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t that Republic originated through the colonization of American zens, and was established under the fostering sanction of this vernment, gives us the right, as the next friend of Liberia, to aid : in preventing any encroachment of foreign Powers on her ritorial sovereignty, and in settling any disputes that may
On a very recent occasion, also, the keen interest of the United ates in the fortunes of Liberia and our jealous concern that full spect should be paid to the independent and sovereign place of jat Republic in the family of nations was conspicuously shown. During the African Slave Trade Conference of Brussels, in the ession of the 16th June, 1890,* the Representative of the United tates made an explicit declaration of the relation of the Republic f Liberia to the United States, and the desire of this Government hat the General Act should contain an express stipulation to the Hect that the Liberian Republic would be invited, as a sovereign Power, to adbere to the Treaty. The object in view was attained by Bcording, in the Protocol of the Session of the 20th June, 1890,7 a pusitive declaration of the sense of the Conference concerning the sovereign status of Liberia. Baron Lambermont, President of the Conference, in setting forth the positions announced by the United States with regard to the engagements of the General Act, eloquently stated the circumstances wbich led not only the United States, but all those interested in the cause of humanity in Africa, to attach great importance to the co-operation of the independent and free State of Liberia for the realization of the objects of the Conference. * All the world knows,” he said, "the history of the Republic of Liberia. Founded with the object of affording a ho.ne to certain freed American slaves desiring to return to the mother country, it was destined at the same time to fulfil a civilizing mission upon the Guinea coast. This creation has produced happy results. It began, it is true, under great difficulties, but this often happens in the carly life of new States. This young Republic none the less deserves the sympathies of all those who are interested in the cause of humanity in Africa. It is an independent and free State. Moreover, the Conference has every interest in associating it with its work, not only because of the mission Liberia is called upon to fulfil, but also because it is also in a position to leud indispensable assistance toward the execution of several of the clauses of the General Act.” The British Delegate, Lord Vivian, welcomed this declaration of the President of the Conference, adding that the place of Liberia had already been fixed among the independent States which were to be invited to adhere to the General Act. These important declarations stand, therefore, as voicing the general sentiment of the Conference, • Vol. LXXXII, page 496.
+ Vol. LXXXII, page 528.
and as recognizing with peculiar solemnity and frank spontaneity the position which the Republic of Liberia has won as a free, inde pendent, sovereign, and equal member of the family of nations, and as an important factor in the development and civilization of Africa.
The position of Liberia in Africa is peculiar and almost isolated It is one of the few independent sovereignties of that vast continent, and is the only one on the whole Atlantic seaboard. It has exercised sovereign attributes for half a century, competently contracting Treaties with foreign States, and preserving its sphere of legitimate control peacefully among the interior tribes and along the coast, in virtue of formal Treaties of Cession dating back to its earliest bistory. At no time has Liberia trespassed on the domain of its neighbours, or invaded their comparatively recent sphere of influence. Ever paying due respect to the rights of other sovereignties, its attitude has entitled it to unquestioning respect for its own vested rights, and to especial sympathy for its fruitful efforts to fulfil what Baron Lambermont has well ca!led“ une mission civilisatrice pour la côte de Guinée."
Occupying this position, as Liberia does, and bound to the United States by especial ties, which, strong is their origin, have been further strengthened by half a century of intimate relationship, it is apparent that this Government and people could not behold unmoved, much less acquiesce in, any proceeding on the part of the neighbours of Liberia which might assume to dispose of any territory justly claimed and long admitted to belong to the Republic, without the concurrence and consent of Liberia as an independent and sovereign contractant.
It is proper that France, whose colonial establishments and spheres of protection adjoin the jurisdiction of Liberia to the eastward, should be afforded an opportunity of frankly disclaiming any intention to encroach upon the recognized territory of Liberia.
By the President's direction, you are instructed to bring these views to the attention of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and to inform him at the same time that the Government of the United States does not accept as valid or acquiesce in the Protectorates announced by M. Desprez's note of the 3rd November, 1891, or by M. Patenôtre's later note of the 26th January, 1892, so far as the same may relate to territory pertaining to the Republic of Liberia westward of the San Pedro River, unless it shall appear that Liberia is herself a consenting party to such transactions.
The President is so firmly convinced that the just rights of independent Liberia will be duly respected by all, that he is indisposed to consider the possible contingency of such expansion of the terri
al claims of other Powers in Africa as might call for a more :itive assertion of the duty of the United States.
I am, &c., J. Coolidge, Esq.
JAMES G. BLAINE.
No. 4.—Mr. Wharton to M. Patemộte.
Department of State, Washington, June 8, 1892. REFERRING to your note of the 26th January last, I have the onour to inform you that, in view of the announcement conveyed by our pote, and the previous one of M. Desprez, of the assumption y France of a Protectorate over African territory heretofore and ir many years recognized as belonging to the Republic of Liberia, n instruction on the subject has been sent to the American Minister Paris,
Accept, &c., 4. Patembtre.
WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
No. 5.--Mr. Coolidge to Mr. Foster. SIE,
Legation of the United States, Paris, July 22, 1892. In compliance with your instructions, under date of the 4th June, I have addressed to the French Government a note explaining tie position of the United States towards Liberia, and stating that our Government canuot recognize any Protectorate assumed by the Prench Republic over any lands lying west of the San Pedro River onless the Republic of Liberia is a consenting party to such transactions, because the boundary of the Republic has always been considered the San Pedro.
I inclose herewith a copy of this note,* in which I have used, as far as practicable, your own language.
I have, &c., J. W. Foster, Esq.
T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE
No. 6.-Mr. Foster to Mr. Coolidge.
Department of State, Washington, August 18, 1892. I INCLOSB, for your information and files, having regard to the Department's instruction of the 4th June, 1892, in relation to the Protectorate announced by France over Liberian territory, a copy of
This inclosure was dated the 13th July, and was similar to the instructions of Mr. Blaine dated the 4th June, 1892: see page 634.
a despatch from your colleague at London of the 5th instant reporting the substance of interviews between Mr. Lincoln, Lor Salisbury, and the Liberian Minister in London upon that subjeet.
I bave instructed Mr. Lincoln to forward to you a copy of thi Parlianientary paper, “ Africa No. 7, 1892,"'* and of the map showing the British possessions of West Africa (London: Edward Stanford 26 and 27, Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, S.W.), which accom panied his despatch.
I am, &c., T. J. Coolidge, Esq.
JOHN V. FOSTER
No. 7.-Mr. Coolidge to Mr. Foster. SIR,
Legation of the United States, Paris, December 9, 1892. Some time ago I learned privately that negotiations were going on between France and Liberia. On inquiry, I found that Barok de Stein was the authorized Agent on the part of the Republie of Liberia to settle with France the long-pending questions of boundarv. I had an interview with this gentleman during the negotiations, which were yesterday brought to a satisfactory conclusion.
By a Treaty, which was to be signed on the 8th instant, Liberia cedes to France the sea-coast east of the Cavally River, and receives in exchange certain extension of territory in the interior. She receives an indemnity of 25,000 fr., and France recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic within the boundary-lines as now agreed upon by the Treaty.
It is evident that the French have obtained from Liberia concessions of some importance, for the sea-coast is the only part of the country which is worth anything, for the present at least. But, on the other hand, the territory ceded was entirely unsettled by Liberin. France laid claim to it by Treaties with the native Chiefs, and the 25,000 fr. were welcome.
It is certainly to the advantage of the little Republic to bave this troublesome matter settled once for all in a friendly manner with her powerful neighbour. I have no doubt that the growing desire of France for laying the foundation of a future Colonial Empire in Africa would make it much more difficult to obtain later or such terms as these, and I have not hesitated to say so to Baron de Stein. The energetic protest made by the Government of the United States on the 13th July, as reported in my despatch of the 22nd July, has, I think, induced the French to make the present settlement.
I inclose herewith an English copy of the Treaty, which M. de
* Vol. LXXXIV, page 844.
in furnished me before it was signed; he will send later on a p upon which the new boundary-lines are delineated. He claims that he has increased very much the size of the public.
I have, &c., W. Foster, Esq.
T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE.
Inclosure.)- Convention between the Government of France and the
Republic of Liberia.
The undersigned M. Hanotaux, Minister Plenipotentiary and Director of Commercial Affairs and of Consulates at the Ministry | Foreign Affairs of the French Republic, and M. Haussman,
uitf of Division at the Under-Secretariat of State of the Colonies of the French Republic, and the Baron von Stein, Minister Resident of the Republic of Liberia in Belgium, Commissioner of the Liberian Republic to the Government of the French Republic, to the effect of preparing an understanding relative to the delimitations of the French possessions and of the territories of the Republic of Liberia, have agreed to the following arrangement on both sides, subject to the ratification of the respective Governments :
Art. I. On the Ivory Coast and in the interior the frontier-line between the French possessions and the Republic of Liberia will be constituted as follows, in conformity to the tracing in red on the map annexed to the present Convention in duplicate, and marked as follows:
1. By the thalweg from the Cavally River up to a point situated about 20 miles to the south of the confluence of the River Fodedougou- Ba at the intersection of 6° 30' of latitude north and of 9° 12' longitude west of Paris.
2. By the parallel passiog through the said point of intersection up to the conjunction of 10° of longitude west of Paris, it being understood that in every case the basin of the Great Sesters River belongs to Liberia and that the basin of the Fodedougou-Ba belongs to France. 3. By the meridian 10° up to its conjunction with latitude
From this point the frontier will run in direct line towards the point of intersection of 11° with the parallel which passes through Tembicounda, it being understood that the town of Bamaquilla and the town of Mahomadou will belong to the Republic of Liberia, the points of Naala and of Mousardou belonging to France.
4. The frontier will then take the direction towards the west, following the same parallel until its conjunction with the 13° of longitude west of Paris with the Franco-English frontier of