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In contemplating future America, the mind is loft in the din of citiesin harbours and rivers clouded with fails-and in the immenfity of her population. Admitting her prefent population to be three millions, and calculating her progreffive increafe to continue doubling once in twenty years, as has hitherto been the cafe, at the end of one hundred years there will be ninety-fix millions of fouls in United America; which is twothirds as many as there are at prefent in all Europe. And when we confider the probable acquifition of people, by foreign emigrations, and that the interior and unfettled parts of America are amply fufficient to provide for this number, the prefumption is ftrong, that this estimation will not differ materially from the event.
Europe is already aware of the rifing importance of America, and begins to look forward with anxiety to her Weft India Islands, which are the natural legacy of this continent, and will doubtless be claimed as fuch when America fhall have arrived at an age which will enable her to maintain her right.
The northern and fouthern ftates differ widely in their cuftoms, climate, produce, and in the general face of the country. The middle ftates preferve a medium in all thefe refpects; they are neither fo level and hot as the ftates fouth; nor fo hilly and cold as thofe north and east. The inhabitants of the north are hardy, induftrious, frugal, and in general well informed; thofe of the fouth are more effeminate, indolent, and imperious. The fisheries and commerce are the finews of the north; tobacco, rice, and indigo, of the fouth. The northern ftates are commodiously fituated for trade and manufactures; the fouthern, to furnish provifions and raw materials; and the probability is, that the fouthern ftates will one day be fupplied with northern manufactures inftead of European, and make their remittances in provisions and raw materials.'
The following obfervations on the fubject of the probable revenue that would refult to the United States from the impoft and excife, were communicated by a gentleman who, from his fituation in public life, from the attention he has paid to the fources of public revenue in this country, and from the pains he has taken to collect the facts on which the following eftimate is founded, is capable of giving as accurate information on the subject as the nature of the cafe will admit.
From the want of accurate documents of former collections under the ftate regulations, it is not poñible to determine with precifion, the amount of the revenue which may be relied on from thefe fources, under the new form of government.-I am, however, clearly of opinion, from several returns I have feen of the former impoft and excife duties, in fome principal importing ftates, that after the regulations adopted by Congrefs, have had their complete operation, the produce of thefe duties, without encouraging contraband, or other frauds on the revenue, may be eftimated at 2,000,000 dollars.-This fum, it is true, will at prefent fall fhort of what is neceffary to defray the expences of the civil government, and to discharge the intereft of the foreign and domestic debt.-But by the aids of a national bank properly organized, it will be cafy and perfectly fafe to borrow in anticipation, fuch fuins as may be deficient, annually for thofe purposes, pledging the above revenue (which will conftantly en
crease rapidly with the population of the country) as a fund of reimbursement. This is practifed in other countries, under fimilar circumftances, in fupport of public credit, and may undoubtedly be done in this,—more efpecially, as the Capital of the domeftic debt will be constantly decreasing by a judicious difpofal of lands in the Western Territory, and means may be devifed of inducing the domeftic creditors to agree to a reducion of the present rate of interest.
With respect to direct taxes, I am of opinion, that in times of peace, little, if any, recourse need be had to them :-It is, however, abfolutely neceffary that the general government should be invefted with the power of levying them, becaufe in times of war, or the calamities to which all nations are subjected, the fources of impoft and excife may be fo diminished as not to be adequate to the means of national defence—and every government ought undoubtedly to have the means of preferving itself.
I know it has been faid, that on fuch great occafions, requifitions may be relied on; but paft experience proves the fallacy of this obfervation; for if during a war, whofe object was to refcue the whole body of the people, from the moft ignominious flavery, the earnest and repeated recominendations of Congrefs, could not draw forth from the states any contributions of money in the leaft degree proportionate to the public exigencies, what could be expected on future occafions? Nothing elfe than fubjecting the citizens of the ftates most contiguous to the scene of action to a ruinous depredation of property; whilst thofe in the diftant flates would not only be perfectly free of any burthen, but difpute, when the danger was over, the justice of reimbursement.-To fuch acts of violation of private rights it is well known that the citizens of New York, Jerfey, and Pennsylvania, were peculiarly fubjected, during the late war; and if they are wife, they will never again expose themselves to the fame hazard.' Number of Reprefentatives according to the return of the Cenfus now made from the feveral States, if the ratio of reprefentation established be of No. of Reprefentatives 1 for if 1 for if 1 for | if 1 for 30000 33000 34000 40000
And allowing South-Carolina, which state has made no return, upon a fuppofition 5 members, in every cafe, the total number of members in each cafe would then be
110 104 100
Of the whole Number of Perfons within the feveral Diftris of the UNITED STATES, according to an A& “ Providing for the Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the UNITED STATES," passed March the First, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety-one.
DISTRICT S. ing heads off families.
Free white Free white Free white fe-JAll
22,435 22,328 40,505 252 New-Hampshire, 36,086 34,851 70,160 Maine,
24,384 24,748 46,870 538
15,154 17,057 28,922 114 12,430
13,103 14,044 25,739 398 29,264
Free white Free males Free white fell other] Slaves.
6,271 10,277 15,365 361
October 24, 1791.
Truly stated from the original returns depofited in the office of the Secretary of
CORRECTED AND IMPROVED,
Shewing the DISTANCES between the PRINCIPAL TOWNS.
The Distance in British Miles, between two Places, is found in the fmall Square at the Intersection of the Lines, drawn both Ways, from thofe Places; as for Example, the Distance from Boston to Williamfburg 659 Miles; from Charlestown to Quebec 1396 Miles.
Montreal, Province of
NEW BERN, South Carolin
110 331 7 80 132 5
Falls of Niagara, Province of Quebec 571 595 545
Ofwego, New York 200 371 395 345 489
PENSACOLA, Weft Florida 1826 1671 1469 1668 1558 1337 PHILADELPHIA, Pennsylvania 1372 454 619 97 296 186 35 4 Prince Town, West New Jersey 43 1415 411 571 54 253 143 QUEBEC 626 669 2041 440 640 586 610 560 70411 ST. AUGUSTINE, Eaft Florida 1726 1100 1057 315 151114701154 1324 1286 1012 SAVANNAH, Georgia 2201506 880 837 535 1291 1250 934 1104 1066 792 WILLIAMSBURG, Virginia 534 754 972 346 303 1069 757 602 400 599 489 268
er, Virginia 174 708 928 885| 259| 166|1243 670 619| 313 512 402 110