« PreviousContinue »
Algiers, for whom he was authorised to and concealing her true American character. give a ransom, not exceeding 3000 dollars In this vessel was taken a Mr. Pollard, who per man. To every attempt of this kind, claims to be an American citizen, and is believed the Dey replied, "that not for two mil- to be of Norfolk, Virginia, and who, as an Ame"lions of dollars would he sell his American citizen, is kept in captivity. The governrican slaves!". In reply to an appli- ment, justly solicitous to relieve these unfortucation, in the most confidential manner, uate captives, caused an agent, (whose connecto one of the Dey's ministers, to know the tion with the government was not disclosed) to terms which the Dey expected to extort be sent to Algiers, with the means and with infrom the United States (by keeping our structions to effect their ransom, if it could be citizens slaves) in the event of a treaty done at a price not exceeding three thousand With them, it appears, that "it was a set- dollars per man. The effort did not succeed, "tled point with the Dey, from which he because of the Dey's avowed policy to increase "could by no means swerve, that in the the number of his American slaves, in order to "first place, for the privilege of passing the be able to compel a renewal of his treaty with streights of Gibraltar, two millions of the United States, on terms suited to his rapa"dollars would be required of the Ame- city. Captain Smith, Mr. Pollard, and the Mas"rican Government, and THEN the stipu-ter of the Edwin, are not confined, nor kept aɛ "lations of the late treaty might be re-hard labour; but the rest of the captives are sub"newed (the old tributary treaty) after jected to the well-known horrors of Algerine "paying up all arrears of tribute," &c. &c. slavery. The Committee have not been apprised of any other specific outrages upon the persons or property of American citizens besides those stated; and they apprehend, that the fewness of these is attributable to the want of opportunity and not of inclination in the Dey, to prey upon our commerce, aud to enslave our citizens. war with Britain has hitherto shut the Mediterranean against American vessels, 1812, which, it be presumed will now shortly venture upon it. The committee are all of opinion, upon the evi. dence which has been laid before them, that the Dey of Algiers considers his treaty with the United States as at an end, and is waging war against them. The evidence upon which this is founded, and from which are extracted the facts above stated, accompanies this report, and with it is respectfully submitted
The committee to whom has been referred the bill for the protection of the United States against the Algerine cruizers," with instructions to enquire and report in detail the facts upon which the measure contemplated is predieated, report- That in the month of July, the Dey of Algiers, taking offenec, or pretending to take offence, at the quality and quantity of a shipment of military stores made by the United States, in pursuance of the stipulation in the Treaty of 1795, and refusing to receive the stores, extorted from the American Consul General at Algiers, by threats of personal imprisonment, and of reducing to slavery all Americans in bis power, a sum of money claimed as the arrearages of Treaty stipulations, and denied by the United States to be due; and then com pelled the Consul, and all citizens of the United States at Algiers, abruptly to quit his dominions. -It further appears to the committee, that on the 25th of August following, the American brig Edwin of Salem, owned by Nathaniel Silsbee of that place, while ou a voyage from Malta to Gibraltar, was taken by an Algerine Corsair,sentatives of the United States of America in Conand carried into Algiers as prize. The com; gress assemble, That it shall be lawful fully to mander of the brig, Captain George Camp- equip, officer, man and employ such of the armed bell Smith, and the crew, ten in number, bave vessels of the United States as may be judged reever since been detained in captivity, with quisite by the President of the United States, for the exception of two of them, whose release protecting effectually the commerce and seamen has been effected under circumstances not indi- thereof on the Atlantic ocean, the Mediterranean cating any change of hostile temper on the part and adjoining seas. of the Dey. It also appears, that a vessel, sailing under the Spanish flag has been condemned in Algiers, as laying a false claim to that flag,
For the protection of the commerce of the United States against the Algerine cruizers. WHEREAS, the Dey of Algiers, on the coast of Barbary, has commenced a predatory warfare against the United States
BE it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre
Sect. 2. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the President of the United States to iustruct the commanders of the respective
public vessels aforesaid, to subdue, seize, and
these latter were entering upon war with
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That on the application of the owners of private armed vessels of the United States, the President of the United States may grant them special commis-poleon. sions, in the form which he shall direct under the seal of the United States; and such private armed vessels, when so commissioned, shall have the like authority for subduing, seizing, taking, and bring. ing into port any Algerine vessels, goods or et fects, as the above-mentioned public armed ves-slave of England!-As to the result of sels may by law have; and shall therein be sub. the war, I have no doubt, that the Dey ject to the instructions, which may be given by will not have to rejoice much at the suc cess of his undertaking. A dry blow in stead of millions of dollars are likely to be his portion. As an Englishman, I must wish, that the Algerines may be beaten by those, who have, unfortunately, so often beaten my own countrymen.-The TIMES newspaper has told us, that it is suspected, that the Algerine war is, with America, a PRETEXT for increasing her navy. Indeed, Doctor! and, in what civilian have you discovered, that America is restrained What need has she of pretexts? I know, from augmenting her navy at her pleasure? indeed, that, amongst your other follies, you did, during last summer, insist upshe should, at last, be compelled to stipuon it, that, in making peace with America, late not to have any ships of war beyond pulation was not obtained; and now, ina certain size and number. But, the stistead of big menaces, you throw out your suspectings for the cogitations of the wise John Bult.-Away driveller! and await a similar fate to your predictions as to the
the President of the United States, for the regu lation of their conduct, and their commissions shall be revocable at his pleasure: Provided, That before any commission shall be granted as aforesaid, the owner or owners of the vessel for which the same may be requested, and the com→ mander thereof for the time being, shall give boud to the United States, with at least two res ponsible sureties, not interested in such vessels,
in the penal sum of seven thousand dollars, or if suck vessel be provided with more than one hun dred and fifty men, in the penal sum of fourteen thonsand dollars, with condition for observing the
⚫ treaties and laws of the United States, and the
instructions which may be given as aforesaid, and also for satisfying all damages and injuries which shall be done contrary to the tenor thereof, by such commissioned vessel, aud for delivering up the commission when revoked by the President
of the United States.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That any Algerine vessel, goods or effects, which may be so captured and brought into port, by any private armed vessel of the United States, duly commis-humiliations of France. sioned as aforesaid, may be adjudged good prize, and thereupon shall accrue to the owners, and officers, and men of the capturing vessel, and shall be distributed according to the agreement which shall have been made between them; or, in failure of such agreement, according to the discretion of the court having cognizance of the capture.
There is one circumstance connected with this Algerine war, which I think worthy of particulur notice; and that is, this regular government began, it appears, its depredations on the Americans, just as
OVERTURES OF PEACE FROM THE
LETTER FROM M. CAULAINCOURT TO VISCOUNT
CASTLEREAGH, DATED PARIS, 4th APRIL,
My Lord-The Emperor was auxious to express directly to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent the sentiments which inspire him, and to make known to him the high value which be places on the maintenance of the peace happily existing between the two countries. I am commanded in consequence, my Lord, to address to
you the annexed letter, and to beg your Excel-plishment of his noblest intentions. With a dislency to present it to his Royal Highness-The position to respect the rights of other nations, his first wish of the Emperor being, that the repose of Majesty has the pleasing hope, that those of the Europe should remain inviolate, his Majesty has French nation will remain inviolate. The mainbeen anxions to manifest this disposition to the tenance of this precious deposit is the first, as it Sovereigns who are still assembled at Vienna, and is the dearest of his duties. The quiet of the to all other Sovereigns. I have, &c. world is for a long time assured, if all the other (Signed) CAULAINCOURT, Duc de Vicence Sovereigns are disposed, as his Majesty is, to make their honour consist in the preservation of LETTER FROM M. DE CAULAINCOURT TO VIS peace, by placing peace under the safeguard of COUNT CASTLEREAGH, PATED PARIS, APRIL honour. Such are, my Lord, the sentiments with 4, 1815. which his Majesty is sincerely animated, and which he has commanded me to make known to your Government. I have the honour, &c.
My Lord-The expectations which induced his Majesty the Emperor, my August Sovereign, to submit to the greatest sacrifices, have not been fulfilled: France has not received the price of the devotion of its Monarch: her hopes have been lamentably deceived. After some months of painful restraint, her sentiments, concealed with regret, have at length manifested themselves in an extraordinary manner; by an universal and spontaneous impulse, she has declared as her deliverer, the man, from wl:om aloue she can expect the guarantee of her liberties and inde pendence. The Emperor has appeared, the Royal Throne has fallen, and the Bourbon family have quitted our territory, without one drop of blood having been shed for their defence. Borne upon the arms of his people, his Majesty has traversed France, from the point of the coast at which he at first tonched the ground, as far as the centre of his capital, to that residence which is now again, as are all French hearts, filled with our dearest remembrances. No obstacles have delayed his Majesty's triumphal progress; from the instant of his re-landing upon French ground, he resumed the government of his empire. Scarcely does his first reign appear to have been for an instant interrupted. Every generous passion, every liberal thought, has rallied around him; never did any nation present a spactacle of more awful unanimity. The report of this great event will have reached your Lordship. I am commanded to announce it to you, in the name of the Emperor, and to request you will convey this declaration to the knowledge of his Majesty the King of Great Britain, your August Master. This Restoration of the Emperor to the Throne of France is for him the most brilliant of his triumphs. His Majesty prides himself above all, on the reflection, that he owes it entirely to the love of the French people, and he has no other wish than to repay such affections no longer by the trophies of vain ambition, but by all the advantages of au ho- | monrable repose, and by all the blessings of a happy tranquillity. It is to the duration of peace that the Emperor looks forward for the accom
(Signed) CAULAINCOURT, Duke of Vicence, His Excellency Lord Castlereagh, &c.
LETTER FROM VISCOUNT CASTLEREAGH TO M
SIR-I have been honoured with two letters
THE EARL OF CLANCARTY TO VISCOUNT CASTLE
REAGH, DATED VIENNA, MAY 6, 1815. MY LORD-Adverting to your Lordship's dispatch, No. 3, and to its several inclosures, con veying a proposal made by the existing Govern ment in France, and your Lordship's answer thereto, I have the honour to acquaint you, for the information of his Majesty's Government, that at a conference held on the 3d inst. his Highness Prince Metternich acquainted us, that a M. de Strassant, who had been stopped on his way hither, at Lintz, from not having been furnished with proper passports, had addressed a letter to his Imperial Majesty, and therewith-forwarded
some unopened letters which the Emperor had di- [lishment of an individual as the head of the French rected him to unseal in the presence of the Ple- Government, whose past conduct has invariably nipotentiaries of the Allied Powers. These demonstrated, that in snel: a situatiou he will not proved to be a letter from Bonaparte, addressed suffer other nations to be at peace-whose restto his Majesty, professing a desire to continue at less ambition, whose thirst for foreign conquest, peace, to observe the stipulations of the Treaty and whose disregard for the rights and independ of Paris, &c. and a letter from M. de Caulain. ence of other States, must expose the whole of court to Prince Metternich, containing similar Europe to renewed scenes of plunder and devasta. professions. After reading these Papers, it was tion. However general the feelings of the Sove. considered whether any, and what answer should reigns may be in favour of the restoration of the be made thereto, when the general opinion ap- King, they no otherwise seek to influence the propeared to be, that none should be returned, and ceedings of the French in the choice of this or of no notice whatever taken of the proposal. Upon any other dynasty, or form of Government, thau this, as indeed upon all other occasions subse- may be essential to the safety and permanent quent to the resumption of authority by Bona-tranquillity of the rest of Europe; such reaparte, wherein the present state of the Continen-sonable security being afforded by France in this tal Powers, with regard to France, has come un-respect, as other States have a legitimate right der discussion, but one opinion has appeared to to claim in their own defence, their object will direct the Councils of the several Sovereigns. be satisfied; and they shall joyfully return to that They adhere, and from the commencement have state of peace, which will then, and then only, be never ceased to adhere, to their Declaration of open to them, and lay down those arms which the 13th of March, with respect to the actual they have only taken up for the purpose of ac Ruler of France. They are in a state of hostility quiring that tranquillity so eagerly desired by with him and his adherents, not from choice, but them on the part of their respective Empires.from necessity, because past experience has Such, my Lord, are the general sentiments of the shewn, that no faith has been kept by him, and Sovereigns and of their Ministers here assemthat no reliance can be placed on the professions bled; and it should seem, that the glorions for. of one who has hitherto no longer regarded the bearance observed by them, when masters most solemn compacts than as it may have of the French capital in the early part of the snited his own convenience to observe them, last year, ought to prove to the French, that whose word, the only assurance he can afford for this is not a war against their freedom and his peaceable disposition, is not less in direct op-independence, or excited by any spirit of anibiposition to the tenor of his former life, than it is tion, or desire of conquest, but one arising out of to the military position in which be is actually necessity, urged on the principles of self-preserplaced. They feel that they should neither per- vation, and founded on that legitimate and inconform their duty to themselves or to the people trovertible right of obtaining reasonable security committed by Providence to their charge, if they for their own tranquillity and independence—to were now to listen to those professions of a desire which, if France has on her part a claim, other for peace which have been made, and suffer nations have an equal title to claim at the hands themselves thus to be lulled into the supposition of Frauce. I this day laid before the Plenipotenthat they might now relieve their people from tiaries of the Three Allied Powers in conference, the burthen of supporting immense military the Note proposed to be delivered upon the exmasses, by diminishing their forces to a peace change of the ratifications of the Treaty of the establishment, convinced as the several Sove- 25th March. After the opinions which I have reigns are from past experience, that no sooner detailed as those with which the Allied Sove should they have been disarmed, than advantage reigns are impressed, with respect to the object would be taken of their want of preparation, to of the war, it is scarcely necessary for me to add, renew those scenes of aggression and bloodshed, that the explanation afforded in this Note, from which they had hoped that the peace so as the construction put by his Royal Highness gloriously won at Paris, would long have secured the Prince Regent on the eighth article of that them. They are at war, then, for the purpose of Treaty, was favourably received. Immediate obtaining some security for their own independ- instructions will consequently be issued to ence, and for the re-conquest of that peace and the Ambassadors of the Imperial Courts of permanent tranquillity, for which the world has Austria and Russia, and to the Minister of bis so long panted. They are not even at war for Prussian Majesty, to accept of this Note on the the greater or less portion of security which exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty in France can afford them of future tranquillity, but question. In order to be assured that I have adbecause France under its present chief, is un- vanced nothing in this dispatch, which does not able to afford them any security whatever. In accord with the views of the Cabinets of the Althis war, they do not desire to interfere with any lied Sovereigns, I have acquainted the Plenipolegitimate right of the French people; they have tentiaries of the high Allied Powers with the no design to oppose the claim of that nation to contents thereof, and have the honour to inform choose their own form of Government, or inten- you, that the sentiments contained in it entirely tion to trench, in any respect, upon their inde- coincide with those of their respective Courts pendence as a great and free people: but they I have the honour to be &c. do think they have a right, and that of the highest nature, to contend against the re-estab
Printed and Published by G. HOUSTON, No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed to the Editor, are requested to be forwarded.
VOL. XXVII. No. 22.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 3, 1815. [Price 1s.
"reading the Proclamation, in the USU"AL WAY, at the door of the office at "Whitehall." This was all, and, I will the street did not know what it was that be bound, that even the people passing in was reading. This is what the COURIER Botley, 29th May, 1815, calls the usual way of proclaiming peace! MY LORD-It was frequently observed There was no illuminations; no firing of by me, in former letters, which I had the guns; no ringing of bells; no demonstrahonour to address to your Lordship, dur- tions of joy. In short, the country, which ing the war with America, that, if you had been so eager for the war, and so unawere, at last, as I foretold you would be, nimous for its prosecution, seemed not at compelled to make peace without hum- all to regret, that it never knew the exact bling America, and, indeed, without sub-period when peace returned. It felt duing her, or nearly subduing her, the re- ashamed of the result of the war, and was sult would be honourable to her, sceing glad to be told nothing at all about it. that she would, in a war single-handed against England, -have succeeded in defending herself. It was clear, that, when once the contest became a single combat, to defend herself must be to her triumph and to us defeat. And, if she came out of the war without any, even the smallest concession, her triumph over us must raise her greatly in the estimation of her own people and of all the world. She did come out of the war in this way; and the natural consequences have followed.
But, in America! There the full force of public feeling was made manifest.— The country resounded from New Orleans to the utmost borders of the Lakes; from the orange groves to the wheat lands, buried four feet deep in snow, was heard the voice of joy, the boast of success, the shout of victory. I, who had always felt anxious for the freedom of America; I, whose predictions have been so completely fulfilled in the result of this contest; even I cannot keep down all feeling of mortification at these demonstrations of triumph, related in the American prints now before me. Even in me, the Englishman so far gets the better of all other feelings and consideration. What, then, must be the feelings of those, my Lord, who urged on and who prosecuted that futal war ?
TO THE EARL OF LIVERPOOL.
On the political Effects Produced in Ame rica by the Peace of Ghent.
I do not know, that I have before noticed the fact in print, but it is now time that I should; I mean the curious fact relative to the proclamation of peace with America. We know that peace with any power is usually proclaimed by HERALDS, who, starting at St. James's Palace, go into the City, with a grand display of armorial ensigns, and accompanied by troops in gay attire, and by bands of martial music, stopping, from time to time, to read the King's proclamation of the peace. This was done at the Peace of Amiens and at the Peace of Paris. Indeed, it is the usual way in which the cessation of war is proclaimed.
Now, then, how was the peace with America proclaimed? There was no procession at all: there was nothing of the usual ceremony. But, the COURIER newspaper, and, I believe, that paper only, informed the public, that " peace with "America was proclaimed to-day, by
An American paper now before me, the Boston "Yankee," of the 9th of December last, gives an account, copied from our London papers, of our Jubilee last summer, when "old BLUCHER" was so squeezed and hugged, and had his jaws so nastily licked over by the filthy women, who were called "Ladies." This Yankee calls it "John Bull's great National Jubilee;" and, I assure you, the famous victory gained by the naval force of England over the American fleet on the Serpentine River is not forgotten! But, the editor of the Yankee has made a mistake. He thought it was the Thames on