scots same place. The site was partially excavated by the Palestine community there. In that year John Hochstraten, the exiled Exploration Fund in 1899, and remains extending in date Antwerp printer, issued a book by Gau entitled: The Richt vay back to the early Canaanite period were discovered.
lo the Kingdome of Heuine, of which the chief interest is that it is GATLING, RICHARD JORDAN (1818-1903), American in the first Scottish book written on the side of the Reformers. It is ventor, was born in Hertford county, North Carolina, on the a translation of Christiern Pedersen's Den rellevey till Hicmmcrigis 12th of September 1818. He was the son of a well-lo-do planter Rige (Antwerp, 1531), for the most part direct, but showing and slave-owner, írom whom he inherited a genius for mechanical intimate knowledge in places of the German edition of Urbanus invention and whom he assisted in the construction and perfecting Rhegius. Only one copy of Gau's text is extant, in the library of of machines for sowing coiton seeds, and for thinning the plants. Britwell Court, Bucks. It has been assumed that all the copies He was well educated and was successively a school teacher and a were shipped from Malmö to Scotland, and that the cargo was merchant, spending all his spare time in developing new inven. intercepted by the Scottish officers on the look out for the tions. In 1839 he perfected a practical screw propeller for steam- heretical works which were printed abroad in large numbers. boats, only to find that a patent had been granted to John This may explain the silence of all the historians of the Reformed Ericsson for a similar invention a few months earlier. He estab. Church-Knox, Calderwood and Spoltiswood. Gau married in lished himself in St Louis, Missouri, and taking the cotton-1536 a Malmö citizen's daughter, bearing the Christian name sowing machine as a basis he adapted it for sowing rice, wheat and Birgitta. She died in 1551, and he in or about 1553. other grains, and established faciories for its manufacture. The The first reference to the Richt Vay appeared in Chalmers's introduction of these machines did much to revolutionize the Caledonia, ii. 616. Chalmers, who was the owner of the unique
volume before it passed into the Britwell Court collection, considered agricultural system in the country. Becoming interested in the
it to be an original work. David Laing printed extracts for the study of medicine through an attack of smallpox, he completed a Bannatyne Club (Miscellany, iii., 1855). The evidence that the course atihe Ohio Medical College, taking his M.D.degrecin 1850. book is a translation was first given by Sonnenstein Wendt in a In the same year he invented a hemp-breaking machine, and in
paper. “ Om Reformatorerna i Malmö," in Rördam's Ny Kirke1857 a steam plough. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was edited by A. F. Mitchell for the Scottish Text Society (1888). See
historiske Samlinger, ii. (Copenhagen, 1860). A complete edition was living in Indianapolis, and devoted himself at once to the perfect also Lorimer's Patrick Hamilton. ing of firearms. In 1861 he conceived the idea of the rapid fire GAUDEN, JOHN (1603-1662), English bishop and writer, machine-gun which is associated with his name. By 1862 he reputed author of the Eikon Basilike, was born in 1605 at Mayhad succeeded in perfecting a gun that would discharge 350 land, Essex, where his father was vicar of the parish. Educated shots per minute; but the war was practically over before the at Bury St Edmunds school and at St John's College, Cambridge, Federal authorities consented to its official adoption. From that he took his M.A. degree in 1625/6. He married Elizabeth, time, however, the success of the invention was assured, and daughter of Sir William Russell of Chippenham, Cambridgeshire, within ten years it had been adopted by almost every civilized and was tutor at Oxford to two of his wife's brothers. He seems nation. Gatling died in New York City on the 26th of February to have remained at Oxford until 1630, when he became vicar of 1903.
Chippenham. His sympathies were at first with the parliaGATTY, MARGARET (1809-1873), English writer, daughter of mentary party. He was chaplain to Robert Rich, second earl of the Rev. Alexander Scott (1768-1840), chaplain to Lord Nelson, I Warwick, and preached before the House of Commons in 1640, In 1641 he was appointed to the rural deanery of Bocking. I lolke Archbishop of Canterbury concerning Eikon Basilike (1825): Apparently his views changed as the revolutionary tendency of Bishop. Gauden. The Author of the Icôn Basilikè (1829): W.6: the Presbyterian party became more pronounced, for in 1648/9 (1829), supporting the contention in favour of Dr Gauden: Mr he addressed to Lord Fairfax A Religious and Loyal Pro-E. J. L. Scott's introduction to his reprint (1880) of the original testation ... against the proceedings of the parliament. Under edition; articles in the Academy, May and June 1883, by Mr C. E. the Commonwealth he faced both ways, keeping his ecclesiastical Doble ; another reprint
edited by Mr Edward Almack for the King's
Classics (1904); and Edward Almack, Bibliography of the King's preferment, but publishing from time to time pamphlets on behalf Book (1896). "This last book contains a summary of the arguments of the Church of England. At the Restoration he was made on either side, a full bibliography of works on the subject, and bishop of Exeter. He immediately began to complain to Hyde, facsimiles of the title pages, with full descriptions of the various earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of
see, and basc
GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRÉ, CHARLES (1789-1854), French better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon botanist, was born at Angoulême on the 4th of September 1789. Basilike, The Pouriraicture of his sacred Majestic in his Solitudes He studied pharmacy first in the shop of a brother-in-law at and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Cognac, and then under P. J. Robiquet at Paris, where from Charles I. as written by the king himself. To which Clarendon R. L. Desfontaines and L. C. Richard he acquired a knowledge replied that he had been before acquainted with the secret and
of botany. In April 1810 he was appointed dispenser in the had often wished he had remained ignorant of it. Gauden military marine, and from July 1811 to the end of 1814 he served was advanced in 1662, not as he had wished to the see of at Antwerp. In 1817 he joined the corvette “ Uranie ” as Winchester, but to Worcester. He died on the 23rd of May of pharmaceutical botanist to the circumpolar expedition comthe same year.
manded by D. de Freycinet. The wreck of the vessel on the The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chicfly on
Falkland Isles, at the close of 1819, deprived him of more than his own assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent
half the botanical collections he had made in various parts of to her son John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it
the world. In 1830-1833 he visited Chile, Peru and Brazil, and was admitted by Clarendon, who sould have had means of being circumnavigation of the globe. His theory accounting for the
in 1836-1837 he acted as botanist to “ La Bonite” during its acquainted with the truth. Gauden's letters on the subject arc printed in the appendix to vol. iii. of the Clarendon Papers. The growth of plants by the supposed coalescence of elementary argument is that Gauden had prepared the book to inspire
phytons" involved him, during the latter years of his life, sympathy with the king by a representation of his pious and in much controversy with his fellow-botanists, more especially
C. F. B. de Mirbel. He died in Paris on the 16th of January 1854. forgiving disposition, and so to rouse public opinion against his execution. in 1693 further correspondence between Gauden, Beaupré wrote "Lettres sur l'organographie et la physiologie,'
Besides accounts of his voyages round the world, Gaudichaud. Clarendon, the duke of York, and Sir Edward Nicholas was Arch. de botanique, ii., 1883: "Recherches générales sur l'organopublished by Mr Arthur North, who had found them among the graphie," &c. (prize essay, 1835), Mém. de l'Académie des Sciences, papers of his sister-in-law, a daughter-in-law of Bishop Gauden; i. vii. and kindred treatises, with memoirs on the potato-blight, the but doubt has been thrown on the authenticity of these papers. I ledonous plants, and other subjects; and Réfutation de toutes les
multiplication of bulbous plants, the increase in diameter of dicotyGauden stated that he had begun the book in 1647 and was objections contre les nouveaux principes physiologiques (1852). entirely responsible for it. But it is contended that the work was GAUDRY, JEAN ALBERT (1827–1908), French geologist and in existence at Naseby,' and testimony to Charles's authorship palacontologist, was born at St Germain-en-Laye on the 16th is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles of September 1827, and was cducated at the college, Stanislas. himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment. At the age of twenty-five he made explorations in Cyprus and It is stated that the MS. was delivered by one of the king's agents Greece, residing in the latter country from 1855 to 1860. He to Edward Symmons, rector of Raine, near Bocking, and that it then investigated the rich deposit of fossil vertebrata at Pikermi was in the handwriting of Oudart, Sir Edward Nicholas's secretary and brought to light a remarkable mammalian fauna, Miocene The internal evidence has, as is usual in such cases, been brought in age, and intermediate in its forms between European, Asiatic forward as a conclusive argument in favour of both contentions. and African types. He also published an account of the geology Doubt was thrown on Charles's authorship in Milton's Eikonok- of the island of Cyprus (Mém. Soc. Géol. de France, 1862). In lasles (1649), which was followed almost immediately by a royalist 1853, while still in Cyprus, he was appointed assistant to A. answer, The Princely Pelican. Royall Resolves— Extracted from d'Orbigny, who was the first to hold the chair of palaeontology his Majesty's Divine Meditations, with satisfactory reasons ... in the museum of natural history at Paris. In 1872 he succeeded that his Sacred Person was the only Anthor of them (1649). The to this important post; in 1882 he was elected member of the history of the whole controversy, which has been several times Academy of Sciences; and in 1900 he presided over the meetings renewed, was dealt with in Christopher Wordsworth's tracts in of the eighth International Congress of Geology then held in a most exhaustive way. He eloquently advocated Charles's Paris. He died on the 27th of November 1908. He is distinauthorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has guished for his researches on fossil mammalia, and for the support been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy. A correspond- which his studies have rendered to the theory of evolution. ence relating to the French translation of the work has also PUBLICATIONS.-Animaux fossiles cl géologie de l'Allique (2 vols., come to light among the papers of Sir Edward Nicholas. None of 1862-1867); Cours de paleontologie (1873); Animaux fossiles du the letters show any doubt that King Charles was the author.
Mont Lebéron (1873); Les Enchainements du monde animal dans
Fossiles S. R. Gardiner (Hist. of the Great Civil War, iv. 325) regards Mr les temps géologiques , (Mammifères Tertiaires, 1878; Doble's articles in the Academy (May and June 1883) as finally fologie philosophique (1896).
primaires, 1883: Fossiles secondaires, 1890): Essai de paléon.
Bricf memoir with portrait in Geol. disposing of Charles's claim to the authorship, but this is by no Mag. (1903), p. 49.
(H. B. W.). means the attitude of other recent writers. If Gauden was the GAUDY, an adjective meaning showy, very bright, gay, author, he may have incorporated papers, &c., by Charles, who especially with a sense of tasteless or vulgar extravagance, of may have corrected the work and thus been joint-author. This colour or ornament. The accurate origin of the various senses theory would reconcile the conflicting evidence, that of those who which this word and the substantive “gaud” have taken are saw Charles writing parts and read the MS. before publication, somewhat difficult to trace. They are all ultimately to be referred and the deliberate statements of Gauden.
10 the Lat. gaudere, to rejoice, gaudium, joy, some of them See also the article by Richard Hooper in the Dict. Nal. Biog.: directly, others to the French derivative gaudir, to rejoice, and Christopher Wordsworth, Who wrote Eikon Basilike? two letters addressed to the archbishop of Canterbury (1824), and King Charles o Fr. gaudie. As a noun, in the sense of rejoicing or feast, The First, the Author of Icon Basilikė (1828); H. J. Todd, A Leller gaudy" is still used of a commemoration dinner at a college See a note in Archbishop Tenison's handwriting in his copy of the
at the university of Oxford. " Gaud,” meaning generally a toy, Eikon Basilske preserved at Lambeth Palace, and quoted in Almack's a gay adornment, a piece of showy jewelry, is more specifically Bibliography, p. 15.
applicd lo larger and more decorative beads in a rosary.
GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH (1807-1862), Austrian painter,.l language, a ship is said to have the weather gage when she is son of the landscape painter Jacob Gauermann (1773-1843), to windward of another, and similarly the lce gage when to was born at Wiesenbach near Gutenstein in Lower Austria leeward of another; in this sense the word is usually spelt "gage,” on the 20th of September 1807. It was the intention of his father a spelling which prevails in America for all senses. . that he should devote himseif to agriculture, but the example GAUHATI, a town of British India, in the Kamrup district of an elder brother, who, however, died early, fostered his inclina- of Eastern Bengal and Assam, mainly on the left or south, but tion towards art. Under his father's direction he began studies partly on the right bank of the Brahmaputra. Pop. (1901) in-landscape, and he also diligently copied the works of the chief 14,244. It is beautifully situated, with an amphitheatre of masters in animal painting which were contained in the academy wooded hills to the south, but is not very healthy. There are and court library of Vienna. In the summer he made art tours many evidences, such as ancient earthworks and tanks, of its in the districts of Styria, Tirol and Salzburg. Two animal pieces historical importance. During the 17th century it was taken which he exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition of 1824 were regarded and retaken by Mahommedans and Ahoms eight times in fifty as remarkable productions for his years, and led to his receiving years, but in 1681 it became the residence of the Ahom governor commissions in 1825 and 1826 from Prince Metternich and of lower Assam, and in 1786 the capital of the Ahom raja. On Caraman, the French ambassador. His reputation was greatly the cession of Assam to the British in 1826 it was made the seat increased by his picture “ The Storm," exhibited in 1829, and of the British administration of Assam, and so continued till from that time his works were much sought after and obtained 1874, when the headquarters were removed to Shillong in the correspondingly high prices. His“ Field Labourer” was regarded Khasi hills, 67 m. distant, with which Gauhati is connected by many as the most noteworthy picture in the Vienna exhibition by an excellent cart-road. Two much-frequented places of of 1834, and his numerous animal pieces have entitled him to a Hindu pilgrimage are situated in the immediate vicinity, the place in the first rank of painters of that class of subjects. The temple of Kamakhya on a hill 2 m. west of the town, and the peculiarity of his pictures is the representation of human and rocky island of Umananda in the mid-channel of the Brahmaanimal figures in connexion with appropriate landscapes and in putra. Gauhati is still the headquarters of the district and of characteristic situations so as to manifest nature as a living ihe Brahmaputra Valley division, though no longer a military whole, and he particularly excels in depicting the free life of cantonment. It is the river terminus of a section of the Assamanimals in wild mountain scenery. Along with great mastery Bengal railway. There are a second-grade college, a government of the technicalities of his art, his works exhibit patient and keen high school, a law class and a training school for masters. observation, free and correct handling of details, and bold and Gauhati is an important centre of river trade, and the largest clear colouring. He died at Vienna on the 7th of July 1862. seat of commerce in Assam. Colton-ginning, flour-milling, and
Many of his pictures have been engraved, and after his death a an export trade in mustard seed, cotton, silk and forest produce selection of fifty-three of his works was prepared for this purpose are carricd on. Gauhati suffered very severely from the earthby the Austrian Kunstverein (Art Union).
quake of the 12th of June 1897. GAUGE, or Gace (Med. Lat. gauja, jaugia, Fr. jauge, perhaps GAUL, GILBERT WILLIAM (1855– ), American artist, connected with Fr. jale, a bowl, galon, gallon), a standard of was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, on the 31st of March 1855. measurement, and also the name given to various instruments Hc was a pupil of J. G. Brown and L. E, Wilmarth, and he and appliances by which measurement is effected. The word became a painter of military pictures, portraying incidents of seems to have been primarily used in connexion with the process the American Civil War. He was elected an associate of the of ascertaining the contents of wine casks; the name gauger National Academy of Design in 1880, and in 1882 a full is still applied to certain custom-house officials in the United academician, and in the latter year became a member of the States, and in Scotland it mcans an exciscman. Thence it was Society of American Artists. His important works include: extended to other measurements, and used of the instruments 'Charging the Battery,"
," " News from Home," “Cold Comfort used in making them or of the standards to which they were on thc Outpost,”“ Şilenced, ""On the Look-out,” and “Guerillas referred. In the mechanical arts gauges are employed in great returning from a Raid.” variety to enable the workmen to ascertain whether the object GAUL, the modern form of the Roman Gallia, the name he is making is of the proper dimensions (sce Tool), and similar of the two chief districts known to the Romans as inhabited gauges of various forms are employed to ascertain and to specify by Celtic-speaking peoples, (a) Gallia Cisalpina (or Cilerior, the sizes of manufactured articles such as wire and screws. A “ Hither"), i.e. north Italy between Alps and Apennines and rain gauge is an apparatus for measuring the amount of the (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulicrior, rainfall at any locality, and a wind gauge indicates the pressure Further "), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the land and force of the wind. The boilers of steam engines are provided bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenecs, the with a water gauge and a steam or pressure gauge. The purpose Auantic, the Rhine, i.e. modern France and Belgium with parts of the former is to enable the attendant to see whether or not of Holland, Germany and Switzerland. The Greek form of there is a sufficient quantity of water in the boiler. li consists of Gallia was l'adaria, but Galatia in Latin denoted another Celtic two cocks or taps communicating with the interior, one being region in central Asia Minor, sometimes styled Gallograccia. placed at the lowest point to which it is permissible for the water (a) Gallia Cisalpina was mainly conquered by Rome by 222 io fall, and the other at the point above which it should not rise; B.C.; later it adopted Roman civilization; about 42 B.C. it a glass tube connects the two cocks, and when they are both open was united with Italy and its subsequent history is merged in that the water in this stands at the same level as in the boiler. The of the peninsula. Its chief distinctions are that during the later stcam gauge shows the pressure of the stcam in the boiler. One Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and of the commonest forms, known as the Bourdon gauge, depends thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of on the fact that a curved tube tends to straighien itself is the Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil pressure within it is greater than that outside it. This gauge (hy origin a Cell), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius i hercforc consists of a curved or coiled lube of clastic material, Ncpos, the clder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished and preferably of elliptic section, connected with the boiler and writers.? arranged with a multiplying gear so that its bending or unbending (b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek actuates a pointer moving over a graduated scale. If the pressure colony of Massilia was founded (? 600 B.C.). Roman armies within the tube is less than that outside it, the tube tends to began to enter it about 218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from bend or coil itself up further; with a pointer arranged as besore, "When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was the gauge then becomes a vacuum gauge, indicating how far often known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was dis.
" Gallia Bracata the pressure in the vessel to which it is allached is below that linguished as
(bracae, incorrectly braucae,
"trousers "), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and of the atmosphere. In railway engincering the gauge of a line
the rest of Gaul as “ Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing is the distance between the two rails (see RAILWAY). In nautical I thcir hair long.
Montpellier to the Pyrenees (i.e. all that was not Massiliot) with | tion spread, the results were somewhat disappointing. Trade its port of Narbo (mod. Narbonne) and its trade route by Toulouse Aourished; the corporations of bargemen and the like on the to the Atlantic, was formed into the province of Gallia Narbonensis Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could afford and Narbo itself into a Roman municipality. Commercial splendid public buildings. But no great writer and no great admotives prompted the step, and Roman traders and land specu- ministrator came from Narbonensis; itinerant lecturers and jourlators speedily flocked in. Gradually the province was extended nalists alone were produced in plenty, and at times minor poets. north of Massilia, up the Rhone, while the Greek town itself (ii.-iv.) Across the Cévennes lay Caesar's conquests, Atlantic became weak and dependent on Rome,
in climate, new to Roman ways. The whole area, often colIt is not, however, until the middle of the ist century B.C. that lectively styled “ Gallia Comata," often “Tres Provinciae,” was we have any detailed knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul. The earliest divided into three provinces, each under a legatus pro praelore account is that contained in the Commentaries of Julius Caesar. appointed by the emperor, with a common capital at Lugudunum According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among (Lyons). The three provinces were: Aquitania, reaching from three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Pyrenees almost to the Loire; Lugudunensis, the land the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae. The between Loire and Seinc, reaching from Brittany in the west to first of these extended from the Pyrenees to the Garumna Lyons in the south-east; and Belgica in the north. The (Garonne); the second, from that river to the Sequana (Seine) boundaries, it will be observed, were wholly artificial. Here also and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), reaching eastward it was found possible to dispense with garrisons, not because presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); and the third, from the provinces were as peaceful as Narbonensis, but because the this bounding line to the mouth of the last-named river, thus Rhine army was close at hand. As befitted an unromanized bordering on the Germans. By implication Caesar recognizes region, the local government was unlike that of Italy or Narbonas a fourth division the province of Gallia Narbonensis. By ensis. Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but far the greater part of the country was a plain watered by very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old numerous rivers, the chief of which have already been mentioned, tribal districts. Local autonomy was here carried to an extreme. with the exception of its great central stream, the Liger or Ligeris But the policy succeeded. The Gauls of the Three Provinces, or (Loire). Its principal mountain ranges were Cebenna or Gebenna some of them, revolted in A.D. 21 under Florus and Sacrovir, in (Cévennes) in the south, and Jura, with its continuation Vosegus 68 under Vindex, and in 7o under Classicus and Tutor (see CIVILIS, or Vogesus (Vosges), in the cast. The tribes inhabiting Gaul in CLAUDIUS). But all five leaders were romanized nobles, with Caesar's time, and belonging to one or other of the three races Roman names and Roman citizenship, and their risings were distinguished by him, were numerous. Prominent among them, directed rather against the Roman government than the Roman and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the empire. In general, the Gauls of these provinces accepted Helvetii, the Sequani and the Acdui, in the basins of the Roman civilization more or less rapidly, and in due course became Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saône), who, he says, were hardly distinguishable from the Italian. In particular, they reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the cagerly accepted the worship of " Augustus and Roine," devised Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes by the first emperor as a bond of state religion connecting in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes the provinces with Rome. Each August, despite the heat, between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana. The Nervii, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia Comata met Bellovaci, Suessiones, Remi, Morini, Menapii and Aduatuci at Lyons, elected a priest,“ sacerdos ad aram Augusti et Romae,” were Belgic tribes; the Tarbelli and others were Aquitani; and held games. The post of representative, and still more that while the Allobroges inhabited the north of the Provincia, having of priest, was eagerly coveted and provided a scope for the been conquered in 121 B.C. The ethnological divisions thus set ambitions which despotism usually crushes. It agrees with the forth by Caesar have been much discussed (see CELT, and articles vigorous development of this worship that the Three Provinces, on the chief tribes).
though romanized, retained their own local feeling. Even in the The Gallic Wars (58-51) of Caesar (9.9.) added all the rest of 3rd century the cult of Celtic deities (Hercules Magusanus, Gaul, north-west of the Cévennes, to the Rhine and the Ocean, Deusoniensis, &c.) were revived, the Celtic leuga reintroduced and in 49 also annexed Massilia. All Gaul was now Roman instead of the Roman mile on official milestones, and a brief territory. Now the second period of her history opens; it effort made to establish an independent, though romanized, Gaul remained for Roman territory to become romanized.
under Postumus and his short-lived successors (A.D. 259-273). Caesar had no time to organize his conquest; this work was Not only was the area too large and strong to lose its individuleft to Augustus. As settled by him, and in part perhaps also ality: it was also too rural and too far from the Mediterranean by his successor Tiberius, it fell into the following five adminis- to be romanized as fully and quickly as Narbonensis. It is even trative areas.
probable that Celtic was spoken in forest districts into the 4th (i) Narbonensis, that is, the land between Alps, sea and century A.D. Town life, however, grew. The chefs-licur of the Cévennes, extending up the Rhone to Vienne, was as Augustus tribes became practically, though not officially, municipalities, found it, distinct in many ways from the rest of Gaul. By nature and many of these towns reached considerable size and magnifiit is a sun-steeped southern region, the home of the vine and cence of public buildings. But they attest their tribal relations olive, of the minstrelsy of the Provençal and the exuberance of by their appellations, which are commonly drawn from the name Tartarin, distinct from the colder and more sober north. By of the tribe and not of the town itself. Thus the capitals of the history it had already in the time of Augustus) been Roman Remi and Parisii were actually Durocortorum and Lutetia: the for from 80 to 100 years and was familiar with Roman ways. It appellations in use were Remis or Remus, Parisiis or Parisiuswas ready to be Italianized and it was civilized enough to need these forms being indeclinable nouns formed from a sort of no garrison. Accordingly, it was henceforward governed by a locative of the tribe names. Literature also flourished. In the proconsul (appointed by the senate) and freed from the burden latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and of troops, while its local government was assimilated to that of other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the Italy. The old Celtic tribes were broken up: instead, munici- classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world. palities of Roman citizens were founded to rule their territories. (v.) The fifth division of Gaul was the Rhenish military Thus the Allobroges now disappear and the colonia of Vienna frontier. Augustus had planned the conquest of Germany up to takes their place: the Volcae vanish and we find Nemausus the Elbe. His plans were foiled by the courage of Arminius and (Nîmes). Thus thrown into Italian fashion, the province took the inability of the Roman exchequer to pay a larger army. rapidly to Italian ways. By A.D. 70 it was “ Italia verius quam Instead, his successor Tiberius organized the Rhine frontier in provincia” (Pliny). The Gauls obviously had a natural bias two military districts. The northern one was the valley of the towards the Italian civilization, and there soon became no Meuse and that of the Rhine to a point just south of Bonn: the difference between Italy and southern Gaul. But though educa- I southern was the rest of the Rhine valley to Switzerland. Each
district was garrisoned at first by four, later by fewer legions, 1 Warminster Beds Declen asper and Cardiaster fossarius. which were disposed at various times in some of the following
Upper Gault Devizes Beds or Merstham Beds with Schloenfortresses. Vetera (Xanten), Novaesium (Neuss), Bonne (Bonn),
(Hoplites laulus. Moguntiacum (Mainz), Argentorate (Strassburg) and Vindonissa Lower Gault H. interruplus. (Windisch in Switzerland). At first the districts were purely
Acanthoceras mammillatum. military, were called, after the garrisons, “ exercitus Germanicus The Gault (with Upper Greensand) crops out all round the Wealden superior" (south) and “inferior" (north). Later one or two
area; it extends beneath the London basin and reappears from municipalities were founded-Colonia Agrippinensis at Cologne Huls to near Tring. In the south of England the Gault clay is
beneath the northern scarp of the Chalk along the foot of the Chiltern (A.D 51), Colonia Augusta Treverorum at Trier (date uncertain), fairly constant in the lower part, with the Greensand above: the Colonia Ulpia Traiana outside Vetera-and about 80-90 A.D. the clay, however, passes into sand as it is followed westward and, as two “ Exercitus " were turned into the two provinces of Upper already pointed out, the clay and sand appear to pass into a red and Lower Germany. The armies in these districts formed the sand towards the east, where it rests upon the old Paleozoic axis; defence of Gaul against German invaders. They also helped to it also overlaps the same formation towards the west about Frome, keep Gaul itself in order and their presence explains why the four and thence passes unconformably across the Portlandian beds, Kimeprovinces of Gaul proper contained no troops.
ridge Clay, Corallian beds and Oxford Clay: in south Dorsetshire These provincial divisions were modified by Diocletian but
it rests upon the Wealden Series. The Gault (with Upper Greensand)
passes on to the Jurassic and Rhaetic rocks near Axmouth, and overwithout seriously affecting the life of Gaul. The whole country, steps farther westward, in the Haldon Hills, on to the Permian. A indeed, continued Roman and fairly safe from barbarian invasions large outlier occurs on the Blackdown Hills of Devonshire. Good till after 400.
In 407 a multitude of Franks, Vandals, &c., burst localities for fossils are Folkestone-where many of the shells are over Gaul. Roman rule practically ceased and the three kingdoms Isle of Wight, the Blackdown and Haldon Hills, Warminster,
preserved with their original pearly nacre. --Burnham, Merstham, of the Visigoths, Burgundians and Franks began to form. There
Hunstanton and Speeton, Black Venn near Lyme Regis, and Devizes were still a Roman general and Roman troops when Attila was (malmstone and gaize). The beds are well developed in the vale of defeated in the campi Calalaunici in A.D 451, but the general, Wardour, and in the Isle of Wight; the Gault forms the so-called Aetius, was “the last of the Romans," and in 486 Clovis the
blue slipper" at Ventnor which has been the cause of the landslip
undercliff. Frank ended the last vestige of Roman rule in Gaul.
The Gault of north France is very similar to that in the south For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern of England, but the French term Albien includes only a portion of towns (Arles, Nimes, Orange, &c.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS the Selbornian formation. The Gault of north-west Germany PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &c.; for embraces beds that would be classed as Albien and Aplien by French religion sec DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, authors; it comprises the " Flammenmergel "-a pale siliceous Toulouse, Nîmes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J. E. Sandys, marl shot with fame-shaped darker patches a clay with Belemniles History of Classual Scholarship, (ed. 1906-1908), i. pp., 247-250; minimus, and the “Gargasmergel." (Aptian). In the Diester and for the Roman provinces, Th. Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman | Teutoberger Wald, and in the region of Halberstadt, the clays and Empore (trans. 1886), vol. i. chap. iii. See also Desjardins, Géo- marls are replaced by sandstones, the so-called Gauli-Quader. graphie historique et administralıve de la Gaule romaine (Paris, 1877); Continental writers usually place the Gault or Albian at the summit Fustel de Coulangės, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne of the Lower Cretaceous; while with English geologists the practice France (Paris, 1877), for Caesar's campaigns, article CAESAR, is to commence the Upper Cretaceous with this formation. In Julius, and works quoted; for coins, art Numismatics and articles addition to the fossils already noticed, the following may be menin the Numismalische Zeitschrift and Revue numismatique (e.g. tioned: Acanthoceras Desmoceras Beaudanlı, Hopliles splendens, Blanchet, 1907, pp. 461 soll.).
(F J.H.) Hamiles, Scaphiles, Turrilites, A porrhais relusa, Trigonio oliforme, GAULT, in geology, one of the members of the Lower Creta- bricks and tiles are made at Burham, Barnwell, Dunton Green,
also Ichthyosaurus and Ornithocheirus (Pterodacty!). From the clays, ceous System. The name is still cmployed provincially in parts Arlesey, Hitchin, &c. The cherts in the Greensand portion are used of England for a stiff blue clay of any kind; by the earlier
for road metal, and in the Blackdown Hills, for scythe stones;
hearthstone is obtained about Merstham; phosphatic nodules occur writers it was sometimes spelt“ Galt” or “ Golt."
at several horizons. The formation now known as Gault in England has been
See CRETACEOUS SYSTEM; ALBIAN; APTIAN; also, A. J: Jukesvariously designated
“ Blue Marle," “Brick Earth,” “Golt Browne, "The Gault and Upper Greensand of England," vol. i., Brick Earth" and "Oak-tree-soil.” In certain parts of the Cretaceous Rocks of Brilain; Mem. Geol. Survey, 1900. south of England the Gault appears as a well-marked deposit of
GAUNTLET (a diminutive of the Fr. gant, glove), a large clay, lying between two sandy formations; the one above came form of glove, and especially the steel-plated glove of medieval to be known as the “ Upper Greensand," the one below being armour. To “run the gauntlet," i.e. to run between two rows the “ Lower Grcensand” (see GREENSAND). Since the typical of men who, armed with sticks, rope-ends or other weapons, clayey Gault is continually taking on a sandy facies as it is traced beat and strike at the person so running, was formerly a punishboth horizontally and vertically; and since the fossils of the ment for military and naval offences. It was abolished in the Upper Greensand and Gault are inseparably related, it has been Prussian army by Scharnhorst. As a method of torturing proposed by A. J. Jukes-Browne that these two series of beds prisoners, it was employed among the North American Indians. should be regarded as the arenaceous and argillaccous phases of “ Gauntlet " (earlier“ gantlet ") in this expression is a corruption single formation, to which he has given the name “ Selbornian” of “gantlope," from a Swedish gallope, from gala, lane, and lopp. (from the village of Selborne where the beds are well developed). I a course (cf. Ger. gassenlaufen, to run the gauntlet). According Lithologically, then, the Selbornian includes the blue and grey to the New English Dictionary the word became familiar in clays and marls of the Gault proper; the glauconitic sands of the England at the time of the Thirty Years' War. Upper Greensand, and their local equivalent, the “malm," GAUR, or LAKHNAUTI, a ruined city of British India, in Malda " malm rock firestone,” which in places passes into the district of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The ruins are situated micaceous sandstone containing sponge spicules and globules of about 8 m. to the south of English Bazar, the civil station of silica, the counterpart of the rock called “gaize" on the same the district of Malda, and on the eastern bank of the Bhagirathi, horizon in northern France. In Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and parts an old channel of the Ganges. It is said to have been founded of Norfolk the Selbornian is represented by the Red Chalk. The by Lakshman, and its most ancient name was Lakshmanavati, malm is a ferruginous siliceous rock, the silica being mainly in the corrupted into Lakhnauti. Its known history begins with its colloidal condition in the form of globules and sponge spicules; conquest in A.D. 1198 by the Mahommedans, who retained it some quartz grains, mica and glauconite are usually present as the chief seat of their power in Bengal for more ihan three along with from 2 to 25% of calcareous matter. Chert-bands and centuries. When the Afghan kings of Bengal established their nodules are common in the Upper Greensand of certain districts; independence, they transferred their seat of government (about and calcareous concretions, locally recognized as cowstones 1350) to Pandua (q.v.), also in Malda district, and to build (Lyme Regis), doggers or buhrstones, are not infrequent. their new capital they plundered Gaur of every monument that
The principal divisions of the Selbornian stage with their could be removed. When Pandua was in its turn deserted characteristic zonal fossils are as follows:
(A.D. 1453), Gaur once more became the capital under the