« PreviousContinue »
1895, when he was captured by a Portuguese force and cxiled, according to others, he never spent long in one place, having first to Lisbon and afterwards to Angola, where he died in 1906. reason to keep his whereabouts unknown. His patron or master With the capture of Gungunyana opposition to Portuguese rule is variously given as Ja'far ben Yahya, and as Ja'far es-Sadıq; largely ceased.
in the Arabic Book of Royalty, professedly written by him, he In flora, fauna and commerce Gazaland resembles the neigh- addresses the last-named as his master. In addition to these bouring regions of Portuguese East Africa. (q.v.).
details the Fihrist mentions a tradition that he originally came See G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa since 1795, vol. v. from Khorasan. Another story given by d'Herbelot (Biblio. (London, 1908).
thèque orientale, s.v. “ Giaber ") makes him a native of Harran GAZEBO (usually explained as a comic Latinism, for “I will in Mesopotamia and a Sabaean. Leo Africanus, who in 1526 gaze "; the New English Dictionary suggests a possible oriental gave an account of the Alchemists of Fez in Africa (see the origio now lost), a term used in the 18th century for a structure English translation of his Africae descriplio by John Pory, A on the outer wall of a garden, having an upper storey with Geographical History of Africa, London, 1600, p. 155), states that windows on each side so as to overlook the road. Similar build their principal authority was Geber, a Greek who had apostatized ings are found in Holland on the borders of the canals, which in to Mahommedanism and lived a century after Mahomet. In some cases form very picturesque fcatures.
Albertus Magnus the name Geber occurs only once and then with GAZETTE, a name given to news-sheets or newspapers having the epithet “of Seville "; doubtless the reference is to the an abstract of current events (see NEWSPAPERS). The London Arabian Jabir ben Aflah, who lived in that city in the rith Gazelle is the title of the English official organ for announcements century, and wrote an astronomy in 9 books which is of importby the government, and is published every Tuesday and Friday. ance in the history of trigonometry. It contains all proclamations, orders of council, promotions and The great puzzle connected with the name Geber lies in the appointments to commissions in the army and navy, all appoint- character of the writings attributed to him, their style and matter ments to offices of state, and such other orders, rules and regula- differentiating them strongly from those of even the best authors tions as are directed by act of parliament to be published therein. of the later alchemical period, and making it difficult to account It also contains notices of proceedings in bankruptcy, dissolutions for their existence at all. The rescarches of M. P. E. Berthelot of partnership, &c. By the Documentary Evidence Act 1868 the threw a great deal of light on this question. Taking the six production of a copy of the Gazelle is prima facie evidence of royal treatises enumerated above he concluded, after critical examinaproclamations and government orders and regulations. Similar tion, that the two last may be disregarded as of later date than the gazettes are also published in Edinburgh and Dublin. Most others, and that the De investigatione perfectionis, the De incountries (the United States excepted) have official journals ventione and the Liber fornacum are merely extracts from or containing information more or less similar to that of the London summaries of the Summa perfectionis with later additions. The Gazelle, as the French Journal oficiel, the German Deutscher Summa he therefore regarded as representative of the work of the Reichs-und Kgl. Preuss. Staals-Anzeiger, &c. The word “gazet- Latin Geber, and study of it convinced him that it contains no teer" was originally applied to one who wrote for "gazettes,” | indication of an Arabic origin, either in its method, which is but is now only used for a geographical dictionary arranged on conspicuous for clearness of reasoning and logical co-ordination of an alphabetical plan,
material, or in its facts, or in the words and persons quoted. GEAR (connected with “garb," properly elegance, fashion, without going so far as to deny that some words and phrases may especially of dress, and with “gar," to cause to do, only found in be taken from the writings of the Arabian Jaber, he was disposed Scottish and northern dialects; the root of the word is seen in the to hold that it is the original work of some unknown Latin Old Teut. garwjan, to make ready), an outfit, applied to the author, who wrote it in the second half of the 13th century and wearing apparel of a person, or to the harness and trappings of a put it under the patronage of the venerated name of Geber. The horse or any draft animal, as riding-gear, hunting-gear, &c.; MS. of this work in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris dates from also to household goods or stuff. The phrase "out of gear, about the year 1300. Berthelot further investigated Arabic though now connected with the mechanical application of the MSS. existing in the Paris library and in the university of Leiden, word, was originally used to signify “out of harness" or con- and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had translations dition, not ready to work, not fit. The word is also used of made of six treatises-two, of which he gives the titles as Livre apparatus generally, and especially of the parts collectively in a de la royaulé and Pelit Livre de la miséricorde,- from Paris, and machine by which motion is transmitted from one part to another four---Livre des balances, Livre de la miséricorde, Livre de la by a series of cog-wheels, continuous bands, &c. It is used in a concentration and Livre de la mercure orientalc—from Leiden. special sense in reference to a bicycle, meaning the diameter of an Berthelot was not prepared to assert that these treatises were imaginary wheel, the circumference of which is equal to the actually written by Jaber, but he held it certain that they are distance accomplished by one revolution of the pedals (see works written in Arabic between the 9th and 12th centuries, at a BICYCLE).
period anterior to the relations of the Latins with the Arabs. In GEBER. The name Geber has long been used to designate the style these treatises are entirely different from the Summa of author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa Geber. Their language is vague and allegorical, full of allusions perfectionis magisterii, De invcstigatione perfectionis, De inventione and pious Mussulman invocations; the author continually verilalis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiac and announces that he is about to speak without mystery or reserve, Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as but all the same never gives any precise details of the secrets translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber he professes to reveal. He holds the doctrine that everything ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to endowed with an apparent quality possesses an opposite occult have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era. About quality in much the same terms as it is found in Latin writers of him, however, there is considerable uncertainty. According to the the middle ages, but he makes no allusion to the theory of ihe Kitab-al-Fihrist (10th century), which gives his name as above, generation of the metals by sulphur and mercury, a theory the authorities disagree, some asserting him to have becn a writer generally attributed to Geber, who also added' arsenic to the list. on philosophy and rhetoric, and others claiming for him the first Again he fully accepts the influence of the stars on the production place among the adopts of his time in the art of making gold and the metals, whereas the Latin Geber disputes it, and in general silver. The writer of the Kitāb-al-Fihrist says he had been the chemical knowledge of the two is on a different plane. Here assured that Jaber only wrote onc book and even that he never again the inference is that the Latin treatises printed from the existed at all, but these statements he scouts as ridiculous, and 15th century onwards as the work of Geber are not authentic, expressing the conviction that Jaber really did exist, and that his regarded as translations of the Arabic author Jaber, always works were numerous and important, goes on to quote the titles supposing that the Arabic MSS. transcribed and translated for of some 500 treatises attributed to him. He is said to have resided Berthelot are really, as they profess to be, the work of Jaber, ano most frequently at Kufa, where he prepared the "elixir," but, as representative of his opinions and attainments.
But while Berthelot thus deprived the world of what were long beth's envoy, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, but he failed to regarded as genuine Latin versions of Jaber's works, he also gave get assistance for renewing the war either from the English queen it something in their place, for among the Paris MSS. he found a or in any other quarter. In 1589 Gebhard took up his residence at mutilated treatise, hitherto unpublished, entitled Liber de Strassburg, where he had held the office of dean of the cathedral Septuaginla (Johannis), translalus a Magistro Renaldo Cremonensi, since 1574. Before his arrival some trouble had arisen in the which he considered the only known Latin work that can be chapter owing to the fact that three excommunicated canons regarded as a translation from the Arabic Jaber. The latter persisted in retaining their offices. He joined this party, which states in the Arabic works referred to above that under that title was strongly supported in the city, took part in a double election he collected 70 of the soo little treatises or tracts of which he was to the bishopric in 1592, and in spite of some opposition retained the author, and the titles of those tracts enumerated in the his office until his death at Strassburg on the 31st of May 1601. Kitab-al-Fihrist as forming the chapters of the Liber de Scplua-Gebhard was a drunken and licentious man, who owes his promiginta correspond in general with those of the Latin work, which nence rather to his surroundings than to his abilitics. further is written in a style similar to that of the Arabic Jaber
See M Lossen. Der kölnische Krieg (Gotha, 1882), and the article and contains the same doctrines. Hence Berthelot selt justified on Gebhard in band viii
. of the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie in assigning it to Jaber, although no Arabic original is known. (Leipzig, 1878); J. H. Hennes, Der Kampf um das Ersstijl Köln
The cvidence collected by Berthelot has an important bearingon Colognc, 1878); L. Ennen, Geschichte der Stadt Köln (Cologne, 1863the history of chemistry. Most of the chemical knowledge attri- Köln, edited by J. Hansen (Berlin, 1892).
Der Kampf um buted to the Arabs has been attributed to them on the strength of the reputed Latin writings of Geber. If, therefore, these are GEBWEILER (Fr. Guebwiller), a town of Germany in the original works rather than translations, and contain facts and imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, at the foot of the Vosges, doctrines which are not to be found in the Arabian Jaber, it on the Lauch, 13 m. S. of Colmar, on the railway Bollweilerfollows that, on the one hand, the chemical knowledge of the Arabs Lautenbach. Pop. (1905) 13,259. Among the principal buildings has been overestimated and, on the other, that more progress was are the Roman Catholic church of St Leodgar, dating from the made in the middle ages than has generally been supposed. 12th century, the Evangelical church, the synagogue, the town
See M. P. E. Berthclot's works on the history of alchemy and house, and the old Dominican convent now used as a market and especially his Chimie au moyen âge (3 vols., Paris, 1893), the third volume of which contains a French translation of Jaber's works the manufacture of cloth and of machinery; quarrying is carried
concert hall. The chief industries are spinning and dyeing, and together with the Arabic text.
GEBHARD TRUCHSESS VON WALDBURG (1547-1601), on and the town is celebrated for its white wines. elector and archbishop of Cologne, was the second son of William,
Gebweiler is mentioned as early as 774. It belonged to the count of Waldburg, and nephew of Otto, cardinal bishop of religious foundation of Murbach, and in 1759 the abbots chose it Augsburg (1514-1573). Belonging thus to an old and dis- for their residence. In 1789, at the outbreak of the Revolution, tinguished Swabian family, he was born on the roth of November the monastic buildings were laid in ruins, and, though the archives 1547, and after studying at the universities of Ingolstadt, Perugia, were rescued and removed to Colmar, the library perished. Louvain and elsewhere began his ecclesiastical career at Augs
GECKO,' the common name applied to all the species of the burg. Subsequently he held other positions at Strassburg, Geckones, one of the three sub-orders of the Lacerlilia. The Cologne and Augsburg, and in December 1577 was chosen elector geckoes are small creatures, seldom exceeding 8 in. in length of Cologne after a spirited contest. Gebhard is chiefly noted for including the tail. With the head considerably flattened, the his conversion to the reformed doctrines, and for his marriage body short and thick, the legs not high enough to prevent the with Agnes, countess of Mansfeld, which was connected with this body dragging somewhat on the ground, the eyes large and almost step. After living in concubinage with Agnes he decided, perhaps destitute of eyelids, and the tail short and in some cases nearly as under compulsion, to marry her, doubtless intending at the same thick as the body, the geckoes altogether lack the litheness and time to resign his see. Other counsels, however, prevailed. grace characteristic of most lizards. Their colours also are dull, Instigated by some Protestant supporters he declared he would retain the electorate,and in December 1582 he formally announced his conversion to the reformed faith. The marriage with Agnes was celebrated in the following February, and Gebhard remained in possession of the see. This affair created a great stir in Germany, and the clause concerning ecclesiastical reservation in the religious peace of Augsburg was interpreted in one way by his friends, and in another way by his foes; the former holding that he could retain his office, the latter that he must resign. Anticipating events Gebhard had collected some troops, and had taken measures to convert his subjects to Protestantism. In April 1583 he was deposed and excommunicated by Pope Gregory XIII.; a Bavarian prince, Ernest, bishop of Liége, Freising and Hildesheim, was chosen elector, and war broke out between the rivals. The cautious Lutheran princes of Germany, especially Augustus I., elector of Saxony, were not enthusiastic in support of
Leal-tailed Gecko (Gymnodactylus platurus) of Australia. Gebhard, whose friendly relations with the Calvinists were not to their liking; and although Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry and to the weird and forbidding aspect thus produced the general IV. of France, tried to form a coalition to aid the deposed elector, prejudice against those creatures in the countries where they the only assistance which he obtained came from John Casimir, occur, which has led to their being classed with toads and administrator of the Palatinate of the Rhine. The inhabitants of snakes, is no doubt to be attributed. Their bite was supposed the electorate were about equally divided on the question, and to be venomous, and their saliva to produce painful cutaneous Ernest, supported by Spanish troops, was too strong for Gebhard. eruptions; even their touch was thought sufficient to convey a John Casimir, who acted as commander-in-chief, returned to the dangerous taint. It is needless to say that in this instance the Palatinate in October 1533, and early in the following year popular mind was misled by appearances. The geckoes are not Gebhard was driven from Bonn and took refuge in the Nether-only harmless, but are exceedingly useful creatures, feeding on lands. The electorate was soon completely in the possession of insects, which, owing to the great width of their oesophagus, they Ernest, and the defeat of Gebhard was a serious blow to Protes-are enabled to swallow whole, and in pursuit of which they do not tantism, and marks a stage in the history of the Reformation. hesitate to enter human dwellings, where they are often killed on Living in the Netherlands he became very intimate with Eliza- * The Malay name gê-kog imitates the animal's cry.
suspicion. The structure of the toes in these lizards forms one of he was appointed in 1769 priest of Auchinhalrig and Preshome their most characteristic anatomical features.
in his native county. The freedom with which he fraternized Most geckoes have adhesive digits and toes, by means of which with his Protestant neighbours called forth the rebuke of his they are enabled not only to climb absolutely smooth and vertical bishop (George Hay), and ultimately, for hunting and for surfaces, for instance a window-pane, but to run along a white occasionally attending the parish church of Cullen, where one washed ceiling, back downwards. The adhesion is not produced of his friends was minister, he was deprived of his charge and by sticky matter but by numerous transverse lamellae, each forbidden the exercise of ecclesiastical functions within the of which is further beset with tiny hair-like excrescences. The diocese. This happened in 1779; and in 1780 he went with his arrangement of the lamellae and pads differs much in the various friend Lord Traquair to London, where he spent the rest of his genera and is used for classificactory purposes. Those which life. Before leaving Scotland he had received the honorary live on sandy ground have narrow digits without the adhesive degree of LL.D. from the university of Aberdeen, and had been apparatus. Most species have sharp, curved claws, often made an honorary member of the Society of Antiquarics, in the
retractile between some of the institution of which he had taken a very active part. In London lamellae or into a special Geddes soon received an appointment in connexion with the sheath. The tail is very brittle chapel of the imperial ambassador, and was also helped by Lord and can be quickly regener
Petre in his scheme for a new Catholic version of the Bible. ated; it varies much in size In 1786, supported also by such scholars as Benjamin Kennicott and shape; the most extra- and Robert Lowth, Geddes published a Prospectus of a new ordinary is that of the leaf. Translation of the Holy Bible, a considerable quarto volume, in tailed gecko. Piychozoon which the defects of previous translations were fully pointed homclocephalon of the Malay out, and the means indicated by which these might be removed. countries has membranous ex- It was well received, and led to the publication in 1788 of Propansions on the sides of the posals for Printing, with a specimen, and in 1790 of a General
head, body, limbs and tail, which Answer lo Queries, Counsels and Crilicisms. The first volume Lower Surface of the Toc of
look like parachutes, but more of the translation itsell, which was entitled The Holy Bible (e) Gecko, (0) Hemidactylus, probably they aid in conceal faithfully translated from corrected Texts of the Originals, with enlarged.
ing the creature when it is various Readings, explanatory Noles and crilical Remarks, closely pressed to the similarly coloured bark of a tree. Most appeared in 1792, and was the signal for a storm of hostility on geckocs are dull coloured, yellow to brown, and they soon change the part of both Catholics and Protestants. It was obvious colour from lighter to dark tints. They are insectivorous and enough--no small offence in the eyes of some-that as a critic chiefly nocturnal, but are fond of basking in the sun, motionless Goddes had identified himself with C. F. Houbigant (1686-1783), on the bark of a tree, or on a rock the colour of which is then Kennicott and J. D. Michaelis, but others did not hesitate to imitated to a nicety. Some species are more or less transparent. stigmatize him as the would-be "corrector of the Holy Ghost."
Geckoes, of which about 270 species are known, subdivided into Three of the vicars-apostolic almost immediately warned all the about 50 genera, are cosmopolitan within the warmer zones, faithful against the use and reception " of his translation, on including New Zealand, and even the remotest volcanic islands. the ostensible ground that it had not been examined and apThis wide distribution is due partly to the great age of the proved by due ecclesiastical authority; and by his own bishop suborder (although fossils are unknown), partly to their being (Douglas) he was in 1793 suspended from the exercise of his able to exist for several months without food so that, concealed orders in the London district. The second volume of the translain hollow trunks of trees, they may float about for a very long tion, completing the historical books, published in 1797, found time. Ships, also, act as distributors. In south Europe occur no more friendly reception; but this circumstance did not disonly Hemidactylus turcicus, Tarentola maurilanico (Plalydactylus courage him from giving forth in 1800 the volume of Critical Sacelanus) and Phyllodactylus europaeus.
Remarks on the Hebrew Scriplurcs, which presented in a someGED, WILLIAM (1690-1749), the inventor of stereotyping, what brusque manner the then novel and startling views of was born at Edinburgh in 1690. In 1725 he patented his in- Eichhorn and his school on the primitive history and early vention, developed from the simple process of soldering together records of mankind. loose types of Van der Mey. Ged, although he succeeded in Geddes was engaged on a critical translation of the Psalms obtaining a cast in similar metal, of a type page, could not (published in 1807) when he was seized with an illness of which persuade Edinburgh printers to take up his invention, and he died on the 26th of February 1802. Athough under ecclesifinally entered into partnership with a London stationer named astical censures, he had never swerved from a consistent proJenner and Thomas James, a typefounder. The partnership, fession of faith as a Catholic; and on his death-bed he duly however, turned out very ill; and Ged, broken-hearted at his received the last rites of his communion. want of success due to trade jealousy and the compositors' Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well dislike of the innovation, died in poverty on the 19th of October
as several lugitive jeux d'espril, and a number of unsigned articles
in the Analytical Review, Geddes also published a free metrical Two prayer-books for the university of Cambridge and version of Select Satires of Horace (1779), and a verbal rendering of an edition of Sallust were printed from his stereotype plates. the First Book of the Iliad of Homer (1792). The Memoirs of his life In his time the best type was imported from Holland, and Ged's and writings by his friend John Mason Good appeared in 1803. daughter reports that he had repeated offers from the Dutch GEDDES, ANDREW (1783-1844), British painter, was born which, from patriotic molives, he refused. His sons tried to at Edinburgh. After receiving a good education in the high carry out his patent, and it was eventually perfected by Andrew school and in the university of that city, he was for five years in Wilson.
the excise office, in which his father held the post of deputy GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802), Scottish Roman Catholic auditor. After the death of his father, who had opposed his Theologian, was born in Rathven, Banffshire, on the 14th of desire to become an artist, he came to London and entered the September 1737. He was trained at the Roman Catholic Royal Academy schools. His first contribution to the exhibitions seminary at Scalan and at the Scottish College in Paris, where of the Royal Academy, a “ St John in the Wilderness," appeared he studied biblical philology, school divinity and modern at Somerset House in 1806, and from that year onwards Geddes languages. In 1764 he officiated as a priest in Dundee, but in was a fairly constant exhibitor of figure-subjects and portraits. May 1765 accepted an invitation to live with the earlof Traquair, His well-known portrait of Wilkie, with whom he was on terms where, with abundance of leisure and the free use of an adequate of intimacy, was at the Royal Academy in 1816. He alternated library, he made further progress in his favourite biblical studies. for some years between London and Edinburgh, with some After a second visit to Paris, which was employed by him in excursions on the Continent, but in 1831 settled in London, and reading and making extracts from rare books and manuscripts, I was elected associate of the Royal Academy in 1832; and he
died in London of consumption in 1844. A very able executant, | domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and a good colourist, and a close student of character, he made his knights to tillers of the soil. The immigrants werc to choose their chief success as a portrait-painter, but he produced occasional own settlements and be governed by their own laws. Priests figure subjects and landscapes, and executed some admirable and monks were also invited to come and build churches al copies of the old masters as well. He was also a good etcher. Vilna and Novogrodek. Similar letters were sent to the Wendish His portrait of his mother, and a portrait study, called “ Summer," or Baltic cities, and to the bishops and landowners of Livonia are in the National Gallery of Scotland, and his portrait of Sir and Esthonia. In short Gedymin, recognizing the superiority Walter Scott is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. of western civilization, anticipated Ivan the Terrible and Peter
See Art in Scotland: its Origin and Progress, by Robert Brydall the Great by throwing open the semi-savage Russian lands to (1889); The Scottish School of Painting, by William D. Mckay, influences of culture. R.S.A. (1906).
In October 1323 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, GEDDES, JAMES LORRAINE (1827-1887), American soldier the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and and writer, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 191h of Franciscan orders, and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order March 1827. In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in assembled at Vilna, when Gedymin confirmed his promises and 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal legates arrived. military academy, ntered the army, and after distinguishing A compact was then signed at Vilna,“ in the name of the whole himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence Christian World,” between Gedymin and the delegates, confirmin 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa. In the American Civil ing the promised privileges. But the christianizing of Lithuania War he served in the Federal army first as lieutenant-colonel was by no means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they and after February 1862 as colonel of volunteers, taking part used every effort to nullify Gedymin's far-reaching design. This, in the fighting at Shiloh, Vicksburg and Corinth. He was unfortunately, it was easy to do. Gedymin's chief object was to captured ai Shiloh and was imprisoned for a time at Madison, save Lithuania from destruction at the hands of the Germans. Ga., and in Libby prison, Richmond, Va., and in 1865 was But he was still a pagan reigning over semi-pagan lands; he brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He was principal was equally bound to his pagan kinsmen in Samogitia, to his of the College for the Blind at Vinton after the war, and until orthodox subjects in Red Russia, and to his Catholic allies in his death was connected with the Iowa College of Agriculturc Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and at Ames, being military instructor and cashier in 1870-1882, ambiguous, and might very readily be misinterpreted. Thus acting president in 1876–1877, librarian in 1877-1878, vicc- his raid upon Dobrzyn, the latest acquisition of the knights on president and professor of military tactics in 1880-1882, and Polish soil
, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. treasurer in 1884–1887. He died at Ames on the 21st of The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod February 1887. He wrote a number of war songs, including at Elbing questioned the authority of Gedymin's letters and “ The Soldiers' Battle Prayer" and “ The Stars and Stripes.” denounced him as an enemy of the faith; his orthodox subjects
GEDDES, SIR WILLIAM DUGUID (1828-1900), Scottish reproached him with leaning towards the Latin heresy; while scholar and educationist, was born in Aberdeenshire. He was the pagan Lithuanians accused him of abandoning the ancient educated at Elgin academy and university and King's College, gods. Gedymin disentangled himself from his difficulties by Aberdeen, and after having held various scholastic posts he was repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive the papal appointed in 1860 professor of Greek and in 1885 principal of legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by dismissing the (united) university of Aberdeen. He was knighted in 1892. the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently retrogresHe died in Aberdeen on the oth of February 1900, It is chiefly sive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition as a teacher that Geddes will be remembered, and in his enthusi- of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force astic and successful efforts to raise the standard of Greek at the in Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming Scottish universities he has been compared with the humanists struggle for nationality. At the same time Gedymin through his of the Renaissance. Amongst other works he was the author ambassadors privately informed the papal legates at Riga that of A Greek Grammar (1855; 17th edition, 1883; new and revised his difficult position compelled him for a time to postpone his edition, 1893); a meritorious edition of the Phaedo of Plato steadfast resolve of being baptized, and the legates showed (2nd ed., 1885); and The Problem of the Homeric Pocms (1878), their confidence in him by forbidding the neighbouring states in which, while supporting Grote's view that the Iliad consisted to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying of an original Achilleis with insertions or additions by later the treaty made between Gedymin and the archbishop of Riga. hands, he maintains that these inscrtions are due to the author Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the of the Odyssey.
church, resumed the war with Godymin, who had in the meantime GEDYMIN (d. 1342), grand-duke of Lithuania, was supposed improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokielek, by the earlier chroniclers to have been the servant of Witen, king of Poland, whose son Casimir now married Gedymin's prince of Lithuania, but more probably he was Witen's younger daughter Aldona. brother and the son of Lutuwer, another Lithuanian prince. While on his guard against his northern foes, Gedymin from Gedymin inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the Samogitia, Red Russia, Folotsk and Minsk; but these possessions numerous Russian principalities in the south and east, whose were environed by powerful and grecdy foes, the most dangerous incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian knights of Here Gedymin's triumphal progress way irresistible; but the the Sword. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient Lithuanian tribes against the common enemy; but Gedymin event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania territorial accretions, the principality of Halicz-Vladimir, was not merely secure but mighty, and for this purpose he entered obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See. At the of the Haliczian prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest. end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII. soliciting his Gedymin also secured an alliance with the grand-duchy of protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grandof the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the duke Simeon. But he was strong enough to counterpoise the Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and assisted the redesiring that legates should be sent to receive him also into the public of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to break bosom of the church, On receiving a favourable reply from the away from Great Novgorod. His internal administration bears Holy Sce, Gedymin issued circular letters, dated 25th of January all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well 1325, to the principal Hanse towns, offering a free access into his as the orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state | all parts of the colony. The facilities given for shipping wool of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain direct to England from this port have caused a very extensive of strong fortresses; and built numerous towns including Vilna, wool-broking trade to grow up in the town. The country the capital (c. 1321). Gedymin died in the winter of 1342 of surrounding Geelong is agricultural, but there are large limestone a wound received at the siege of Wielowa. He was married quarries east of the town, and in the Otway Forest, 23 m. distant, three times, and left seven sons and six daughters.
coal is worked. Geelong was incorporated in 1849. See Teodor Narbutt, History of the Lithuanian nation (Pol.) GEESTEMÜNDE, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian (Vilna, 1835): Antoni Prochaska, On the Genuineness of the Letters province of Hanover, on the right bank of the Weser, at the of Gedymin (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Vladimir Bonisatovich Antonovich, Monograph concerning the History of Western and South mouth of the Geeste, which separates it from Bremerhaven, 32 m. western Russia (Rus.) (Kiev, 1885).
(R. N. B.) N. from Bremen by rail. Pop. (1905) 23,625. The interest of the GEE, THOMAS (1815-1898), Welsh Nonconformist preacher place is purely naval and commercial, its origin dating no farther and journalist, was born at Denbigh on the 24th of January 1815. back than 1857, when the construction of the harbour was begun. At the age of fourteen he went into his father's printing office, but The great basin, which can accommodate large sea-going vessels, continued to attend the grammar school in the afternoons. In was completed in 1863, the petroleum basin was opened in 1874, 1837 he went to London to improve his knowledge of printing, and additional wharves have been constructed for the reception and on his return to Wales in the following year ardently threw of vessels engaged in the fishing industry. The fish market of himself into literary, educational and religious work. Among his Geestemünde is the most important in Germany, and the auction publications were the well-known quarterly magazine Y Trae- hall practically determines the price of fish throughout the empire. ihodydd (" The Essayist ''), Gwyddoniadur Cymreig (“Encyclo- The whole port is protected by powerful fortifications. Among paedia Cambrensis "), and Dr Silvan Evans's English-Welsh the industrial establishments of the town are shipbuilding yards, Dictionary (1868), but his greatest achievement in this field was foundries, engineering works and saw-mills. the newspaper Baner Cymru (" The Banner of Wales ''), founded GEFFCKEN, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH (1830-1896), German in 1857 and amalgamated with Yr Amserau (“The Times") diplomatist and jurist, was born on the oth of December 1830 at two years later. This paper soon became an oracle in Wales, Hamburg, of which city his father was senator. After studying and played a great part in stirring up the nationalist movement in law at Bonn, Göttingen and Berlin, he was attached in 1854 to the principality. In educational matters he waged a long and the Prussian legation at Paris. For ten years (1856–1866) he successful struggle on behalf of undenominational schools and for was the diplomatic representative of Hamburg in Berlin, first the establishment of the intermediate school system. He was an as chargé d'affaires, and afterwards as minister-resident, being enthusiastic advocate of church discstablishment, and had a afterwards transferred in a like capacity to London. Appointed historic newspaper duel with Dr John Owen (afterwards bishop in 1872 professor of constitutional history and public law in the of St David's ) on this question. The Eisteddfod found in him reorganized university of Strassburg, Geficken became in 1880 a a thorough friend and a wise counsellor. His commanding member of the council of state of Alsace-Lorraine. Of too nervous prescnce, mastery of diction, and resonant voice made him an a temperament to withstand the strain of the responsibilities of effective platform speaker. He was ordained to the Calvinistic his position, he retired from public service in 1882, and lived Methodist ministry at Bala in 1847, and gave his time and talents henceforth mostly at Munich, where he died, suffocated by an ungrudgingly to Sunday school and temperance work. Through- accidental escape of gas into his bedchamber, on the ist of May out his life he believed in the itinerant unpaid ministry rather 1896. Geficken was a man of great erudition and wide knowledge than in the settled pastorate. He died on the 28th of September and of remarkable legal acumen, and from these qualities pro1898, and his funeral was the most imposing ever seen in North cecded the personal influence he possessed. He was moreover a Wales.
clear writer and made his mark as an essayist. He was one of the GEEL, JACOB (1789-1862), Dutch scholar and critic, was born most trusted advisers of the Prussian crown prince, Frederick at Amsterdam on the 12th of November 1789. In 1823 he was William (afterwards the emperor Frederick), and it was be it is appointed sub-librarian, and in 1833 chicf librarian and honorary said, at Bismarck's suggestion) who drew up the draft of the New professor at Leiden, where he died on the uth of November 1862. German federal constitution, which was submitted to the crown Geel materially contributed to the development of classical prince's headquarters at Versailles during the war of 1870-71. studies in Holland. He was the author of editions of Theocritus it was also Geficken who assisted in framing the famous docu(1820), of the Vatican fragments of Polybius (1829), of the ment which the emperor Frederick, on his accession to the Outlakós of Dio Chrysostom (1840) and of numerous essays in throne in 1888, addressed to the chancellor. This memoranthe Rheinisches Museum and Bibliotheca critica nova, of which he dum gave umbrage, and on the publication by Geficken in the was one of the founders. He also compiled a valuable catalogue Deutsche Rundschau (Oct. 1888) of extracts from the emperor of the MSS. in the Leiden library, wrote a history of the Greek Frederick's private diary during the war of 1870–71, he was, at sophists, and translated various German works into Dutch. Bismarck's instance, prosecuted for high treason. The Reichs
GEELONG, a scaport of Grant county, Victoria, Australia, gericht (supreme court), however, quashed the indictment, and situated on an extensive land-locked arm of Port Phillip known Geficken was liberated after being under arrest for three months. as Corio Bay, 45 m. by rail S.W. of Melbourne. Pop. of the city Publications of various kinds proceeded from his pen. Among proper (1901) 12,399; with the adjacent boroughs of Geelong these are Zur Geschichte des oricntalischen Krieges 1853-1856 West, and Newton-and-Chilwell
, 23,311. Geelong slopes to the (Berlin, 1881); Frankreich, Russland und der Dreibund (Berlin, bay on the north and to the Barwon river on the south, and its 1894); and Staal und Kirche (1875), English translation by position in this respect, as well as the shelter it obtains from the E. F. Fairfax (1877). His writings on English history have been Bellarine hills, renders it one of the healthiest towns in Victoria. translated by S. J. Macmillan and published as The British As a manufacturing centre it is of considerable importance. Empire, will essays on Prince Albert, Palmerslon, Beaconsfidd, The first woollen mill in the colony was established here, and the Gladstone, and reform of the House of Lords (1889). tweeds, cloths and other woollen fabrics of the town are noted GEFFROY, MATHIEU AUGUSTE (1820-1895), French throughout Australia. There are extensive tanneries, flour-mills historian, was born in Paris. After studying at the Ecole and salt works, while at Fyansford, 3 m. distant, there are Normale Supérieure he held history professorships at various important cement works and paper-mills. The extensive vine-lycées. His French thesis for the doctorate of letters, Étude sur yards in the neighbourhood of the town were destroyed under les pamphlets politiques el rcligieux de Milton (1848), showed the Phylloxera Act, but replanting subsequently revived this that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study for which industry. Corio Bay, a safe and commodious barbour, is entered he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and by two channels across its bar, one of which has a depth of 234 ft. Scandinavian languages. In 1851 he published a Histoire des There is extensive quayage, and the largest wool ships are able class scandinaves, which is especially valuable for clear arrange. to load alongside the wharves, which are connected by rail with ment and for the trustworthiness of its facts. Later, a long