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meo de Guzmao, who died in 1724. The principles of Godard's great Montgolfier or fire balloon ascends ueronautics include: 1, the power of a balloon to rise in Ascent of Nadar and others in his great balloon at Brus

28 July and 3 Aug. 1864 the air; 2, the velocity of its ascent; and, 3, the stabil- sels...

.....26 Sept. ity of its suspension at any given height. The appli- Mr. Coxwell ascends from Belfast in a new balloon; sev. cation of sails and rudders has been duly considered, eral persons are injured by the balloon becoming un.

controllable; it escapes. and judged to be futile ; but in 1872 Helmholtz thought Ascent of Nadar in his Géant balloon, Paris .... 23 June, 1866

.3 July, 1865 they might be steered, if moving slowly. Fatal acci- Mr. Coxwell said to have made 550' successful ascents dents to the voyagers have been estimated at 2 or 3 per

up to April, 1867 cent. The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, found-An aerial screw machine (helicopteric) suggested, in

Paris, 1863; described by Dr. J. Bell Pettigrew, in Lon. ed with the object of fostering and developing aeronau- don, at the Royal Institution...

.22 March, tics and aerology, by the duke of Argyll, Mr. James Mr. Hodsman crossed the Channel from Dublin, and de

scended in Westmoreland.. Glaisher, sir Charles Bright, and others, 12 Jan. 1866.

.22 April,

A great balloon exhibited at Ashburnham Park, LonFrancis Lana, a Jesuit, proposed to navigate the air by don, escaped, and was captured at Bouldon, Bucks, means of a boat raised by four hollow balls made of

25 May, 1869 from which ihe air had been exhausted.. 1670 Charles Green, aeronaut, said to have made about 600 Joseph Galien suggested the filling a bag with the fine ascents, died aged 84..

27 March, 1870 diffuse air of the upper regions of the atmosphere... 1755 Dupuy de Lôme at Vincennes ascended with his “nav. Henry Cavendish discovered that hydrogen gas is 10.8

igable” balloon, with 13 persons; experiment reported times lighter than common air.

1766 to be successful..

......2 Feb. 1871 And soon after Black of Edinburgh filled a bag with hy. Professor Wise proposed to cross the Atlantic from New drogen, which rose to the ceiling of the room.

1767 York to Liverpool in a balloon, 100 feet in diameter, Cavallo filled soap bubbles with hydrogen...

1782 110 feet perpendicular, with a supplementary balloon Joseph Montgolfier made a silken bag ascend with heated 36 feet in diameter; the two giving a lifting power air (first fire balloon).....

Nov.

of 15,900 lbs., a carrying power of 9500 lbs., and dis. Joseph and Stephen Montgolfier ascend and descend posable ballast 7500 lbs., July; the balloon was reported

safely by means of a fire balloon at Annonay, for imperfect, Sept. ; a smaller balloon, under the manwhich they received many honors... .5 June, 1733 agement of W. J. Donaldson, started (with a life-boat) First ascent in a balloon filled w.th hydrogen, at Paris, 9.19 A.M., 6 Oct., and descended during a storm over by MM. Robert and Charles...

27 Ang.

Connecticut; the men narrowly escaped.......7 Oct. 1873 Joseph Montgolfier ascends in a balloon inflated with Vincent de Groof, a Belgian (named the “flying man"), smoke of burned straw and wool.

..19 Sept.

constructed a parachute to imitate the flight of a bird; First aerial voyage in a fire balloon-Pilâtre de Rozier he brought it to London; ascended from Cremorné and the marquis d'Arlandes,

21 Nov.

Gardens, and descended from a height between 300 Second ascent of Charles in a hydrogen balloon to the

and 400 feet in Essex, 29 June; at his next attempt, height of 9770 feet

..1 Dec.

the parachute, either detached by himself or by acciMr. Tytler ascended in a Montgolfier balloon at Edin

dent, was disarranged, and he was killed by falling, burgh. ... .27 Aug 1784

9 July, 1874 Ascents become numerous: Andreani, 25 Feb.; Blanch

Under the Government Balloon Committee, Mr. Coxwell ard, 2 March; Guyton de Morveau, the chemist, 25

ascended at Woolwich to try C. A. Bowdler's apparaApril and 12 June; Fleurant and Madame Thible (the tus (based on the screw-propeller) for steering bal. rst female aeronaut), 28 June; the duke of artres

loons; failure reported....

. 25 July, (Philip Egalité)...

19 Sept.

[It has been proved that a screw with a vertical axis The first ascent in England, made by Lunardi, at Moor

can raise or depress a balloon, and thereby save gas fields, London

.15 Sept.

and ballast.] Blanchard and Jeffries ascend at Dover; cross the Chan- M. and Mad. Duruof (see above, 1870) ascend from Calais nel; alight near Calais

....7 Jan. 1785 to cross the channel, 31 Aug. ; carried out to sea; the The first ascent in Ireland, from Ranelagh Gardens, Dub

balloon fell into the water and drifted towards Nor. 19 Jan.

way; rescued by a smack (the Grand Charge); the Rozier and Romain killed in their descent near Bou

aeronauts were landed at Grimsby.

..4 Sept. logne; the balloon took fire...

15 June,

Duruof and others ascend from the Crystal Palace, Parachutes constructed and used by Blanchard.... Aug.

14 Sept. Garnerin's narrow escape when descending in one in Menier's new hot air balloon fails on trial, London .... ...2 Sept. 1802

5 Sept. and 16 Oct. Sadler, who made many previous expeditions in Eng. Ascent of capt. Burnaby at the Crystal Palace to try his land, fell into the sea, near Holyhead, but was taken up, machine for ascertaining the course of the wind above 9 Oct. 1812 the clouds; reported successful

..10 Nov. Madame Blanchard ascended from Tivoli at night; the MM. Tissandier, Croce-Spinelli, and Sivel ascend in the

balloon, being surrounded by fireworks, took fire, and "Zenith" from La Villette, near Paris; at 26,160 feet

she was precipitated to the ground and killed..6 July, 1819 Croce throws out ballast; they ascend rapidly; he Mr. Charles Green's first ascent (be introduced coal gas and Sivel die through suffocation; Tissandier recovered, in ballooning).. . 19 July, 1821

15 April, 1875 Lieut. Harris killed in a balloon descent........25 May, 1824 Washington J. Donaldson, eminent aeronaut, perishes in Sadler, jun., killed, falling from a balloon..

1825 Lake Michigan during a storm..... .....18 July, The great Nassau balloon, which had for some time pre- Reported failure of Carrol's directing apparatus at Paris, viously been exhibited to the inhabitants of London in

July, 1878 repeated ascents from Vauxhall Gardens, started from Frequent ascents in a "captive balloon”. .Aug. that place on an experimental voyage, having three Mr. Gifard's great captive balloon, Paris, burst individuals in the car, and after having been eighteen

16 or 17 Aug 1879 hours in the air descended at Weilburg, in the duchy Five balloons start from various places near London, of Nassau..

.7 Nov. 1836 competing for a silver medal given by the Balloon SoMr. Cocking ascended from Vauxhall to try his para- ciety; the Owl,” Mr. Wright and Commander Cheyne, chute; in its descent from the balloon it collapsed, and

travelled 48 miles in one hour.......

4 Sept. 1880 he was thrown out and killed..

.24 July, 1837 International balloon contest at the Crystal Palace; EngAn Italian aeronaut ascended from Copenhagen, in Den. land (“* Eclipse'), Mr. Wright; France, M. de Fonvielle; mark; his corpse was subsequently found on the sea- both alighted near Portsmouth...

...21 Oct. shore in a contiguous island, dashed to pieces.14 Sept. 1851 Giffard and De Lome's aerial ship said to be successful Ascent from Adrian, Michigan, by which Dr. Ira Thurs

for direction, speed, etc....

Jan. 1831 ton lost his life....

.Sept. 1856 J. B. Lassie's model of an "aerial ship,” in which the

MILITARY AND POSTAL APPLICATIONS. screw was used, was submitted to the academy of sci- Guyton de Morveau ascended twice during the battle of

ences at Paris, 1859; and exhibited at Washington, U. S. 1859 Fleurus, and gave important information to Jourdain, Mr. Wise and three others ascended from St. Louis (after

17 June, 1794 travelling 1150 miles they descended in Jefferson coun. The use of balloons for postal purposes invented by Mr. ty, New York, nearly dead)... .23 June, G. Shepherd, C.E...

1851 Nadar's great balloon (largest ever made) when fully in- Balloons were used during the battle of Solferino, 24

flated contained 215,363 cubic feet of gas; the car, a June, 1359; and by the Federal army near Washingcottage in wicker work, ra sed 35 soldiers at Paris;

ton.

..July, 1861 Nadar hoped by means of a screw to steer a balloon in The Balloon Corps of the United States Army was eunthe heavens; his first ascent, w.th 14 persons, success. ployed by gen. McClellan during the first siege of Richful...

4 Oct. 1863 mond, 1862 In consequence of the breaking of the His second ascent; voyagers injured; saved by presence rope wh'ch held his balloon captive, gen. Fitz-John of mind of M. Jules Godard; descend at Nieuburg,

Porter was carried over the Confederate lines (June, Hanover

.....12 Oct.

1862); but, in descending, entered a current of air Nadar and his balloon at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, which blew in the opposite direction, and thus cs

Nov.

caped capture. Society for promoting aerial navigation formed at M. Na. M. Duruof conveyed the mail-bags from Paris to Tours dar's, at Paris; president, M. Barral,.. .......15 Jan. 1364

during the siege...

...23 Sept. 1870

lin....

........ Dec.

Postal balloons from Metz and Paris.. ..Sept.-Dec. 1870 | George Grote introduced into the commons a ballot bill Postal balloon sent up from Crystal Palace, Sydenham

six times...

1833-39 (successfully).

.6 Oct. The ballot an open question in Whig governments. ... 1835-72 M. Gambetta escaped from Paris in a balloon, and ar- The house of commons rejected the ballot-257 being rived at Rouen..

...8 Oct.
against, and 189 for it..

.30 June, 1851 Many balloons despatched from Paris and other places, Secret voting existed in the chamber of deputies 'n France

Oct. 1870-Feb. 1871 from 1840 to 1845. It has been employed since the Military experiments; ascent of “Univers;'' very cold coup d'état in.... weather; valve burst; several hurt; near Vincennes; The ballot adopted in Victoria, Australia...

1856 no deaths..

.8 Dec. 1875 A test - ballot was adopted at Manchester, and Ernest Military ascents and balloon equipment for military pur- Jones was thus chosen as a candidate for representing poses adopted at Woolwich, announced.. .. April, 1879 the city in parliament. He died the next day.

22, 23 Jan. 1869 Captive balloon at the volunteer review, Brighton, For many years it was annually proposed by Mr. Henry

29 March, 1880 Berkeley; it was rejected (by 161 to 112, 12 July, 1867). EQUESTRIAN ASCENTS. He died..

10 March, 1870 Mr. Green affirmed that he ascended from London, on a

Mr. E. Leatham introduced a ballot bill into parliament, horse attached to a balloon...

. May, 1828 March; and Mr. Gladstone spoke in favor of the ballot; He did so from Vauxhall Gardens with a very diminutive

bill withdrawn....

....27 July, pony..

...July, 1850

The ballot was employed in electing the London school Lient. Gale, an Englishman, made an ascent with a horse

board in 9 districts..

.....29 Nov. from the Hippodrome of Vincennes, near Bordeaux.

The ballot recommended in the queen's speech, 9 Feb.; On descending and detaching the animal from the bal

a bill for it introduced, passed by the commons ; reloon, the people who held its ropes, from some miscon

jected by the lords (97 to 43)....

.10 Aug. 1871 ception, prematurely let them go, and the unfortunate Biil to amend the law relating to procedure at parlia. aeronaut was rapidly borne in the air before he was

mentary and municipal elections, including the ballot, quite ready to resume his voyage. (He was discov

read in the commons, 20 time, 109-51, 15 Feb.; passed ered next morning dashed to pieces in a field a mile

the commons, 271-216, 30 May; read second time in the from where the balloon was found).... ..8 Sept. 1850 lords (86–56); important amendments carried in comThe ascent of Madame Poitevin from Cremorne Gardens,

mittee, making secret voting optional (162-91); read a near London, as " Europa on a bull” (a feat she had

third time, and passed, 25 June; lords' amendments often performed in France), and several ascents on

mostly rejected by the commons; the optional clause horses, brought the parties concerned before the po.

given up by the lords, 8 July; royal assent (to conlice-courts on a charge of cruelty to animals, and put

tinue in force till 31 Dec. 1880)...

13 July, 1872 an end to experiments that ouiraged public feeling,

The first election by ballot was at Pontefract, when Mr.

Aug. 1852 H. E. Childers was re-elected very peacefully..15 Aug. M. Poitevin ascended on a horse in the vicinity of Paris, about the time just mentioned; was nearly drowned

Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the banks of the Potomac, in the sea, near Malaga, while descending from his bal- North America. On 21 Oct. 1861, by direction of the loon (and died soon after)...

1858 Federal gen. C. P. Stone the heroic col. Baker crossed

the river to reconnoitre. He attacked the Confederate SCIENTIFIC ASCENTS. Gay-Lussac and Biot at Paris, 23 Aug; Gay-Lussac (to

camp at Leesburg, and was defeated with the loss of the height of 22,977 feet)..

...15 Sept. 1804 nearly 1000 men (Lossing) in killed, wounded, and missBixio and Barral at Paris (to the height of 19,000 feet. ing. The Confederates lost 153 killed, but the number

They passed through a cloud 9000 feet thick).. 1850 of their wounded is unknown. The disaster was at-
Mr. Welsh ascends, 17, 26 Aug. ; 21 Oct. and 10 Novan: 1852 tributed to mismanagement, and in Feb. 1862, gen. Stone
Scientitic balloon ascents having been recommended by

the British Association and funds provided, Mr. James was arrested on suspicion of treason.
Glaisher commenced his series of ascents, provided
with suitable apparatus, in Mr.Coxwell's great balloon,

Ballynahinch (Ireland), where a sanguinary enat Wolverhampton: he reached the height of 5 miles, gagement took place between a large body of the in

17 July, 1862 surgent Irish and the British troops, under gen. Nugent, He ascended at the Crystal Palace 18 April, 11, 21 July; at Wolverton, 26 June; at Newcastle, during the ineet

13 June, 1798. A large part of the town was destroyed, ing of the British Association.

.31 Aug. 1863 and the royal army suffered very severely. He ascended to the beight of about 7 miles at Wolver

Balmoral Castle, Deeside, Aberdeenshire; visited hampton; at 5% miles high he became insensible; Mr. Coxwell lost the use of his hands, but was able to open

by her majesty in 1848, 1849, 1850. The estate was the valve with his teeth; they thus descended in safety, purchased for 32,0001. by prince Albert in 1852. In 1853

the present building, in the Scotch baronial style, was His 16th ascent; surveys London...

..9 Oct. His 17th ascent at Woolwich; descends at Mr. Brandon's,

commenced, from designs by Mr. W. Smith of Aberdeen. Suffolk (1st winter ascent this century). .....12 Jan. 1864 Baltic Sea,* OSTSEE, or EASTERN SEA, separates He ascends from Woolwich (24th time)..........30 Dec. His 25th ascent.....

Sweden and the Danish isles from Russia, Prussia, and

27 Feb. 1865 Other ascents..........2 Oct., 2 Dec. 1865; and in May, 1866 Germany. Declared neutral for commerce by treaty beGlaisher's Travels in the Air” published... ...Jan. 1871 tween Russia and Sweden, 1759, and Denmark, 1760. It Mr. Coxwell's scientific ascent in the ** Nassau "at Horn

is often partially frozen. Charles X. of Sweden, with an sey..

.22 Sept. 1873

army, crossed the Belts in 1658, and the Russians passed BALLOON SOCIETIES.

from Finland to Sweden on the ice in 1809. The French Académie d'Aurostation de Météorologique, authorized. ...

BALTIC EXPEDITIONS.

. 20 Sept. 1872 BALLOON SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN was formed 21 July, Against Denmark; see Armed Neutrality. -1. Under 1880, by some members of the Aeronautical, Geograph

lord Nelson and admiral Parker, Copenhagen was born. ical, Astronomical, Chemical, and Meteorological socie- barded, and twenty-eight sail of the Danish flect taken ties, and other scientific bodies, to promote aeronau

or destroyed....

.2 April, 1801 tics and record and utilize observations made during

2. Under admiral Gambier and lord Cathcart, eighteen ascents. Silver medals were awarded for ascents made,

sail of the line, fifteen frigates, and thirty-one brigs 4 Sept. 1880 and gunboats surrendered to the British...... 26 July, 1807

Against Russia. -1. The British fleet, commanded by sir Ballot (French ballotte, a little ball). Secret voting Charles Napier, sailed from Spithead in presence of the was practised by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and

queen, who led it out to sea in her yacht, the Fairy, the modern Venetians, and is now employed in France, It arrived in Wingo Sound, 15 March; and in the Baltic,

11 March, 1854 in the United States of North America, and, since 1872,

20 March, in Great Britain and colonies; see Scrutin.

The gulf of Finland blockaded...

12 April,

10,000 French troops embarked at Calais for the Baltic A ballot-box used in the election of aldermen of London, 1526 in English ships of war, in presence of the emperor, Its use by the company of merchant adventurers, in

15 July, electing an agent, prohibited by Charles I......17 Dec. 1637 Capture of Bomarsund, one of the Aland islands, and sur. The ballot-box used by the “ Rota," a political club at

render of the garrison (see Bomarsund).......16 Aug. Miles's coffee house, Westminster..

1659 English and French fleets begin to return homeward lo A tract entitled "The Benefit of the Ballot," said to have

winter......

...15 Oct. been written by Andrew Marvell, was published in the

2. Expedition sailed..

. 20 March-4 April, 1855 "Slate Tracts

1693 It consisted of 85 English ships (2098 guns), commanded Proposed, in a pamphlet, to be used in the election of members of parliament..

1705 * Baltic Provinces of Russia, a kind of provincial federation A bill authorizing vote by ballot passed the commons, since 1800, were incorporated with the empire on the death but rejected by the lords.

1710 l of the gov. gen. Bagratiou, 29 Jan. 1870.

5 Sept.

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BISHOPS OF BANGOR.

by admiral R. S. Dundas; 16 French ships (408 guns), was incorporated with Brazil, while another part became under admiral Pernand, joined it...

..June, 1855 Three vessels silenced the Russian batteries at Hogland

independent, as the republic of Uruguay. island.

.21 July, Bangalore (S. India) was besieged by the British The fleet proceeded towards Cronstadt. Many infernal machines* were discovered. Sveaborg was attacked;

under lord Cornwallis, 6 March, and taken by storm, 21 see Sveaborg....

.9 Aug.

March, 1791. Bangalore was restored to Tippoo in 1792, Shortly after the fleet returned to England.

when he destroyed the strong fort, deemed the bulwark Baltimore, a maritime city in Maryland, U. S., of Mysore. founded in 1729. Population in 1880, 332,190. On 12 Bangor (Banchor Iskoed, or Monachorum), FlintSept. 1814, the British army under col. Ross advanced shire, the site of an ancient monastery, very populous, if against this place. He was killed in a skirmish; and it be true that 1200 monks were slain by Ethelfrid, king the command was assumed by col. Brooke, who attacked of the Angles, for praying for the Welsh in their conflict the American army. A severe conflict followed.

At with him in 607.-Tanner. evening both armies went into bivouac, and during the night the British fleet bombarded Fort McHenry. It

Bangor (Maine), an important city and lumber was during this bombardment, which lasted from the market, which has chiefly grown up since 1836. The morning of 12 Sept. to the morning of 13 Sept., that the British held the place for a brief time, 1814. national song " The Star-spangled Banner ” was written.

Bangor (N. Caernarvonshire). The church is dediAt 3 o'clock A.M. 14 Sept., the British abandoned the cated to St. Daniel, wbo was a bishop, 516. Owen Glenattack by sea and land, and withdrew their forces. The dower greatly defaced the cathedral; and the bishop loss of the Americans was 213 men; that of the British Bulkeley alienated many of the lands, and even sold the 289; see United States, 1861.

bells of the church, 1553. The see is valued in the Bamberg (Bavaria), said to have been founded by king's books at 1311. 16s. 4d. An order in council, directSaxons, in 804, and endowed with a church by Charle- ing that the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph be united on magne. It was made a bishopric in 1007, and the bishop the next vacancy in either, was issued in 1838; but was a prince of the empire till the treaty of Luneville, rescinded in 1847. Present income, 42001. 1801, when Bamberg was secularized. It was incorporated with Bavaria in 1803. The noble cathedral, re- 1800. William Cleaver, translated to St. Asaph, 1806. built in 1110, has been recently repaired. Bamberg 1806. John Randolph, translated to London, 1809. was taken and pillaged by the Prussians in 1759.

1809. Henry William Majendie, died 9 July, 1830.

1830. Christopher Bethell, died 19 April, 1859. Bamborough, or BAMBURG, Northumberland, ac- 1859. James Colquhoun Campbell. cording to the “Saxon Chronicle," was built by king The cathedral was reopened after restoration, 11 May, 1880. Ida about 547, and named Bebbanburgh. The castle

Bangorian Controversy was occasioned by Dr. and estate, the property of the Forsters, and forfeited to Benjamin Hoadley, bishop of Bangor, preaching a serthe crown, through their taking part in the rebellion in mon before George I., 31 March, 1717, upon the text, 1715, were purchased by Nathaniel lord Crewe, bishop “My kingdom is not of this world(John xviii. 36), in of Durham, and bequeathed by him for various charita- which he demonstrated the spiritual nature of the church ble purposes. The valuable library was founded by the and kingdom of Christ. He thereby drew upon himself trustees in 1778. The books are lent to persons residing the indignation of almost all the clergy, who published within 20 miles of the castle.

hundreds of pamphlets. Bampton Lectures (Theological), delivered at

Banishment, an ancient punishment. By 39 Eliz. Oxford annually, began in 1780, with a lecture by James c. 4 (1597) dangerous rogues were to be banished out of Bandinel, D.D." The lecturer is paid out of the proceeds the realm, and to be liable to death if they returned; see of an estate bequeathed for the purpose by the rev. John

Transportation.
Bampton (died 1751), and the lectures are published.
Among the more remarkable lectures were those by

Bank. The name is derived from bunco, a bench, White (1784), Heber (1815), Whately (1822), Milman erected in the market-place for the exchange of money. (1827), Hampden (1832), and Mansel (1858).

The first was established in Italy, 808, by the Lombard

Jews, of whom some settled in Lombard street, London, Banbury, Oxfordshire, a Saxon town. The castle, where many bankers still reside. The Mint in the Tower erected by Alexander de Blois, bishop of Lincoln, 1125, of London was anciently the depository for merchants' has been frequently besieged. In 1646 it was taken by cash, until Charles I. seized the money as a loan, and in the parliamentarians and demolished. At Edgecot or 1640 the traders lodged their money with the goldsmiths Danesmore, near Banbury, during an insurrection, the in Lombard street; see Bank of England; Bankers' army of Edward IV., under the earl of Pembroke, was Books ; Drafts ; Savings-bunks. defeated 26 July, 1469; their leader and his brother

about B.C. were soon after taken prisoners and executed.

Egibe's bank at Babylon, mentioned. .
Ban-

Barcelona bank (earliest existing bank) founded... about 1401 bury cakes were renowned in the time of Ben Jonson, Samuel Lamb, a London banker, recommended the Proand Banbury Cross was destroyed by the Puritans. tector Cromwell to establish a public bank....1656 and 1658 Cakes were esented to the queen at Banbury 30 Nov. Francis Child, a goldsmith, established a bank about 1663 ;

he died...

...4 Oct. 1713 1866.

Run on the London bankers (said to be the first)........

1667 Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, see Gentle- Charles II, arbitrarily suspends all payments to bankers

out of the exchequer of moneys deposited there by men-at-Arms.

them; they lost ultimately 3,321,3131... Banda Isles (ten), Eastern Archipelago, visited by Bank of England established (see next article)..

Hoare's bank began about..

1694 the Portuguese in 1511, who settled on them, 1521, but Wood's bank at Gloucester, the oldest county bank, eswere expelled by the Dutch about 1600. Rohun island tablished. was ceded to the English in 1616. The Bandas were forgeries of Henry Fauntleroy, banker; executed.30 Nov. 1824

A list of bankers given in the "Royal Kalendar'.. taken by the latter in 1796; restored in 1801 ; retaken Act passed permitting establishment of joint-stock banks in 1811; and restored in Aug. 1816.

(which see)...

1826

Rowland Stephenson, M. P., banker and treasurer of St. Banda Oriental (South America), a portion of the Bartholomew's hospital, absconds; defaulter to the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, one part of which, in 1828,

amount of 200,0001. ; 70.0002. in exchequer bills (caused a great depression among bankers).

27 Dec. 1828 Establishment of joint-stock banks.

1834 * These were cones of gilvan'zed iron, 16 inches in diame. Rogers's bank robbed of nearly 50,0002. (bank-notes afterter, and 20 inches long. Each contained 9 or 10 lbs. of pow. wards returned)...

..... 24 Nov. 1844 der, with apparatus for firing by sulphuric acid. Little dam. Failure of Strahan, Paul, & Bates (securities unlawfully age was done by them They were sad to be the invention used); private banking much injured... 11 June, 1855 of the philosopher Jacobi.

Cheque Bank (which see), opened in Pall Mall.... 23 July, 1873

700

.2 Jan. 1672

1080

1716 1765 8

Notes allowed | By the advice of the government, branch banks opened Bankes in 1855.

Number. to be issued. at Gloucester, 19 July; Manchester, 21 Sept. ; Swansea, Bank of England...

1
14,000,000
23 Oct.

1826 English private banks.

196 4,999,444 And at Birmingham, 1 Jan. ; Liverpool, 2 July; Bristol, English joint-stock banks (see Banks,

12 July; Leeds, 23 Aug. ; Exeter, 17 Dec..

1827 Joint-stock)...

67 3,418,277 The bank loses 360,0001. by Fauntleroy's forgeries; estiBanks in Scotland..

18
3,087, 209 mated in....

1830 Banks in Ireland.

6,354,494 Statements of the bank affairs published quarterly. 1833

Peel's bank charter act (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32); renews charter 290

31,859,424 Bank of

till 1 Aug. 1855, and longer, if the debt due from the

public to the bank (11,015, 1001.), with interest, etc., be Venice formed..

1157

not paid after due notice; establishes the issue departGeneva.

1345 Barcelona.

ment; requires weekly returns to be published; limited 1401

the issue of notes to 14,000,0001., etc.........19 July, 1844 Genoa..

1407

Commercial panic; lord John Russell authorizes relaxa. Amsterdam..

1607

tion of restriction of issuing notes (not acted on); bank Hamburg..

1619

discount 8 per cent... Rotterdam

1635

25 Oct. 1847

Bank clerks establish a library and fidelity guarantee Stockholm

1688

fund. England...

1694

March, 1850

Gold bullion in the bank (consequent on discovery of Scotland..

1695

gold in Australia), 21,845,3901. Copenhagen...

1736

10 July, 1852

Branch bank, Burlington-gardens, London, W., opened Berlin..

1765 Caisse d'Escompte, France.

1 Oct. 1856 1776

Committee on the bank acts appointed...... Ireland..

1783

.12 May, 1857

Bank discount 9 per cent. ; lord Palmerston authorizes St. Petersburg.

1786

addition to issue of notes [to the amount of 2,000,0001. In the East Indies.

1787 1791

were issued)... In North America..

..12 Nov.

Committee on the bank acts reappointed, Feb.; report France *

1803 Italy. .

1865

recommending continuance of present state of things, Imperial Bank of Germany (formerly of Prussia)..1 Jan. 1876 Much alarm through the announcement of the bank so.

1 July, 1858

licitor that a quantity of bank paper had been stolen Bank oF ENGLAND was projected by William Pater- from the makers (forged notes soon appeared). 16 Aug. 1862 son, a Scotch merchant (see Darien), to meet the diffi- The culprits, soon detected, were tried and convicted culty experienced by William III. in raising the sup- (see Trials)..

.7-12 Jan. 1863 plies for the war against France. By the influence of

(See Bills, 1873.) Paterson and Michael Godfrey, 40 merchants subscribed

BANK DISCOUNT. 500,0001. towards the sum of 1,200,0001. to be lent to the 1858, 3 per cent. Feb. 1.

1860, (demand for gold in France), 6, Nov. 15. government at 8 per cent, in consideration of the sub-1861, , Jan. 7; 8 (demand for money in France, India, United scribers being incorporated as a bank. The scheme was States, etc.), Feb. 14; 3, Nov. 7. violently opposed in parliament, but the bill obtained the 1862, 21, Jan. ; 3, April; 21, July 2; July 24; 3, Oct.-Dec. royal assent 25 April, 1694, and the charter was granted 1863, raised to 4 per cent. Jan. 16; to 5, Jan. 28; reduced to

4, Feb.; to 31 and 3, April; raised to 4, May; raised to 5, 6, 27 July following, appointing sir John Houblon the first in Nov. ; to 7 and 8, and reduced to 7, in Dec. governor, and Michael Godfrey the first deputy-governor. 1864, raised to 8, Jan. 20; reduced to 7, Feb. 12; to 6, Feb. 25; The bank commenced active operations on i Jan. 1695,

raised to 7, April 16; to 8, May 2; to 9, May 5; reduced to 8,

May 19; to 7, May 26; to 6, June 16; raised to 7, July 25; to at Grocers' Hall, Poultry, † issuing notes for 201. and up- 8, Aug. 4; to 9, Sept. 5; reduced to 8, Nov. 10; tó 7, Nov. 24. wards, and discounting bills for 41 to 6 per cent. The 1865, reduced to 54, Jan. 12; to 5, Jan. 20; raised to 51, March charter was renewed in 1697. 1708, 1713, 1716, 1721, 1724,

2; reduced to 4, March 30; raised to 41, May 4; reduced to

31, June 1; to 3, June 15; raised to 31, July 27; to 4, Aug. 1746, 1749, 1764, 1781, 1800, 1808, 1816, 1833, 1844.—

3; to 44, Sept. 28; to 5, Oct. 2; to 6, Oct. 5; to 7, Oct. 7 Lawson.

(three times in one week); reduced to 6, Nov. 23; raised to 7,

Dec. 28. Run on the bank: its notes at 20 per cent. discount; capi.

1866, raised to 8, Jan. 4; reduced to 7, Feb. 22; to 6, March 15; tal raised to 2, 201,1711. 108...

.. Nov. 1696

raised to 7, May 3; to 8, May 8; to 9, May 11 (panic-susThe bank monopoly established by the prohibition of any pension of Bank Act authorized by government); to 10, company exceeding six persons acting as bankers (Scot

May 12; reduced to 8, Aug. 16; to 7, Aug. 23; to 6, Aug. 30; land not included in the act).

1708

to Sept. 6; to 41, Sept. 27; to 4, Nov. 8; to 31 Dec. 20. Capital raised to 5,559,9951. 108.

1710

1867, reduced to 3, Feb. 7; to 21, May 30; to 2, July 25. Bank post bills issued (1st record'.

. 14 Dec. 1738 1868, raised to 24 per cent. Nov. 19; to 3, Dec. 3. Run for gold through rebellion in the North; bank-bills

1869, raised to 4, April 1; to 45, May 6; reduced to 4, June paid in silver; the city support the bank. ..Sept. 1745

10; to 3}, June 24; to 3, July 15; to 21, Aug. 19; raised to Rd. Vaughan hanged for forging notes.. .1 May, 1758

3, Nov. 4. 101. notes issued...

1759

1870, raised to 31, July 21; to 4, July 23; to 5 (Franco-PrusGordon riots; since then the bank has been protected by

sian war), July 28; to 6, Aug. 4; reduced to 5), Aug. 11; to the military.

1780

4}, Aug. 18; to 4, Aug. 25; to 31, Sept. 1; to 3, Sept. 15; to 51. notes issued.

1793

2!, Sept. 29. Cash payments suspended, in conformity with an order

1871, raised to 3, March 2; reduced to 21, April 13; to 24, June in council..

26 Feb. 1797

15; to 2, July 13; raised to 3, Sept. 21; to 4, Sept. 28; to 5, 11. and 21. notes issued..

March,

Oct. 7; reduced to 4, Nov. 16; to 3, Nov. 30; to 3, Dec. 14. Bank Restriction Act passed. Voluutary contribution of 200,0001 to the government): 1798 1872, raised to 31, April

4; to 4, April'11; to 5, May');

reduced Loss by Aslett's frauds (see Exchequer), 342,6971...

to 4, May 30; to 31, June 13; to 3, June 20; raised to 3}, 1803

July 18; to 4, Sept. 18; to 44, Sept. 26; to 5, Oct. 2; to 6, Resignation of Abraham Newland, 50 years cashier,

Oct. 10; to 7, Nov. 9; reduced to 6, Nov. 28; to 5, Dec. 12.

18 Sept. 1807 1873, reduced to 41, Jan. 9; to 4, Jan. 23; to 31, Jan. 30; raised Bramah's machine for numbering notes adopted... 1809

to 4, March 26; to 41, May 7; to 5, May 10; to 6, May 17; to The bank issues silver tokens for 3s. and 18. 6d...9 July, 1811 7, June 4; reduced to 6, June 12;' to 5, July 10, to 41, July Peel's act for the gradual resumption of cash payments,

17; to 4, July 24; to 31, July 31; to 3, Aug. 21; raised to 4, July, 1819

Sept. 25; to 5 (panic in New York), Sept. 29; to 6, Oct. 14; Cash payments for notes to be in bullion at the mint price,

to 7, Oct. 18; to 8, Nov. 1; to 9, Nov. 7; reduced to 8, Nov. 1 May, 1821; in the current coin of the realm..1 May, 1823

20; to 6, Nov. 27; to 5, Dec. 4; to 41, Dec. 11. Great commercial panic-many 11. notes (accidentally found in a box) issued with most beneficial effects.. Dec. 1825 1874, reduced to 4, Jan. 8; to 31, Jan. 15; raised to 4, April 30;

reduced to 31, May 28; to 3, June 4; to 21, June 18; raised The act for the establishment of joint-stock banks breaks

to 3, July 30; to 4, Aug. 6; reduced to 3), Aug. 20; to 3, Aug. up the monopoly....

1826

27; raised to 4, Oct. 15; to 5, Nov. 16; to 6, Nov. 30.

1875, reduced to 5, Jan.7; to 4, Jan. 14; to 3, Jan. 27; raised to 3}, * Instituted by laws passed 14 April, 1803, and 22 April, Feb. 18; to 3, July 8; reduced to 2!, July 29; to 2, Aug. 12; 1806. The statutes were approved 16 Jan. 1808. In 1810 Na- raised to 2}, Oct. 7; to 3, Oct. 14; to 4, Oct. 21; reduced poleon said that its duty was to provide money at all times at to 3, Nov. 18; raised to 4, Dec. 30. 4 per cent. interest.

1876, raised to 5, Jan. 6; reduced to 4, Jan. 27; to 3}, March + The foundation of the building in Threadneedle street was 23; to 3, April 6; to 2, April 20. laid 1 Aug, 1732, by sir Edward Bellamy, governor, and the 1877, raised to 3, May 3; reduced to 21, July 5; to 2, July 12; bank removed there 5 June, 1734; it was erected by G. Samp- raised to 3, Aug. 28; to 4, Oct. 4; to 5, Oct. 11; reduced to 4, son, architect. Great additions have been made from time to Noy. 29. time by successive architects: sir Robert Taylor, sir John 1878, reduced to 3, Jan. 10; to 2, Jan. 31; raised to 3, March Soane, and Mr. C. R. Cockerell. It now occupies the site of the 28; reduced to 21, May 30; (minimum omitted in Bank no. church, and nearly all the parish of St. Christopher.le-Stocks. tices, June); raised to 3, Juno 27; to 31, July 4; to 4, Ang. The churchyard is now termed "the garden.”

1; to 5, Aug. 12; to 6, Oct. 14; reduced to 5, Nov. 21.

10,105,000} £39,589,000

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1879, reduced to 4, Jan. 16; to 3, Jan. 30; to 21, March 13; to

DEC. 27, 1856. 2, April 10; raised to 3, Nov. 6. 1880, reduced to 21, June 17; raised to 3, Dec. 9.

Assets—Securities.

.£29, 484,000 1881, raised to 31, Jan.; reduced to 3, Feb. 17; to 21, April 27.

Bullion...

Liabilities. AVERAGE AMOUNT OF BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES IN CIRCULATION.

36,329,000 1718. £1,829,930 | 1835. £18, 215, 220

Balance, £3,260,000 1778. 7,030,680 1840.

17,231,000 1790. 10,217,000 1845.

19,262,327

Nov. 11, 1857 (Time of Panic). 1800 15,450,000 1850.

19,776,814

Assets-Securities. 1810. 23,904,000 1855. 19,616,627

.£35,480, 281)

Bullion... 1815

£42,650,789 26,803,520 | 1857.

7,170,508) 21,036, 430

Liabilities. 1820. 27,174,000 1839. 22,705,780

39.286, 433 1830.. 20,620,000

Balance, £3,364,356
Asseta-Securities.
Coin and Bullion.

Liabilities.

Balanee. Sept. 14, 1859. .£30,090,179..

£17, 120,822.
. £43,503, 214.

. £3,716,787 Aug. 30, 1862.

30,106,295.
17,678,698.
44, 453,778.

3,331,215 Aug. 9, 1865..

31,823,066
14, 223,390
42,528,577

3,517,879 March 14, 1866.

29,415,059.
14,327,618.
39,934, 150.

3,805,527 Sept. 26,

34,418,382.
16,929,262,
47,039,390.

4,109, 254 June 19, 1867.

31,849,662.
21,882, 770.
50,612,342.

3,120,090 March 5, 1868

31, 226,793.
21, 136,192.
48,752, 291.

3,610,694 Dec. 29, 1869.

34,040,941.
19, 196,622.
50, 134, 262.

3,103,301 June 2, 1870.

32, 402, 200.
20,494,392.
49,799,528

3,097,069 Jan. 5, 1871

32, 274,967.
22,382,934.
51,512,339.

3,145,562 June 29,“

34,100,342.
26,609,540.
57,594, 133.

3,115, 749 Jan. 3, 1872.

36,393,708.
25, 291,761,
58,497,293.

3,188,176 July 3,

37,090, 281.
24,065,094.
57,894,811.

3,250, 564 Jan. 8, 1973.

32, 138,990.
24,051,412.
52,772, 403.

3,417,999 July 9,

33, 395,344
22,374,582.
52,338, 203,

3,431,723
30,922,266.
22,477,563.
50,248,577

3,151,252 July 1, 1874,

36,596,872.
23,929,601.
57,315,010.

3,211,463 Jan. 6, 1875

33,985,823.
22,085, 311
52,786,516.

3,302,618 June 30, “

39,660,166.
26,690, 116.
63,252, 111.

3,107,171 Jan, 5, 1876.

38,398,985
21,215,761
56,362,426.

3,252,320 July 5, "

32,247,018.
30, 190,692.
60,186,939.

3,250,771 Jan. 3, 1877

35,998, 492
28, 214, 165,
61,091,620.

3,121,027 July,

35,865,522.
26,948, 340.
59,682,894.

3,130,968 Jan. 2, 1878

34,335,978.
24,386,794
55,560, 422.

3,162,350 June 26,"

37,366, 472
23,438,504.
57,726,813.

3,078,163 Jan. 2, 1879

44,286,663.
28,089, 361
69,062, 479.

3,312,545 July 2, "

34,951,837
35,286,269
67,067,079.

3,171,027 Jan. 1, 1880.

41,330,212.
27,601,562.
65,866, 659

3,065,115 July 1,

39,398,901.
29,319,390.
65,634,195

3,084,090 Jan. 5, 1881.

39,955, 274.
24, 269, 276.
61,006, 233.

3,218,317 June 8

35,890,517
25,902, 159..
58, 721,068.

3,071,608 PUBLIC DEBT TO THE BANK OF ENGLAND. 1694 . £1,200,000 1716 £4, 175, 027 | 1742 .£10,700,000 1816.

.£14,686,000 170S 2,175,027 | 1721 9,100,000 | 1746..

11,686,000 1844-81......... 11,015, 700 Bank Holidays Act, passed 25 May, 1871, chief- Lord Eldon's Act appointing commissioners..

1825 ly by the instrumentality of sir John Lubbock.

New Bankruptcy Court erected by 2 Will. IV. c. 56 (Lord

Brougham's Act); official assignees appointed, etc.... 1831 BANK HOLIDAYS.—England and Ireland : Easter Monday, Bills for reforming bankruptcy law were in vain brought Monday in Whitsun-week, first Monday in August, 26 De- before parliament..

.1859, 1860 cember (if a week-day). --Scotland : New Year's day, Christ. Bill by the lord chancellor Westbury (formerly sir R. mas day (if either falls on Sunday, the following Monday to Bethell), 24 & 25 Vict. c. 134, passed (1861); great be a bank holiday), Good Friday, first Monday in May and changes made; the court for relief of insolvent debtors August.

abolished, and increased powers given to the commisBANK HOLIDAYS, U. S.-Christmas and New Year's day, 22 sioners in bankruptcy, etc.; the new orders issued, February, 30 May, 4 July, and all other legal holidays of the

12 Oct. 1861 states in which banks are situated.

By Lord Hatherley's Bankruptcy Act, passed 9 Aug. Bank OF IRELAND. On 9 Dec. 1721, the Irish

1869, a new bankruptcy court was established in place

of the commissioners', which sat last time, when above house of commons rejected a bill for establishing a na- 300 petitions of bankruptcy were received, 31 Dec. tional bank. Important failures in Irish banks occurred 1869. “Paid trustee system," clauses 125, 126, termed in 1727, 1733, and 1758; this led gradually to the estab

"a gentlemanly way of getting rid of debts." The lishment of the Bank of Ireland at St. Mary's abbey, Justice Giffard, the judge of the 'Bankruptcy Appeal

new judge, the hon. James Bacon, sat... .1 Jan. 1870 Dublin, 1 June, 1783. The business was removed to the Court, decided (in the case of the duke of Newcastle) late parliament house, in College Green, in May, 1808.

that a peer can be made a bankrupt, Nov. 1869, which Branch banks of this establishment have been formed in

decision was affirmed on appeal to the house of lords

in the following year; other petitions against peers most of the provincial towns in Ireland, all since 1828. have been filed. It was decided that bankrupts cannot Irish Banking Act passed, 21 July, 1845.

sit in the house of peers...

.10 Feb. 1871

BANKRUPTCY DISQUALIFICATION ACT disqualifies a peer Bank of Savings, see Savings-banks.

from sitting or voting in parliament, passed... 13 July, Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 39 & 40 Vict. Irish bankruptcy laws consolidated in 1836, and further

1837 c. 48, passed 11 Aug. 1876; repealed by a fresh act, 23 Scotch bankruptcy laws consolidated in 1856, and further May, 1879.

amended in.. Bankers' Institute, meeting to establish it, 29 Four bankruptcy bills introduced by lord chancellor

New Bankruptcy Act for Ireland, passed.. .....6 Aug. 1872 May, 1878; sir John Lubbock elected president, 11 March, Cairns, and withdrawn..

.1876-SO 1879; first general meeting, 23 May, 1879. (1300 mem- Bankruptcies have diminished through great number of

liquidations by arranged compositions; many said to bers.)

be fraudulent; 3651 of these in 1870; 11,976 in 1879;

about 20,000,0001. wasted. a trader declared to be unable to pay his just debts.

8 April, 1881 The laws on the subject (1543, 1571 et seq.) were con

NUMBER OF BANKRUPTS IN GREAT BRITAIN. solidated and amended in 1825, 1849, 1852, 1854, 1861,

1700.
38 | 1800.

1339 1868, and 1869; see Debtors.

1725.

4161810.

.about 2000 Lord chancellor Thurlow refused a bankrupt his certi.

1750..
432 1820..

1358 cate, because he had lost 5l. at one time in gaming,

1775.
520 | 1825*

2683 17 July, 1788 Enacted that members of the house of commons becom

* According to a return to parliament made at the close of ing bankrupt, and not paying their debts in full, Feb. 1826, there had become bankrupt in the four months presbould vacate their seats...

1812 | ceding 59 banking-houses, comprising 144 partners; and 20

[graphic]

Bankrupt (signifying either bank or bench broken), New bankruptcy bill brought in by Mr. Chamberlain,

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