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Observe the utmost care not to place the tree too deep in the earth. More mischance to a new plantation of trees arises from this source than all the others combined. The best rule is to place the tree in the hole so that the roots may be about the same depth as they were be
leading shoots, which are necessary to attract || last summer, that as much has been discovered the sap from the roots, and thereby promote under ground as was before above it, and to the growth of the tree. prove the possibility of clearing the whole of this magnificent building from the rubbish, he bas also, out of zeal for the arts, uncovered more of a temple of Augustus, and of a Roman gate, at Pota, and secured them as far as possible, in order to give the friends of antiquity a complete work upon the subject.
fore taken up.
The same Mr. Nobile has also drawn from the rubbish and from oblivion, the admirable aqueducts in the territory of Trieste, that are also of Roman origin. He has set people to dig in about thirty places, and has discovered the whole line of the acqueduct from Trieste to the source which supplied it with water.
Place all the roots in their natural position as near as may be, but rather horizontally than otherwise, break the earth fine, and scatter it in the hole so that it may fall between every root, that there may be no hollowness.-Thus fill up the hole, and gently tread down the earth with your foot, but not too hard, which is a great fault, especially if the ground be strong and wet.
Newly planted trees should be well staked and defended from cattle; and it is best to keep the land continually in tillage till the trees have nearly attained their full growth. But great care must be taken that the roots be not disturbed by ploughing, nor the bark of the trees wounded. The ground near the tree, which the plough leaves, should be mellowed with a spade for two or three years, before the roots have far extended. Georgia Journal.
It is distant 35 miles S. W. of Sandy Hook light, and 24 N. of Barnegat Inlet.
The Spanish ninety-gun ship San Fernando, was lost in the early part of December near Algiers. She sailed from Port Mahon for Carthagena on the 4th. of that month, in company with the frigate U. States, parted from her the next day, having lost her mizen topmast in a gale. Two lieutenants and sixty men belong
The Legislature of New Jersey has authori-ing to the American frigate, were on board the zed Michael Oately, a citizen of New York, Spanish ship, assisting to navigate her. It is to open a canal through Seabank, called Squam supposed no lives were lost Beach, in the township of Howell, Monmouth county. The object which is to make an inlet from the main ocean into the head waters of Cape May bay, nearly opposite the mouth of Militecunk river. He is also authorized to clear obstructions from this river This outlet with the main ocean, will facilitate the coasting trade on this part of the coast, shorten the passage from New York to some parts of the bay, and afford access to a safe harbor in the mouth of Militecunk river. The undertaker is au thorized to receive a toll from all vessels passing the canal, when completed, as an indemnification for the expenses laid out in its construction.
The buildings, amounting to seven in number, which were appropriated to the use of the ordinance and commissariat departments, were burnt at Quebec, about the latter part of Jan. with several thousand stand of arms, &c.
The shock of an earthquake was felt at Madeira, on the 6th Feb. about 20 minutes past 12 o'clock in the morning. It was the most severe ever felt in that island, which moved like a ship in a heavy swell. It lasted six min., utes. Several old buildings were thrown down, and two or three churches much injured.
On the morning of the 15th of February two small shocks of an earthquake were felt at Weston, Massachusetts. The air was calm at the time and intensely cold. Many persons were awakened from their sleep by the peculiar noise, or by the motion of their houses. On the day following, fissures were discovered in the earth several feet deep, extending to a great distance, and branching in various directions. These shocks were noticed at Framingham and Sunbury. At the latter place the ground opened, as at Weston.
An intelligent captain of a vessel of Philadelphia
VIENNA, Jan. 15. The port of Istria belonging to the government of the Litterale, forming a part of Illyrium, and since the time of Augustus joined to Italy, contains numerous monuments of that brilliant period of the Roman empire, particu-|| larly in the former flourishing, now decayed town of Pola, and in the neighbourhood of Trieste. The remains of the Roman amphi-panied with a rumbling noise, that it awoke theatre at Pola, have been frequently describ- every person on board that was asleep; and ed, but insufficiently. Marshal Marmont set what is something singular, every animal on some workmen to dig round it, which procur. board seemed to feel the effect of it. The fowls ed some information respecting this monument in the coops, the pigs, and two little birds in of antiquity; but it was reserved for Mr. Peter cages, were all alarmed. The birds flew from Nobile, architect at Trieste, to proceed so far side to side of the cage, apparently in great
Gibraltar, Feb. 11. "On the 2d February, at about 10 minutes before midnight, in latitude 36, N. longitude 23, we experienced a severe shock of an earthquake which lasted about 4 minutes. The trembling of the vessel was so severe, accom
distress. The man at the helm thought the vessel was sinking, and said she did not move at all; although she was then going at the rate of nine knots, and quite a rough sea. I saw no difference in the appearance of the water.
A brig arrived here to day, the captain of which says he felt it much more severely. He was loaded with wheat, and staves stowed on it. He declares, that it shook the wheat above, and the staves below, with many other circumstances equally extraordinay. His latitude and longitude were nearly the same as mine, and the shock felt at the same time. He says, he experienced a shock at 6 o'clock in the morning, which I did not. We were about 100 miles south of the Western Isles."
The captain adds the following note to the foregoing
For an hour or two before and after the shock, there were thousands of porpoises; but they disappeared in a moment when the shock commenced. When earth from its centre feels MECHANICAL IMPROVEMENT- There has the Godhead's power, and trembling at his touch through all its pillars and at every pore; double forcing pump, invented by a Mr. Gray, been exhibited at the city hall, New York, a then man, beasts, birds, and fishes find themselves, what indeed they are, mere helpless immaterial difference in the cost, and being of Springfield, Otsego county which, at an nothings. But thank God, there is a founda-less liable to accident and easier repaired, with
tion for man to build upon, which will not be moved, although the earth should be reduced
the same labor, delivers exactly double the quantity of water obtained by the common sucking pump It is patented, and promises to become uncommonly popular and useful.
A large convent for women was consumed by fire in Dec. 1815, in the town of Puerto Ortova, Teneriff. Seven of the nuns fell victims to the fury of the flames. The next night the island was visited by a tremendous fall of rain; the water courses were filled and ran a different way; in consequence of which fourteen persons were drowned in their houses.
China, at a period in particular when most of the princes of Europe, by proclaiming the tole ration of the religion in countries essentially catholic, seem to slacken the ties which united them to the holy see.
His holiness received with the most lively joy, this blessed intelligence-Farther della Cruce had the honor to be presented to his eminence the cardinal secretary of state along with the four novice Chinese Jesuits, who were conducted to the audience chamber by M. Concellieu, director of the Propaganda.
We are assured that the edicts of the Chinese emperor reached our court through the Portuguese Ambassador.
Twelve Jesuits will be sent to China in the spring. His holiness has addressed a brief felicitation to the emperor of China to thank him. We are even assured that a Bull will be issued to regulate the discipline of the Chinese churches.
The third number of the Register, to bear date the 16th instant, will be deferred until we shall be able to bring up the back numbers, so that our publication may proceed in regular time. It will be entirely filled with the Treas ury Report, a valuable document, containing a history of our national treasury since the adoption of the Federal Constitution, which, we have no doubt, has been in the hands of all our
SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY. Rome, January 18. The congregation of foreign missions labors with the greatest zeal to re-establish its relations with various parts of the world. One of the most happy results undoubtedly is the spe-readers; it will, therefore, be more valuable for cial protection which its members have obtain- future reference than for present reading. ed from China and Abyssinia. They write from Pekin, that the emperor, having obtained a report from the tribunal of worship of the sentences passed against the Jesuits, wrote at the bottom of the report, with his red, or indelible pencil, "Let the edict of the 11th January, 1724 cease to be a law of the empire. There is only one GOD, and this GoD cannot be offended with the diversity of names which are giv-tees en to him." Any thing written with the red pencil can never be recalled: decrees in other colours may be altered.
We shall omit, as uninteresting, Mr Dallas' project for a National Bank. If a law be passed to establish one, we shall then give the law in full.-The proposed Tariff will be omitted also, as it is undergoing many modifications; when it passes into a law we shall publish it entire. Our pages for the present will be necessarily filled with the reports of the commit
According to this imperial decision, the edict of Toleration of the great emperor KangHi of 1672, and that of 1711, have been again transcribed from the tribunal of rites, and transmitted, sealed with the great seal, covered with yellow satin, to Don Gaspaed della Cruce, a Portuguese. It is remarkable that it was a Dominican of this name and of the same nation, who, in 1536, was the first to introduce the christian religion into China.
Nothing can be more agreeable to the court of Rome than to see the christian religion introduced into so extensive an empire as that of
upon the several subjects recommended for the consideration of Congress, with the official letters of the Secretaries of the several departments of government called for and addressed to those committees. After these papers are disposed of, we shall then endeavour to give more variety and interest to our pages.
The proprietor of the Register begs leave to return his grateful acknowledgement to his patrons for their liberal encouragement, and to those gentlemen particularly, who have interested themselves to give it a circulation. He believes his list of subscribers as respectable as any in the country, and in point of numbers, equal perhaps, any paper at its commencement heretofore established, amounting to nearly TWO THOUSAND.
No. 5. VOL. I.] WASHINGTON, SATURDAY, MARCH 30, 1816.
[WHOLE NO. 5.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.
It produces a sort of chasm in our sympathies, when we hear that Mount Vernon is no longer the abode of WASHINGTON. But we contend, that this removal is not only indeco rous, but unnecessary. It does not answer the professed object which congress have in view:
REMAINS OF GEN. WASHINGTON. His honor judge Washington has, and we think with great propriety, refused to deliver the remains of his illustrious relative to the legislature of Virginia. He founded his refusal on the will of GENERAL WASH-It does not testify respect to the illustrious INGTON, which he cond onceives, as in justice deceased, to disturb the repose of his ashes he ought, to be a law binding upon him.- and to violate his dying injunctions. This ob We extract from the will the passage that ject may be easily obtained in another way. bears upon this point: "the family vaultfthe memory of Washington is so dear, what at Mount Vernon, requiring repairs, and should prevent congress from purchasing being improperly situated besides, I desire Mount Vernon, so that it may remain to futhat a new one of brick, and upon a larger ture ages, the property of the nation. This esscale be built at the foot of what is com- tate should never be suffered to fall into the may monly called the vine-yard inclosure, on the hands of a private individual, who would by ground which is marked out, in which my re-such a purchase become the proprietor of mains, with those of my deceased relatives Washington's body. He should be in death, (now in the old vault,) and such other of my what he always was in public life, the profamily as may choose to be interred there, perty of the nation. Congress might erect a may be deposited. And it is my express splendid and magnificent monument over desire, that my corpse may be interred in n his sepulchre, and this marble testimonial of private manner without parade or funeral the nation's gratitude and love to this illusoration." No words can be more precise trious character, would descend to future than these, and the judge was perfectly cor- ages indissolubly connected with his ashes. rect in acting up to the spirit of these tes- This is a proof, and the strongest that can tamentary injunctions. We think he must be given, of that respect which is due to likewise, to be consistent, refuse to allow Washington; it violates no dying injunction
the remains of Washington to be transport--it does not rake from the grave his sacred
is compatible with the purest delicacy, and resembles that homage which his country paid during his life time to such transcendant worth. When Washington breathed the vital air, he was twice summoned from the shades of his paternal mansion by the voice of his country-when he retires and dies in the self same spot, he is followed thither, still by his admiring and disconsolate countrymen, whose sorrows are recorded
Often, and often,have we lamented the want of a central point around which our As merican affections might rally. Amidst such a mass of foreigners who visit this country, and amongst such a mass of those who are disconnected by sectional jealousies, we
THE NATIONAL REGISTER.
promote them, that could I oppose to them only my personal teelings and my individual repag
us remember that he was not a Virginian, a So many and so powerful are the motives which Carolinian, a Georgian; but that he was in-urge me to comply with the wishes of the legisla ture; so sincere and so earnest is my solicitude to deed and in truth, an American. If his precepts have been outraged on the one hand by opposition, or on the other, by a too blindnance, to parting with the remains of general devotion to them, now is the time for both Washington and of Mrs. Washington, these feelings would have been subdued, this repugnante parties to retract. At his sepulchre let us follow the example set by congress, and bury yielded these bodies to be disposed of at the will would have been conquered, and I would have in the grave of that resplendent character of Virginia. Painful as the sacrifice must have
all our political dissentions.
been, it should have been made.
But, obligations more sacred than any thing which concerns myself-obligations with which I
Letter from the Governor of Virginia to Judge cannot dispense, command me to re ain the mortal
remains of my venerated uncle, in the family vault where they are deposited. It is his own will, and that will is to me a law which I dare not disobey. He has himself directed that his body should be placed there, and I cannot separate it from those of his near relatives, by which it is surrounded.
I pray you sir, to accompany my profound acknowledgments to the legislature of Virginia, with the most respectful assurances that no considerations, merely personal, could induce me to oppose my wishes to their's; and that it is not withhigh sense of a most sacred duty, I decline to comout the most deepfelt regret, that even under a ply with the request contained in their resolutions.
Permit me, sir, to add, that the manner in which the request of the legislature has been communicated by the executive, has in no small degree increased the pain I inflict on myself in not yielding to that request, and so assure you that I am with the highest respect, sir, your most obedient ser
RICHMOND, FEB. 21, 1816.
SIR-I perform with infinite satisfaction, the duty assigned to me by the enclosed resolutions of the general assembly,
To the unanimous expression of the desire of the legislature, I beg leave to add the earnest w shes of the executive, that you will permit the remains of her beloved son General Washington, and those of his excellent and amiable wife, to be removed to Richmond to be interred near the capitol, beneath a monument to be erected at the expense of the people of Virginia.
This application is made by the native state of Washington, not in the vain hope of adding lustre to his reputation-his fame cannot be increased by any human struc ure, but as a memorial of a nation's gratitude and affection, and in the expectation, that it will excite a spirit of emulation, which will give her, for ages to come, citizens whose lives will be marked by disinterested devotion to the public good, such as upon all occasions distinguished her illustrious Washington.
All who have any agency in making this request, have foreseen the sacrifice of feeling which you will make, in parting with the remains of relations so revered, but it is hoped you will yield them to the ardent wishes of Virginia.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your humble servant,
W. C. NICHOLAS.
Honorable BUSHROD WASHINGTON,
WASHINGTON, MARCH 18th, 1816
BUSH, WASHINGTON. His Exc'y. W. C. Nicholas, Gov. of Virginia.
Our Relations with Spain.
To the house of representatives
of the United States:
In compliance with the resolution of the twentyfourth, I transmit two letters from the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Spain, to the secretary of state, with his answer. JAMES MADISON.
January 26th, 1816.
Translation of a letter from the minister of Spain to the secretary of state, dated Washington, December 30 1815.
SIR-The diplomatic relations between the king, my master, and the United States, being
STR-It is not in my power to express in terms which would do justice to my feelings, the sensi-happily restored, and both governments being disbility with which I received the resolutions of the posed, mutually to strengthen the ties of the most legislature of Virginia, authorizing the governor pure and per ect friendship, it is my duty to into open a correspondence with me, and to request form the president of whatever may contribute to me, "in behalf and in the name of the common- so desirable an object; and remove the obstacles wealth, to permit the remains of her beloved son, which may prevent it. On the important points the late general George Washington to be removed on which this note must turn, I have written to from the family vault at Mount Vernon, and in- you under other circumstances less favorable than terred near the capitol of Virginia, beneath a mon- the present. I will now confine myself to a plain ument, to be erected at the public expence, and to and simple explanation of them. serve as a memorial to future ages of the love of a grateful people."
The nature of the application, the unanimity with which it was made, and the terms in which it is expressed, all unite to impress me with feelings of gratitude which can never be obliterated.
The first of these points is: that the direct and official relations between Spain and the United States, having been broken off, since the year 1808, the affairs of both nations, as well as their respective frontiers, should now be placed in the same state and situation in which they were at
ment to deliver up these traitors, as inde diaries
enemies of all social order, and disturber's
The second point is as simple and obvious as the first, and I will treat of it with that confidence, with which I ought to be inspired by the indispu-mit the good intelligence which subsists between table justice of my importunity, the justification our respective governments. The president cannot of the Americ in government, and the importance but have seen with sensibility, as well the total of the affair. want of effect of his proclamation, of the lenient It is known to you, and is universally public and measures which he had adopted against these crinotorious, that a factious band of insurgents and minals, who boast of recognising no law, subordinaincendiaries continue with impunity, in the prov tion or moral principle, as the protection and supince of Louisiana, and especially in New-Orleans port which they have received and do receive fron and Natchitoches, the uninterrupted system of the authorities at New-Orleans, contrary to his raising and arming troops, to light the flame of express orders. His excellency, as he is encharged revolution in the kingdom of new Spain, and to by this republic with watching over its security rob the pacific inhabitants of the dominions of the and the observance of its treaties and laws, cannot king my master. The invasion of the internal but consider himself authorized to restrain the provinces, the horrible assassinations committed projects and hostile measures of a set of adventu in San Antonia de Bexar, and the names of the rers, who make war against a friendly power from perfidious perpetrators of such unheard of crimes, the territory of this confederation, compromitting have acquired the publicity which great crimes its tranquility and high character, by av tiling him always will acquire. All Louisiana has witnessed self of the means which the constitution, the laws hese armaments; the public enlistments (los en- and his prudence offer to him for obliging these gauchse publicos;) the transportation of arms; the persons to abandon their designs, and to manifest junction of the insurgents and their hostile and to his catholic majesty the just indignation with warlike march from the territory of this republic, which the United States view the hostile plans, against the possessions of a friendly and neighbor- and the sedition of that band of incendiaries. I am ing power; neither threats, nor the laws, nor the certain that it cannot be concealed from the disindignation of well disposed citizens, nor even the tinguished talents of the president and yourself, proclamation of the president of the first of Sep- that the point of which I treat, is not one under the tember last, intended to restrain these highway civil (or municipal) law, in which case my soverrobbers, have been sufficient to stop their nefari-eign must have recourse to the ordinary tribunals; ous plans. On the contrary, they prosecute them but that it is a manifest and flagrant violation of with the greatest ardor, and rancor, more and the most sacred laws which bind together nations more exasperated at seeing the glorious triumphs mutually-perpetrated by the citizens, or residents of the Spanish nation, the adhesion of his subjects of the union, of which the king, my master, gives to an adorned monarch, and the approaching reinformation, with positive and notorious proofs, to establishment of the relations between our re the government under whose jurisdiction it has spective nations. It is known to me, that they are been executed, that they may give him compe ent now enlisting in New-Orleans, men for other ex-satisfaction, with a knowledge of the act, by causpeditions, both by land and water, to invade againing the delinquents to be punished as guilty of the dominions of his catholic majesty, under the high treason against both governments. direction of ringleaders Jose Alvarez de Toledo, and Jose Manuel de Herrera, who had just arrived at that city, with the appointment (as he says) of minister to the United States, from the self-styl ed Mexican congress, who has delivered to Toledo fifteen hundred commissions in blank, from that body of insurgents, that he may confer them on a like number of officers which he is recruiting in the territory of this Union. I omit mentioning to you other innumerable acts of this kind, which prove the publicity of these armaments, and the impunity with which they continue. I will confine myself to stating to you, that the most common practice of nations, and the authority of the best writers on public law, would give right o the king my master, to require of this govern
The third and last point is reduced to this: that the president will be pleased to give the necessary orders to the collectors of the customs, not to admit into the ports of the United States, vessels under the insurrectionary flag of Carthagena, of the Mexican congress, of Buenos Ayres, or of the other places which have revolted against the authority of the king, my master, nor those coming from them. That they should not permit them to land, or to sell in this country, the shameful proceeds of their piracy, or atrocities, and much less to equip themselves in these ports, as they do, for he purpose of going to sea, to destroy and to plunler the vessels which they may meet with under the Spanish flag. This tolerance, subversive of the most solemn stipulations in the treaties between
that period; and that, in conformity to this prin- ||