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stay in Sweden furnished him with valuable documents for a | edition, 1878). This was translated into English by W. F. political and social history of Sweden and France at the end of Jeffrey Bell (Elements of Comparative Analomy, 1878), with the 18th century. In 1864 and 1865 he published in the Revue additions by E. Ray Lankester. While recognizing the import. des deux mondes a series of articles on Gustavus III. and the ance of comparative embryology in the study of descent, GegenFrench court, which were republished in book form in 1867. baur laid stress on the higher value of comparative anatomy To the second volume he appended a critical study on Marie as the basis of the study of homologies, i.e. of the relations Antoinelle e Louis XVI apocryphes, in which he proved, by between corresponding parts in different animals, as, for example, evidence drawn from documents in the private archives of the the arm of man, the foreleg of the horse and the wing of a fowl. emperor of Austria, that the letters published by Feuillet de A distinctive piece of work was effected by him in 1871 in supple. Conches (Louis XVI, Marie Antoinelle a Madame Elisabeth, menting the evidence adduced by Huxley in refutation of the 1864-1873) and Hunolstein (Corresp. inédite de Marie Antoinele, theory of the origin of the skull from expanded vertebrae, which, 1864) are forgeries. With the collaboration of Alfred von formulated independently by Goethe and Oken, had been Arneth, director of the imperial archives at Vienna, he edited championed by Owen. Huxley demonstrated that the skull the Correspondance secrèle entre Marie-Thérèse et le comte de is built up of cartilaginous pieces; Gegenbaur showed that "
"in Mercy-Argenlcau (3 vols., 1874), the first account based on trust the lowest (gristly) fishes, where hints of the original vertebrae worthy documents of Marie Antoinette's character, private might be most expected, the skull is an unsegmented gristly conduct and policy. The Franco-German War drew Geffroy's brain-box, and that in higher forms the vertebral nature of the attention to the origins of Germany, and his Rome et les Barbares: skull cannot be maintained, since many of the bones, notably tlude sur la Germanie de Tacite (1874) set forth some of the results those along the top of the skull, arise in the skin." Other publicaof German scholarship. He was then appointed to superintend tions by Gegenbaur include a Text-book of Human Anatomy the opening of the French school of archaeology at Rome, and (Leipzig, 1883, new ed. 1903), the Epiglotlis (1892) and Comdrew up two useful reports (1877 and 1884) on its origin and early parative Analomy of the Vertebrales in relation lo the Invertebrales work. But his personal tastes always led him back to the study (Leipzig, 2 vols., 1898-1901). In 1875 he founded the Morphoof modern history. When the Paris archives of foreign affairs logisches Jahrbuck, which he edited for many years. In 1901 were thrown open to students, it was decided to publish a collec- he published a short autobiography under the title Erlebtes und tion of the instructions given to French ambassadors since 1648 Erstrebles. (Recueil des instruclions données aux ambassadeurs cl ministres
See Fürbringer in Heidelberger Professoren aus dem 1olen, Jaks. de France depuis le trailé de Westphalie), and Geffroy was com
hundert (Heidelberg, 1903). missioned to edit the volumes dealing with Sweden (vol.ii., 1885) GEGENSCHEIN (Ger. gegen, opposite, and schein, shine), an and Denmark (vol. xiii., 1895). In the interval he wrote Madame extremely faint luminescence of the sky, seen opposite the direcde Maintenon d'après sa correspondance authentique (2 vols., tion of the sun. Germany was the country in which it was first 1887), in which he displayed his penetrating critical faculty in discovered and described. The English rendering counterdiscriminating between authentic documents and the additions glow" is also given to it. Its saintness is such that it can be and corrections of arrangers like La Beaumelle and Lavallée. seen only by a practised eye under favourable conditions. It His last works were an Essai sur la formation des collections is invisible during the greater part of June, July, December d'antiques de la Suède and Des institutions al des maurs du and January, owing to its being then blotted out by the superior paganisme scandinave: l'Islande avant le Christianisme, both light of the Milky Way. It is also invisible during moonlight published posthumously. He died at Bièvre on the 16th of and near the horizon, and the neighbourhood of a bright star August 1895.
or planet may interfere with its recognition. When none of GEPLE, a seaport of Sweden on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, these unfavourable conditions supervene it may be seen at nearly chief town of the district (lån) of Gelleborg, 112 m. N.N.W. of any time when the air is clear and the depression of the sun Stockholm by rail. Pop. (1900) 29,522. It is the chief port of below the horizon more than 20°. (See ZODIACAL LICHT.) the district of Kopparberg, with its iron and other mines and GEIBEL, EMANUEL (1815-1884), German poet, was born forests. The exports consist principally of timber and wood at Lübeck on the 17th of October 1815, the son of a pastor in pulp, iron and steel. The harbour, which has two entrances the city. He was originally intended for his father's profession, about 20 ft. deep, is usually ice-bound in mid-winter. Large and studied at Bonn and Berlin, but his real interests lay not in vessels generally load in the roads at Graberg, 6 m. distant. | theology but in classical and romance philology. In 1838 he There are slips and shipbuilding yards, and a manufacture of accepted a tutorship, at Athens, where he remained until 1840. sail-cloth. The town is an important industrial centre, having in the same year he brought out, in conjunction with his friend tobacco and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical Ernst Curtius, a volume of translations from the Greek. His works, and breweries. · At Skutskär at the mouth of the Dal first poems, Zeitstimmen, appeared in 1841; a tragedy, König river are wood-pulp and saw mills, dealing with the large Rodcrich, followed in 1843. In the same year he received a quantities of timber floated down the river; and there are large pension from the king of Prussia, which he retained until his wood-yards in the suburb of Bomhus. Gefle was almost destroyed invitation to Munich by the king of Bavaria in 1851 as honorary by fire in 1869, but was rebuilt in good style, and has the ad professor at the university. In the interim he had produced vantage of a beautiful situation. The principal buildings arc a König Sigurds Brautfahri (1846), an epic, and Juniuslieder castle, founded by King John III. (1568-1592), but rebuilt later, (1848, 33rd ed. 1901), lyrics in a more spirited and manlier style a council-house erected by Gustavus III., who held a diet here in than his early poems. A volume of Neue Gedichte, published at 1792, an exchange, and schools of commerce and navigation. Munich in 1857, and principally consisting of poems on classical
GEGENBAUR, CARL (1826-1903), German anatomist, was subjects, denoted a further considerable advance in objectivity, born on the 21st of August 1826 at Würzburg, the university of and the series was worthily closed by the Spätherbstblälter, pubwhich he entered as a student in 1845. After taking his degree lished in 1877. He had quitted Munich in 1869 and returned in 1851 he spent some time in travelling in Italy and Sicily, to Lübeck, where he died on the 6th of April 1884. His works before returning to Würzburg as Privaldocent in 1854. In 1855 further include two tragedies, Brunhild(1858, 5th ed. 1890), and he was appointed extraordinary professor of anatomy at Jena, Sophonisbe (1869), and translations of French and Spanish where after 1865 his fellow-worker, Ernst Haeckel, was professor popular poetry. Beginning as a member of the group of political of zoology, and in 1858 he became the ordinary professor. In poets who heralded the revolution of 7848, Geibel was also the 1873 he was appointed to Heidelberg, where he was professor chief poet to welcome the establishment of the Empire in 1871. of anatomy and director of the Anatomical Institute until his His strength lay not, however, in his political songs but in his retirement in 1901. He died at Heidelberg on the 14th of June purely lyric poetry, such as the fine cycle Ada and his still popular
The work by which perhaps he is best known is his love-songs. He may be regarded as the leading representative Grundriss der vergleichenden Anatomie (Leipzig, 1874; and l of German lyric poetry between 1848 and 1970
Geibel's Gesammelte Werke were published in 8 vols. (1883. 4th ed. / active promoters of the Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie (18351906); his Gedichle have gone through about 130 editions. An excel: 1839 and 1842-1847). From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, lent selection in one volume appeared in 1904: For biography and where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote Geibel (1884); K. T. Gaedertz, Geibel-Denkwurdigkeilen (1886); some of his most important works, including Lehr- und Lesebuch C.C. T. Litzmann, E. Geibel, aus Erinnerungen, Briefen und Tage zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), büchern (1887), and biographies by C. Leimbach (2nd ed., 1894), and translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), K. T. Gaedertz (1897).
and Urschrift und Übersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit GEIGE (0. Fr. gigue, sige; O. Ital. and Span. giga; Prov. von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857). The lastsigua; O. Dutch gighe), in modern German the violin; in medieval named work attracted little attention at the time, but now German the name applied to the first stringed instruments enjoys a great reputation as a new departure in the methods of played with a bow, in contradistinction to those whose strings studying the records of Judaism. The Urschrift has moreover were plucked by fingers or plectrum such as the cithara, rotta and been recognized as one of the most original contributions to fidula, the first of these terms having been very generally used biblical science. In 1863 Geiger became head of the synagogue of to designate various instruments whose strings were plucked. his native town, and in 1870 he removed to Berlin, where, in The name gige in Germany, of which the origin is uncertain,' and addition to his duties as chief rabbi, he took the principal charge its derivatives in other languages, were in the middle ages applied of the newly established seminary for Jewish science. The to rebecs having fingerboards. As the first bowed instruments Urschrift was followed by a more exhaustive handling of one of in Europe were, as far as we know, those of the rebab type, both its topics in Die Sadducäer und Pharisäer (1863), and by a more boat-shaped and pear-shaped, it seems probable that the name thorough application of its leading principles in an elaborate clung to them long after the bow had been applied to other history of Judaism (Das Judentum und seine Geschichte) in 1865stringed instruments derived from the cithara, such as the fiddle 1871. Geiger also contributed frequently on Hebrew, Samaritan (videl) or vielle. In the romances of the 13th and 13th centuries and Syriac subjects to the Zeitschrifider deutschen morgenländischen the gige is frequently mentioned, and generally associated with Gesellschaft, and from 1862 until his death (on the 23rd of October the rotta. Early in the 16th century we find definite information 1874) he was editor of a periodical entitled Jüdische Zeitschrift concerning the Geige in the works of Sebastian Virdung (1511), für Wissenschaft und Leben. He also published a Jewish prayerHans Judenkünig (1523), Martin Agricola (1532), Hans Gerle book (Israëlitisches Gebetbuch) and a variety of minor monographs (1533); and from the instruments depicted, of two distinct types on historical and literary subjects connected with the fortunes of and many varieties, it would appear that the principal idea his people.
(I. A.) attached to the name was still that of the bow used to vibrate the An Allgemeine Einleitung and five volumes of Nachgelassene strings. Virdung qualifies the word Geige with Klein (small) and Schriften were edited in 1875 by his son LUDWIG GEIGER (b. 1848), Gross (large), which do not represent two sizes of the same who in 1880 became extraordinary professor in the university of instrument but widely different types, also recognized by Berlin. Ludwig Geiger published a large number of biographical Agricola, who names three or four sizes of each, discant, alto, and literary works and made a special study of German humanism. tenor and bass. Virdung's Klein Geige is none other than the He edited the Goethe-Jahrbuch from 1880, Vierteljahrsschrift für rebec with two C-shaped soundholes and a raised fingerboard cut Kultur und Lilleratur der Renaissance (1885-1886), Zeitschr. Jilr in one piece with the vaulted back and having a separate fat die Gesch. der Juden im Deutschland (1886-1891), Zeitschr. für soundboard glued over it, a change rendered necessary by the vergleichende Lilleraturgeschichte und Renaissance-Lillerclur arched bridge. Agricola's Klein Geige with three strings was of a (1887-1891). Among his works are Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben totally different construction, having ribs and wide incurvations und seine Werke (Leipzig, 1871); and Johann Reuchlin's Briefbut no bridge; there was a rose soundhole near the tailpiece wechsel (Tübingen, 1875); Renaissance und Humanismus in and two C-shaped holes in the shoulders. Agricola (Musica Italien und Deutschland (1882, 2nd ed. 1901); Gesch. des geistigen instrumentalis) distinctly mentions three kinds of Geigen with | Lebens der preussischen Hauptstadt (1892-1894); Berlin's geistiges three, four and five strings. From him we learn that only one Leben (1894–1896). position was as yet used on these instruments, one or two higher See also J. Derenbourg in Jüd. Zeitschrift, xi. 299-308; E. notes being occasionally obtained by sliding the little finger Schrieber, Abraham. Geiger als Reformator des Judentums (1880), along. A century later Agricola's Geige was regarded as anti- art. (with portrait) in Jewish Encyclopedia. quated by Praetorius, who reproduces one of the bridgeless ones Abraham Geiger's nephew Lazarus GEIGER (1829–1870), with five strings, a rose and two C-shaped soundholes, and calls philosopher and philologist, born at Frankfort-on-Main, was it an old fiddle; under Geige he gives the violins. (K. S.) destined to commerce, but soon gave himself up to scholarship
GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1810-1874), Jewish theologian and and studied at Marburg, Bonn and Heidelberg. From 1861 till orientalist, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 24th of May his sudden death in 1870 he was professor in the Jewish high 1810, and educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. school at Frankfort. His chief aim was to prove that the As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philo- evolution of human reason is closely bound up with that of logy, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of language. He further maintained that the origin of the IndoJudaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was after-Germanic language is to be sought not in Asia but in central wards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus Germany. He was a convinced opponent of rationalism in religion. dem Judentum aufgenommen? (English trans. Judaism and His chief work was his Ursprung und Entwickelung der menschIslam, Madras, 1898). In November 1832 he went to Wiesbaden lichen Sprache und Vernunfl (vol. i., Stuttgart, 1868), the principal as rabbi of the synagogue, and became in 1835 one of the most results of which appeared in a more popular form as Der Ursprung
The words gige, gigen, geic appear suddenly in the M. H. German der Sprache (Stuttgart, 1869 and 1878). The second volume of the of the 12th century, and thence passed apparently into the Romance former was published in an incomplete form (1872, 2nd ed. 1899) languages, though some would reverse the process (e.g. Weigand, after his death by his brother Alfred Geiger, who also published a Deutsches Wörterbuch). An elaborate argument in the Deutsches number of his scattered papers as Zur Entwickelung der MenschWörterbuch of J. and W. Grimm (Leipzig, 1897) connects the word with an ancient common Teut. root gag-meaning to sway to and keil (1871, 2nd ed. 1878; Eng. trans. D. Asher, Hisl. of the fro, as preserved in numerous forms: €. 8. M.H.G sagen, eugen, Development of the Human Race, Lond., 1880). "to sway to and fro". (gugen, gagen, the rocking of a cradle), the See L. A. Rosenthal, Laz. Geiger: seine Lehre vom Ursprung d. Swabian gigen, gagen, in the same sense, the Tirolese gaiggern, to Sprache und Vernunft und sein Leben (Stuttgart, 1883); E. Peschier, sway, doubi, or the old Norse geiga, to go astray or crooked. The L. Geiger, sein Leben und Denken (1871): J. Keller, L. Geiger und reference is to the swaying motion of the violin bow. The English d. Krilik d. Vernunft (Wertheim, 1883) and Der Ursprung d. Ver.
jig is derived from gige through the 0. Fr. gigue (in the sense nunft (Heidelberg, 1884).
GEIJER, ERIK GUSTAP (1783-1847), Swedish historian, was naire). This opens up another possibility, of the origin of the name
born at Ransäter in Värmland, on the 12th of January 1783, of a of the instrument in the dance which it accompanied. (W.A. P.) family that had immigrated from Austria in the 17th century. He was educated at the university of Upsala, where in 1803 he and S. A. Hollander, Minne of E. G. Geijer (Örebro, 1869). See also carried off the Swedish Academy's great prize for his Areminne lives of Geijer by J. Hellstenius (Stockholm, 1876) and"j. Nickson
(Odense, 1902). öfver Sten Sture den äldre. He graduated in 1806, and in 1810 returned from a year's residence in England to become docent in GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD (1835- ), Scottish geologist, his university. Soon afterwards he accepted a post in the public was born at Edinburgh on the 28th of December 1835. He was record office at Stockholm, where, with some friends, he founded cdụcated at the high school and university of Edinburgh, and the “Gothic Society,” to whose organ Iduna he contributed a in 1855 was appointed an assistant on the Geological Survey. number of prose essays and the songs Manhein, Vikingen, Den Wielding the pen with no less facility than the hammer, he siste kämper, Den siste skalden, Odalbonden, Kolargossen, which he inaugurated his long list of works with The Story of a Boulder; set to music. About the same time he issued a volume of hymns, or, Gleanings from the Note-Book of a Geologist (1858). His ability of which several are inserted in the Swedish Psalter.
at once attracted the notice of his chief, Sir Roderick Murchison, Geijer's lyric muse was soon after silenced by his call to be with whom he formed a lifelong friendship, and whose biographer assistant to Erik Michael Fant, professor of history at Upsala, he subsequently became. With Murchison some of his earliest whom he succeeded in 1817. In 1824 he was elected a member of work was done on the complicated regions of the Highland the Swedish Academy. A single volume of a great projected schists; and the small geological map of Scotland published in work, Svea Rikes Höjder, itself a masterly critical examination of 1862 was their joint work: a larger map was issued by Geikie in the sources of Sweden's legendary history, appeared in 1825. 1892. In 1863 he published an important essay “ On the PhenoGeijer's researches in its preparation had severely strained his mena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland," Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, health, and he went the same year on a tour through Denmark in which the effects of ice action in that country were for the first and part of Germany, his impressions from which are recorded in time clearly and connectedly delineated. In 1865 appeared his Minnen. In 1832-1836 he published three volumes of his Geikie's Scenery of Scotland (3rd edition, 1901), which was, he Svenska folkets historia (Eng. trans. by J. H. Turner, 1845), a claimed," the first attempt to elucidate in some detail the history clear view of the political and social development of Sweden of the topography of a country.” In the same year he was down to 1654. The acute critical insight, just thought, and clected F.R.S. At this time the Edinburgh school of geologists finished historical art of these incomplete works of Geijer entitle prominent among them Sir Andrew Ramsay, with his Physical him to the first place among Swedish historians. His chief other Geology and Geography of Great Brilain-were maintaining the historical and political writings are his Teckning af Sveriges supreme importance of denudation in the configuration of landtillstånd 1718-1772 (Stockholm, 1838), and Feodalism och surfaces, and particularly the erosion of valleys by the action of republikanism, eti bidrag till Samhällsförfattningens historia (1844), running water. Geikie's book, based on extensive personal which led to a controversy with the historian Anders Fryxell knowledge of the country, was an able contribution to the regarding the part played in history by the Swedish aristocracy. doctrines of the Edinburgh school, of which he himself soon Geijer also edited, with the aid of J. H. Schröder, a continuation began to rank as one of the leaders. of Fant's Scriptores rerum svecicarum medii cevi (1818-1828), and, In 1867, when a separate branch of the Gcological Survey by himself, Thomas Thorild's Samlade skrifter (1819-1825), and was established for Scotland, he was appointed director. On Konung Gustaf III.'s efterlemnade Pepper (4 vols., 1843–1846). the foundation of the Murchison professorship of geology and Geijer's academic lectures, of which the last three, published in mineralogy at the university of Edinburgh in 1871, he became 1845 under the title Om vår tids inre samhällsforhållanden, i the first occupant of the chair. These two appointments he synnerhet med afseende på Fäderneslandel, involved him in another continued to hold till 1881, when he succeeded Sir Andrew controversy with Fryxell, but exercised a great influence over his Ramsay in the joint offices of director-general of the Geological students, who especially testified to their attachment after the Survey of the United Kingdom and director of the museum of failure of a prosecution against him for heresy. A number of his practical geology, London, from which he retired in February extempore lectures, recovered from notes, were published in 1856. 1901. A feature of his tenure of office was the impetus given to He also wrote a life of Charles XIV. (Stockholm, 1844). Failing microscopic petrography, a branch of geology to which he had health forced Geijer to resign his chair in 1846, after which he devoted special study, by a splendid collection of sections of removed to Stockholm for the purpose of completing his Svenska British rocks. Later he wrote two important and interesting folkets historia, and died there on the 23rd of April 1847. His Survey Memoirs, The Geology of Central and Western Fife and Samlade skrifter (13 vols., 1849-1855; new ed., 1873-1877) include Kinross (1900), and The Geology of Eastern Fife (1902). a large number of philosophical and political essays contributed From the outset of his career, when he started to investigate the to reviews, particularly to Litteraturbladet (1838–1839), a periodi- geology of Skye and other of the Western Isles, he took a keen cal edited by himself, which attracted great attention in its day interest in volcanic geology, and in 1871 he brought before the by its pronounced liberal views on public questions, a striking Geological Society of London an outline of the Tertiary volcanic contrast to those he had defended in 1828–1830, when, as again history of Britain. Many difficult problems, however, remained in 1840-1841, he represented Upsala University in the Swedish to be solved. Here he was greatly aided by his extensive travels, diet. His poems were collected and published as Skaldestycken not only throughout Europe, but in western America. While the (Upsala, 1835 and 1878).
canyons of the Colorado confirmed his long-standing views on Geijer's style is strong and manly. His genius bursts out in erosion, the eruptive regions of Wyoming, Montana and Utah sudden flashes that light up the dark corners of history. A few supplied him with valuable data in explanation of volcanic strokes, and a personality stands before us instinct with life. phenomena. The results of his further researches were given in an His language is at once the scholar's and the poet's; with his elaborate and charmingly written essay on “ The History of Vol. profoundest thought there beats in unison the warmest, the canic Action during the Tertiary Period in the British Isles," noblest, the most patriotic heart. Geijer came to the writing of Trans. Roy, Soc. Edin., (1888). His mature views on volcanic history fresh from researches in the whole field of Scandinavian geology were given to the world in his presidential addresses antiquity, researches whose first-fruits are garnered in numerous to the Geological Society in 1891 and 1892, and afterwards articles in Iduna, and his masterly treatise Om den gamla nordiske embodied in his great work on The Ancient Volcanoes of Great folkvisan, prefixed to the collection of Svenska folkvisor which he Britain (1897). Other results of his travels are collected his edited with A. A. Afzelius (3 vols., 1814-1816). The development Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad (1882). of freedom is the idea that gives unity to all his historical His experience as a field geologist resulted in an admirable writings.
text-book, Outlines of Field Geology (5th edition, 1900) After For Geijer's biography, see his own Minnen (1834), which contains editing and practically re-writing Jukes's Student's Manual of copious extracts from his letters and diaries: B. E. Malmström, Geology in 1872, he published in 1882 a Text- Book and in 1886 a (June 6, 1848), and printed among his Tal och esthetiska afhandlingar Class-Book of geology, which have taken rank as standard works (1868), and Grunddragen af Svenska vitierhetens höjder (1866–1868); l of their kind. A fourth edition of his Text-Book, in two vols., was issued in 1903. His writings are marked in a high degree by charm on the 16th of March 1445, but from 1448 passed his childhood of style and power of vivid description. His literary ability has and youth at Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, from which place his given him peculiar qualifications as a writer of scientific bio- current designation is derived. In 1400 he entered the university graphy, and the Memoir of Edward Forbes (with G. Wilson), and of Freiburg in Baden, where, after graduation, he lectured for those of his old chiefs, Sir R I. Murchison (2 vols., 1875) and Sir some time on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, the commentaries Andrew Crombie Ramsay (1895), are models of what such works of Alexander of Hales, and several of the works of Aristotle. A should be. His Founders of Geology consists of the inaugural living interest in theological subjects, awakened by the study of course of Lectures (founded by Mrs G. H. Williams) at Johns John Gerson, led him in 1471 to the university of Basel, a cemre Hopkins University, Baltimore, delivered in 1897. In 1897 he of attraction to some of the most earnest spirits of ihe time issued an admirable Geological Map of England and Wales, with Made a doctor of theology in 1475, he received a professorship Descriplive Noles. In 1898 he delivered the Romanes Lectures, at Freiburg in the following year, but his tastes, no less than the and his address was published under the title of Types of Scenery spirit of the age, began to incline him more strongly to the vocation and their Influence on Literature. The study of geography owes of a preacher, while his fervour and eloquence soon led to his its improved position in Great Britain largely to his efforts. receiving numerous invitations to the larger towns. Ultimately Among his works on this subject is The Teaching of Geography he accepted in 1478 a call to the cathedral of Strassburg, where (1887). His Scottish Reminiscences (1904) and Landscape in he continued to work with few interruptions until within a short History and other Essays (1905) are charmingly written and full time of his death on the roth of March 1510. The beautiful of instruction. He was foreign secretary of the Royal Society pulpit erected for him in 1481 in the nave of the cathedral, when from 1890 to 1894, joint secretary from 1903 to 1908, president ihe chapel of St Lawrence had proved too small, still bears in 1909, president of the Geological Society in 1891 and 1892, witness to the popularity he enjoyed as a preacher in the imand president of the British Association, 1892. He received the mediate sphere of his labours, and the testimonies of Sebastian honour of knighthood in 1891,
Brant, Beatus Rhenanus, Johann Reuchlin, Melanchthon and GEIKIE, JAMES (1839– ), Scottish geologist, younger others show how great had been the influence of his personal brother of Sir Archibald Geikie, was born at Edinburgh on the character. His sermons-bold, incisive, denunciatory, abounding 23rd of August 1839. He was educated at the high school and in quaint illustrations and based on texts by no means confined university of Edinburgh. He served on the Geological Survey to the Bible, -taken down as he spoke them, and circulated from 1861 until 1882, when he succeeded his brother as Murchi (sometimes without his knowledge or consent) by his friends, son professor of gcology and mineralogy at the university of told perceptibly on the German thought as well as on the German Edinburgh. He took as his special subject of investigation the speech of his time. origin of surface-features, and the part played in their formation Among the many volumes published under his name only two by glacial action. His views are embodied in his chief work, The appear to have had the benefit of his revision, namely, Der Seelen Great Ice Age and ils Relation to the Antiquity of Man (1874; irrig Schaf. Of the rest, probably the best-known is a series of
Puradies von waren und volkomnen Tugenden, and that entitled Das 3rd ed., 1894). He was elected F.R.S. in 1875. James lectures on his friend Seb. Brant's work; Das Narrenschiff or the Geikie became the leader of the school that upholds the all- Navicula or Speculum fatuorum, of which an edition was published important action of land-ice, as against those geologists who
at Strassburg in 150 under the following title:--Navicula sive assign chief importance to the work of pack-ice and icebergs. speculum saluorum praestantissimi sacrarumlitcrarum doctoris Joannis Continuing this line of investigation in his Prehistoric Europe See F. W. von Ammon, Geyler's Leben, Lehren und Predigten (1881), he maintained the hypothesis of five inter-Glacial periods (1826); L. Dacheux, Un Réformateur catholique à la fin du XV. in Great Britain, and argued that the palaeolithic deposits of siècle, J. G. de K (Paris, 1876); R. Crucl, Gesch, der deutschen the
Pleistocene period were not post- but inter- or pre-Glacial, Schriften 14 vols., 1881); 1.'M. Lindsay, 1listory of the Reformation, His Fragments of Earth Lore: Sketches and Addresses, Geological I. 118 (1906); and G. Kawerau in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and Geographical (1893) and Earth Sculplure (1898) are mainly vi. 427. concerned with the same subject. His Outlines of Geology (1886), GEINITZ, HANS BRUNO (1814-1900), German gcologist, was a standard text-book of its subject, reached its third edition born at Altenburg, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, in 1896; and in 1905 he published an important manual on on the 16th of October 1814. He was educated at the uni. Struclural and Field Geology. In 1887 he displayed another side versities of Berlin and Jena, and gained the foundations of his of his activity in a volume of Songs and Lyrics by H. Heine and geological knowledge under F. A. Quenstedt. In 1837 he took olher German Poels, done into English Verse. From 1888 he was the degree of Ph.D with a thesis on the Muschelkalk of Thuringia. honorary editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. In 1850 he became professor of geology and mineralogy in the
GEIKIE, WALTER (1795-1837), Scottish painter, was born at Royal Polytechnic School at Dresden, and in 1857 he was made Edinburgh on the oth of November 1795. In his second year director of the Royal Mineralogical and Geological Museum, he was attacked by a nervous fever by which he permanently lost he held these posts until 1894. He was distinguished for his the faculty of hearing, but through the careful attention of his researches on the Carboniserous and Cretaceous rocks and fossils father he was enabled to obtain a good education. Beforc he had of Saxony, and in particular for those relating to the fauna and the advantage of the instruction of a master he had attained con- flora of the Permian or Dyas formation. He described also the siderable proficiency in sketching both figures and landscapes from graptolites of the local Silurian strata, and the flora of the nature, and in 1812 he was admitted into the drawing academy Coal-formation of Altai and Nebraska. From 1863 to 1878 he of the board of Scottish manufactures. He first exhibited was one of the editors of the Neues Jahrbuch. He was awarded in 1815, and was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish the Murchison medal by the Geological Society of London in 1878 Academy in 1831, and a fellow in 1834. He died on the ist of He died at Dresden on the 28th of January 1900. His son August 1837, and was interred in the Greyfriars churchyard, FRANZ EUGEN GEINITZ (b. 1854), professor of geology in the Edinburgh. Owing to his want of feeling for colour, Geikie was university of Rostock, became distinguished for researches on not a successful painter in oils, but he sketched in India ink with the geology of Saxony, Mecklenburg, &c great truth and humour the scenes and characters of Scottish H. B. Geinitz's publications were Das Quader sandsleingebirge oder lower-class life in his native city. A series of etchings which Kreidegebirge in Deutschland (1849-1850), Die Versteinerungen der
Steinkohlenformation in Sachsen (1855); Dyas, oder die Zechstein. exhibit very high excellence were published by him in 1829-1831, formation und das Rothliegende (1861-1862): Das Elbthalgebirge in and a collection of eighty-one of these was republished posthu-Sachsen (1871-1875) mously in 1841, with a biographical introduction by Sir Thomas GEISHA (a Chino-Japanese word meaning “person of pleasing Dick Lauder, Bart.
accomplishments "), strictly the name of the professional dancing GEILER (or GEYLER) VON KAISERSBERG, JOHANN (1445- and singing girls of Japan. The word is, however, often loosely 1510), “the German Savonarola,” one of the greatest of the used for the girls and women inhabiting Shin Yoshiwara, the popular preachers of the 15th century, was born at Schafihausen | prostitutes' quarter of Tokyo The training of the true Geisha or singing girl, which includes lessons in dancing, begins often with the exception of the bare chest, which is reddish flesh-colour, as carly as her seventh year. Her apprenticeship over, she the gelada recalls the Arabian baboon (Papio hamadryas), and contracts with her employer for a number of years, and is seldom from this common feature it has been proposed to place the two able to reach independence except by marriage. There is a species in the same genus. The gelada inhabits the mountains of capitation fee of two yen per month on the actual singing girls, Abyssinia, where, like other baboons, it descends in droves to and of one yen on the apprentices.
pillage cultivated lands. A second spccics, or race, Theropithecus See Jukichi Inouye, Skeiches of Tokyo Life.
obscurus, distinguished by its darker hairs and the presence of GEISLINGEN, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Württem- a bare Aesh-coloured ring round each eye, inhabits the eastern berg, on the Thierbach, 38 m. by rail E.S.E. of Stuttgart. Pop. confines of Abyssinia.
(R. L.*) (1905) 7050. It has shops for the carving and turning of bone, GELASIUS, the name of two popes. ivory, wood and horn, besides iron-works, machinery (actories, GELASIUS I., pope from 492 to 496, was the successor of Felix glass-works, brewing and bleaching works, &c. The church of III. He confirmed the estrangement between the Eastern and St Mary contains wood-carving by Jörg Syrlin the Younger. Western churches by insisting on the removal of the name of Above the town lic the ruins of the castle of Helfenstein, which Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, from the diptychs. He is the was destroyed in 1552. Having been for a few years in the author of De duabus in Christo naluris adversus Eulychen a possession of Bavaria, the town passed to Württemberg in 1810. Nestorium. A great number of his letters has also come down
See Weitbrecht, Wanderungen durch Geislingen und seine Umge- to us. His name has been altached to a Liber Sacramentorum bung (Stuttgart, 1896).
anterior to that of St Gregory, but he can have composed only GEISSLER, HEINRICH (1814–1879), German physicist, was certain parts of it. As to the so-called Decrelum Gelasii de libris born at the village of Igelshieb in Saxe-Meiningen on the 26th recipiendis el non recipiendis, it also is a compilation of documents of May 1814 and was educated as a glass-blower. In 1854 he anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine Gelasius's settled at Bonn, where he speedily gained a high reputation for contributions to it. At all events, as we know it, it is of Roman his skill and ingenuity of conception in the fabrication of chemical origin, and 6th-century or later.
(L. D.*) and physical apparatus. With Julius Plücker, in 1852, he as. GELASIUS II. (Giovanni Coniulo), pope from the 24th of certained the maximum density of water to be at 3.8° C. He January 1118 to the 29th of January 1119, was born at Gaeta also determined the coefficient of expansion for ice between of an illustrious family. He became a monk of Monte Cassino, -24° and -7°, and for water freczing at o'. In 1869, in con- was taken to Rome by Urban II., and made chancellor and junction with H. P. J. Vogelsang, he proved the existence of cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria in Cosmedin. Shortly after his liquid carbon dioxide in cavities in quartz and topaz, and later unanimous election to succeed Paschal II. he was seized by he obtained amorphous from ordinary phosphorus by means of Cencius Frangipane, a partisan of the emperor Henry V., but freed the electric current. He is best known as the inventor of the by a general uprising of the Romans in his behalf. The emperor sealed glass tubes which bear his name, by means of which are drove Gelasius from Rome in March, pronounced his election exhibited the phenomena accompanying the discharge of electri- null and void, and set up Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as city through highly rarefied vapours and gases. Among other antipope under the name of Gregory VIII. Gelasius fied to apparatus contrived by him were a vaporimeter, mercury air-Gaeta, where he was ordained priest on the 9th of March and on pump, balances, normal thermometer, and areometer. From the following day received episcopal consecration. He at once ihe university of Bonn, on the occasion of its jubilec in 1868, he excommunicated Henry and the antipope and, under Norman received the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy. He died protection, was able return to Rome in July; but the disat Bonn on the 24th of January 1879.
turbances of the imperialist party, especially of the Frangipani, See A. W. Hofmann, Ber. d. deut.chem. Ges. p. 148 (1879). who attacked the pope while celebrating mass in the church
GELA, a city of Sicily, generally and almost certainly identified of St Prassede, compelled Gelasius to go once more into exile. with the modern Terranova (9.v.). It was founded by Cretan He set out for France, consecrating the cathedral of Pisa on the and Rhodian colonists in 688 B.C., and itself founded Acragas way, and arrived at Marseilles in October. He was received (see AGRIGENTUM) in 582 B.C. It also had a treasure-house at with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other cities, Olympia. The town took its name from the river to the east held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to (Thucydides vi. 2), which in turn was so called from its winter hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he frost (yela in the Sicel dialect; cf. Lat. gelidus). The Rhodian died at Cluny. His successor was Calixtus II. settlers called it Lindioi (see LINDUS). Gela enjoyed its greatest His letters are in J. P. Migne, Patrol. Lat. vol. 163. The original prosperity under Hippocrates (498-491 B.c.), whose dominion life by Pandull is in J. M. Watterich, Pontif. Roman. vilae (Leipzig. extended over a considerable part of the island. Gelon, who in Jaffe- Wattenbach, Regesta pontif. Roman. (1885-1888).
1862), and there is an important digest of his bulls and official acts scized the tyranny on his death, became master of Syracuse in See J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis 485 B.C., and transferred his capital thither with half the in- Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893): F. Gregoroviu Rome in the Middle habitants of Gela, leaving his brother Hiero to rule over the rest. Ages, vol. 4. trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1896): A.
Wagner, Die unteritalischen Normannen und das Papstlum, 1086Its prosperity returned, however, after the expulsion of Thrasy- 1150 (Breslau, 1885); W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen bulus in 466 B.C.,' but in 405 it was besieged by the Carthaginians Kaiserzeit, Bd. ii. (Brunswick, 1890); G. Richter, Annalen der and abandoned by Dionysius' order, after his failure (perhaps deutschen Geschichte im Mittelalter, iii. (Halle, 1898); H. H. Milman, due to treachery) to drive the besiegers away (E. A. Freeman, Lalin Christianity, vol. 4 (London, 1899).
(C.H. HA) Hist. of Sic. ij. 562 seq.). The inhabitants later returned and GELATI, a Georgian monastery in Russian Transcaucasia, rebuilt the town, but it never regained its position. In 311 B.C. in the government of Kutais, 11 m. E. of the town of Kutais, Agathocles put to death 5000 of its inhabitants; and finally, standing on a rocky spur (705 ft. above sea-level) in the valley of after its destruction by the Mamertines about 281 B.C., Phintias the Rion. It was founded in 1109 by the Georgian king David of Agrigentum transferred the remainder to the new town of the Renovator. The principal church, a sandstone cathedral, Phintias (now Licata, 9.0.). It seems that in Roman times they dates from the end of the preceding century, and contains the still kept the name of Gelenses or Geloi in their new abode (Th. royal crown of the former Georgian kingdom of Imeretia, besides Mommsen in C.I.L. X., Berlin, 1883, p. 737). (T. As.) ancient MSS., ecclesiological furniture, and fresco portraits of
GELADA, the Abyssinian name of a large species of baboon, the kings of Imeretia. Here also, in a separate chapel, is the differing from the members of the genus Papio (see BABOON) tomb of David the Renovator (1089–1125) and part of the iron by the nostrils being situated some distance above the extremity gate of the town of Ganja (now Elisavetpol), which that monarch of the muzzle, and hence made the type of a separate genus, brought away as a trophy of his capture of the place. under the name of Theropithecus gelada. In the heavy mantle GELATIN, or GELATINE, the substance which passes into of long brown hair covering the fore-quarters of the old males, solution when “collagen,” the ground substance of bone, * Aeschylus died there in 456 B.C.
cartilage and white fibrous tissue, is treated with boiling water