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The senate is composed of 2 members for each state, sons); but this systein ended with the abilition of

elected for 6 years. The representatives in congress slavery. In 1872 the number of representatives was
were formerly elected for 2 years in the ratio of 1 in raised from 233 to 283, tv commence 3 March, 1873
93,423 persons (tive slaves were counted as three per-
Revenue.---Total receipts, 1 July, 1854, to

June, 1855

65,003,930 dollars.
ditto 1 July, 1858, to 30 June, 1859

53,405,071 dollars. ditto I July, 1862, to 30 June, 1863

888,082,128 dollars.
ditto 1 July, 1865, to 30 June, 1866

1,273,960,215 dollars.
ditto June, 1870, 411,255,478 dollars.
Expenditure.-1 July, 1854, to 30 June, 1855

56,365,393 dollars
ditto 1 July, 1858, to 30 June, 1859

66,346,226 dollars. ditto 1 July, 1862, to 30 June, 1863

714,709,996 dollars.
litto 1 July, 1865, to 30 June, 1866

1,141,072,666 dollars.
ditto June, 1870, 309,653,561 dollars.
Public Debt.-June, 1867, 2,515,615,936 dollars.

ditto June, 1871, 2,292,030,835 dollars. ARMY.-That which achieved independence was dis abbey. Impartial judges justify the severity of

banded at the end of the war. In 1789, a war depart this punishment.) ment was established, and in 1790 the army consisted American Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston of 1216 men for the Indian frontier, In 1808, the founded

1760 militia was newly equipped. When war with Great The federal government accepted by all the states, Britain was declared on 18 June, 1812, 35,000 men were i March; congress assembles

2 March, 1781 voted; and this army was disbanded at the peace in Cornwallis defeats Green at Guilfori, 15 March 1815 Armies were voted for the wars in 1833 and Arnoldi defeats the Americans at Eutaw 8 Sept. and 1835, afterwards disbanded.

Surrender of lord Cornwallis and his whole arny of In 1855, Army, 11,658. Militia, 1,873,558. Fleet, 72 7000 men to generals Washington and Rochainvessels (2200 guns).

beau, at Yorktown In 1860, the United States Militia were 3,070,987. Fleet, Arrival of sir Guy Carleton to treat for peace, 5 May:

92 Vessels (of all kinds); in Oct. 1862, 256 Vessels of war. provisional articles signed at Paris by cumnis Feleral Army, 29 July, 1861, estimated at 660,971. In sioners

30 Nov. 1782 Dec. 1862, nearly 1,000,000 men, In April, 1865, about Definitive treaty of peace sigued at Paris, 3 Sept. 1,500,000, at the end of the war, when the reluction 1783: ratified by congress

Jan 1984 began at once. Number of soldiers in 1867, 54,890; in

Samuel Seabury consecrated bishop of the episcopal July, 1871, 32,135 men.

church in America Fleet, in July, 1867, 261 vessels of all kinds, 2218 guns; John Adams, first American anıbassador's first inJan. 1871, 179 vessels, 1440 guns.

terview with the king of England. 1 June, 17ês The cotton plant introduced into Georgia

1786 Act of the British parliament, imposing new heavy New constitution signed by a convention of states, duties on imports 11 March, 1764

17 Sept. 1987 Obnoxious stamp act passed

22 March, 1765
The same ratified

23 day, 1788 First American congress held at New York, June; The quakers of Philadelphia emancipate their slaves, the stamp-aet resisted i Nov.

1 Jan Stamp-act repealed

18 March. 1766 New government organised, 4 March ; George InstBritish act, levying duties on tea, paper, painted ington, ist president, 6 April; present departglass, &c. 14 June, 1767 ments of state established

27 July, 1780 Gen. Gates sent to Boston.

Oct. 1768
Death of Benjamin Franklin.

17 April, 1790 840 chests of tea destroyer by the populace at Bank instituted ; capital, 10,000,000 dollars, 7 June, 1791 Boston, and 17 chests at New York .

City of Washington chosen the capital of the states, Boston port bill (port rights annulle) 25 March, 1774

8 July, 1792 Deputies from the states meet at Philadelphia, Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin gives an 5 Sept. ; Declaration of Rights issued

immense impetus to the growth of American First action between the British and Americans, at


• 1793 Lexington

. 19 April, 1775 Re-election of general Washington as president, Act of perpetual union between the states 20 May, 4 March, 1793 ; resigns

17 Sept 1700 George Washington appointed commander-in-chief, John Adams, and president

. 4 March, 1797 May; battle of Bunker's-hill, the Americans Washington dies; universal sorrow 14 Dec. 1700 retire after a severe conflict

17 June, The seat of government removed to Washington America declared “free, sovereign, and inde Thomas Jefferson, 3r president

4 March, 1801 pendent”

4 July, 1776 Louisiana purchased from the French . 30 April, 1303 General Howe takes Long Island, 27 Aug ; new Discussion between England and America respectYork, 15 Sept. ; victor at White Plains, 20 Oct.;

ing the rights of neutrals

1807 takes Rhode Island

8 Dec. American ports closed to the British, July; trade The Hessians surrender to Washington

suspended La Fayette and other French officers join the Importation of slaves abolished

1 Jan. 18o& Americans

James Malison, 4th president

4 March, 180g Washington defeated at Brandywine 11 Sept. War with Great Britain (New England States Lord Cornwallis takes Philadelphia . Sept.

opposed to it, threatened to secede). 18 June, 1812 Burgoyne victor at Germantown, 3, 4, Oet.; sur Action between the American ship Constitution, and rounded; capitulates at Saratoga

the British frigate Guterrière, an unequal contest, A federal government adopted by congress 15 Nov.

19 Aug. The states recognised by France

16 Dec.
Fort Détroit taken

21 Aug. Alliance with France

6 Feb. 1778 The British sloop Frolic taken by the American The king's troops quit Philadelphia .

sloop, Mag.

18 Oct Americans defeated at Brier's Creek

3 March, 1779

The ship Chitan States of 54 guns, Teat calibre Charleston surrenders to the British. 13 May, 1780 (commodore Decatur), captures the British frigate Cornwallis defeats Gates at Camden

16 Aug.

Macedonia Major André hanged as a spy 2 Oet. Battles of Frenchtown (which sei).

22-24 Jan. 1813 [André (born 1751) was an adjutant-general in the The Hornet captures the British sloop of war Peacock

British army, and was taken in disguise on his
return from a secret expedition to the traitorous Fort Erie and Fort George abandoned by the British,
American general Arnold, 23 Sept. 1780. He was

27 May,

The American frigate Chesapeake captured by the sentenced to execution as a spy by a court of general Washington's officers at Tappan, New

Shannon frigate, captain Broke

1 June, York, and suffered death, 2 Oct. foliowing. His At Burlington Heights, Ainericans defeated, 6 June, remains were removed to England in a

H.M. sloop Pelican takes the sloop Argus 14 Aug. phagus, 10 Aug. 1821, and interrel in Westminster Buffalo towu burnt by the British


Dec. 1773

4 Nov.


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American frigate Essex taken by the Phæbe and

New Providence, where the governor, considering Cherub

29 March, 1814 them passengers, allowed them, against the proThe British defeat the Americans in a severe conflict, test of the American consul, to go at liberty. ]

2 July, Announcement of lord Ashburton's mission to the (Severalengagements with various success followed.]

United States

I Jan. 1842 The British, under Ross, defeat the Americans at Arrest of Hogan, implicated in the Caroline attair, Bladensburg; the city of Washington taken and

2 Feb. public editices burnt.

24 Aug.

Lord Ashburton arrives at New York I April, The Britisli sloop of war Avon sunk by the American Washington treaty, defining the boundaries between sloop Wasp

8 Sepit.

the United States and the British American posThe British squadron on Lake Champlain captureil, sessions, and for suppressing the slave trule, and

11 Sept.

giving up fugitive criminals ; signed at WashingAttack on Baltimore by the British; general Ross

ton, by lord Ashburton and Mr. Webster, 9 Aug. killed 12 Sept. The tariff will is passed

30 Aug. Treaty of peace with Great Britain, signed at Ghent, Lord Ashburton leaves the United States. 5 Sept.

Death of Dr. Chaming

2 Oct. The British repulsed at New Orleans 8 Jan. 1815 James Kinox Polk, 11th president

Mareh, 1845 The British ship Emulymion captures the Presilent, War declared against the United States by Mexico,

on account of the propose annexation of Texas, The Ghent treaty rutified

4 June, James Monroe, sth president

4 March, 1817 (Several actions are fought between the belligerents, Centre foundation of the capitol of Washington laid, alverse to Mexico ]

24 Aug. 1818

Resolution of the senate and house of representaThe “Missouri Compromise" of Henry Clay, re

tives for tenninating the joint occupancy of garding slavery passed Feb. 1820 Oregon

20 April, 1846 Spain celles Florida to the American States 24 Oct. Annexation of New Mexico to the United States, The States acknowledge the independence of South

after a protracted war

. 23 Aug. America

8 March, 1822 Mexicans defeated by Taylor at Palo Alto, 8, 9 May, Treaty with Columbia

3 Oct. 1824 Treaty fixing the north-west boundary of the U.S. John Quincey Aviams, 6th president

4 March, 1825 at the 49th parallel of latitude, and giving the Death of the two ex-presidents, Adams and Jeffer

British pussession of Vancouver's island, the free son, on the goth anniversary of the independence navigation of the Columbia river, &c., signer of the American States 4 July, 1826

12 June, Convention with Great Britain concerning indemi The Mexicans defeated by general Taylor, at Bueno ties for war 1812-14 .


22, 23 Feb. 1847 American Touritt Bill imposing heavy duties on Vera Cruz taken by storm, 29 March ; the Mexicans British gooils

13 May, 1828

everywhere worsted. Great battle of Sierra Gordia; General Jukson, 7th president

4 March, 1829 the Mexicans signally defeated by general Scott, Treaty between the United States and the Ottoman

18 April, Porte

. 7 May, 1830 Treaty between Mexico and the United States, rutiPorts re-opened to British commerce


19 May, 1848 New tariff laws

14 July, 1832 Gen. Zachary Taylor, 12th president 4 March, 1849 Commercial panic

Riot at the theatre, New York, occasioned by the Great fire at New York, 647 houses and many public dispute between Mr. Forrest and Mr. Mucready, edifices burnt; loss estimated at 20,000,000 dol

10 May, lars ; see Vow York

15 Nov. 1835 Proclamation of the president against the maraulNational debt paid off

1836 ing experlition to Cuba

II Aug. Martin Van Buren, 8th president 4 March, 1837 [Lopez, a Spanish adventurer, landeil 600 men at In the Canadian insurrection, many Americans Cuba; after a short but obstinate struggle they assist the insurgents.

Oct. to Dec.

took the town of Carlenas ; and soon after haul a The American steamboat Caroline is attacked and

land engagement with some Spanish soldiers, in burnt by the British, near Schlosser, to the east

which many of them were killed or taken priof the Niagara, on the territory of the United

soners; the others embarked with Lopez in the States

Creole steamer, and thus escaped from a Spanish Proclamation of the president against American war steamer, the Pizarro, May, 1850.) citizens aicing the Canadians.

5 Jan. 1838 The French ambassador dismissed from Washington, The Great Western steam-slip tirst arrives at New

14 Sept. York

Treaty with England for a transit way across PanaAmerican banks suspensi cash payments .

Oct. 1839

má (see Bulwer), 19 April ; ratified 4 July, 1850 Alex. MacLeod, charged with aiding in the de President Zachary Taylor dies; death of M. Calstruction of the Caroline; true bill found against


31 March, him for muriler and arson

.6 Feb. 1841 Millard Fillmore

. 13th president

March, The United States bank again suspends payment, California admittedl a state

15 Aug. Fugitive slave bill passed .

Aug. Gen. I\'. H. Harrison, oth president. 4 March,

Presiilent Fillmore issues a second proclamation Died

4 April,

against the promoters of a second expedition to Mr. Fox, British minister, demands the release of Cuba, and the ship Cleopatra, freighted with Mr. MacLeod

12 March,

military stores destined for that island, is seized, John Tyler, 10th president .

April, The case of MacLeod removed to supreme court at

25 April, 1851

Census of the United States taken, the population New York

6 May,

ascertained to amount to 23,347,884, in the whole A party of British volunteers from Canadà carry off


16 June, col. Grogan 9 Sept. Henry Clay, American statesman, dies

29 Jume, Resignation of all the United States ministers, with Failure of the second expedition against Cuba by the exception of Mr. Webster. . 1 Sept.

Lopez and his followers ; they are alldefeated and President's proclamation against lawless attempts of

taken; 51 are shot by the Cuban authorities, American citizens to invade British possessions, Lopez is garotted, and the rest are sent prisoners and to suppress secret lodges, clubs, and associa

to Spain, where, after some negotiation, they are tions

25 Sept.

mercifully set at liberty (see Cur) Aug.-Sept. Grogan restored to the Americans

J. F. Cooper, American novelist, dies . Trial of MacLeod at Utica, 4 Oct. ; acquitted, 12 Oct.

14 Sept.

The president issues a proclamation against the Colossal statue of Washington placed in the capitol sympathisers with the revolutionary movement at Washington.

1 Dec.
in Mexico

22 Oct. Affair of the Crcole; dispute with England Dec. Part of the capitol of Washington, and the whole of [Thiy American vessel was on her voyage to New

the library of the United States congress, deo Orleans with a cargo of slaves : they mutinied, stroyed by fire murdered the owner, wounded the captain, and M. Kossuth, the Hungarian chief, arrives at Washicompelled the crew to take the ship to Nassau,

29 Dec.


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ington, on the invitation of the United States

lish at the Chinese engagement on the river legislature

30 Dec. 1851 Peiho, saying, “Blood is thicker than water," Publication of “Uncle Tom's Cabin," by Mrs.

25 June, 1859 Stowe

20 March, 1852 Gen. Ward, the United States envoy, goes to Pekin, The dispute with England relating to the Fisheries but does not see the emperor

July, oceurs about this time; Mr. Webster's note,upon Gen. Harney sends troops to San Juan Island, near the subject

Vancouver's Island, * to protect the American Lone Star Society (see Love Sunr).


settlers ;" moderation of the British, who have a The United States Ship Crescent City boarded at

naval force at hand; governor Douglas also sends Havannah, and not allowed to land her mails or


27 July, Passengers

Insurrection at Harper's Ferry

16 Oct. Death of the eminent statesman Daniel Webster in (John Brown, called captain Brown and old Brown, his 70th year

was a prominent leader in the violent conflicts in Expedition to Japan

Kansas, during the agitation respecting the ques. Address to the women of America on slavery, tion of its becoming a slave state. He was a

ailopted by the duchess of Sutherland and other monomaniac on the slavery question, and conlaulies (signed afterwards by 576,000 English

tended that all means for annihilating slavery were Women).

26 Nov.

justifiable. He gathered together a band of desjeGen. Franklin Pierce, 14th president 4 March, 1853 rate characters, who so much amoyel Missouri Atair of koszta at Smyrna (see koszta) 21 June,

and other slave states, that a reward was offered Crystal palace opens at New York

14 July,

for his head. He had arranged for the successful Duel between M. Soulé (American minister at

issue of the insurrection above mentionel, so far Madrid) and M. Turgot

18 Dec,

as to devise a provisional government and a new Great fire at New York-Great Republic clipper le- constitution. On 16 Oct he and his banci, aided stroyed

26 Dec.

by a mob, seized the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, a Astor Library, New York, opened

9 Jan. 1854 town on the borders of Virginia and Marylami, William Walker proclaims the republic of Sonora stopped the railway trains, and cut the teletapa divided into two states-Sonora and Lower Cali

wires ; a conflict with the military ensuel, whea fornia

18 Jan.

many of the insurgents were killedl. Temporary American steamer Black Warrior seized at Cuba, panic in southern states. ]

28 Feb. Gen. Harney superseded by gen. Scott at San Juan, The Spanish government remitted the fine, but con

who makes conciliatory overtures ; accepted by sidered the seizure legal

governor Douglas .

Nov. Commercial treaty concluded between Japan and Death of Washington Irving

28 Nov. United States by cominodore Perry (sent there John Brown captured and triedl : exernted for the purpose).

23 March,

Great agitation in the congress, Nov. 1859: no Reciprocity treaty between Great Britain and speaker elected till

i Feb. 1860 United States (respecting Newfoundland tishery, President Buchanan protests against a proposed ininternational trade, &c.) concluded

7 June,
quiry into his acts

28 March, Captain Hollins in American sloop Cyane, bombards Companions of John Brown executed

March, San Juan de Nicaragua

13 July, The national republican convention neet Negotiation for the annexation of the Sandwich Chicago; Abraham Lincoln chosen as candidate Islands

for the presidency

16 May, Dreaulful eleétion riots in Kansas, March and April

, 1835 Japanese embassy received by the president at luian war: they are defeated

25, 29 April,

17 May, Dispute with British government on enlistnient (see Fresh disputes at San Juan, through gen. Harnes, Foreign Legion)

who is recalled Gen. Harney gains a victory over the Sioux Indians, William Goodrich (Peter Parley) dies

May, 3 Sept. The national democratic convention meet at Balti. Senator Charles Sumner savagely assaulted by

more; a large number of delegates secede; the Nenator Preston Brooks in the senate-house for

remainder nominate Stephen Douglas as presi. speaking against slavery

2 May, 1856 dent: the seceders nominate John Breckinridge, Mr. Crampton, British envoy, dismissed, 28 May,

18 June, John C. Fremont nominated the “Republican" can- The Great Eastern arrives at New York

23 June, Ilidate for the presidency

17 Jult,

The prince of Wales arrives at Detroit in the United Battle in Kansas ; the slavers (under capt. Reidi States, 20 Sept. ; visits Washington, 3 Oct; lefeat Brown and the abolitionists

30 Aug

Philadelphia, 9 Oct. ; New York, 11 Oct : BusJames Buchanan, electal 15th president

4 Nov.
ton, 17 Oct. ; embarks at Portland

20 Lt The Resolute presented to queen Victoria (see Frank- Abraham Lincoln, the republican candidate, erial

12 Dec.

16th president (see Southern Confeilerary), 6 Nov. Lord Napier appointed British envoy to United (303 electors are appointed to vote for a president;

States (16 Jan.); warinly received 18 March, 1857 152 to be a majority. The nunbers were, for .. Central American question settled


Lincoln, 180; John C. Breckinridge, 72; John Judgment given in the “Dred Senti” case in the Bell, 39 ; Stephen A. Douglas, 12.]

supreme court. (He was claimed as a slave in a Intense excitement at Charleston, South Carolina, free state : 2 judges declared for his freedom, 5

and in other southern states,

Nos, against it, which causes great dissatisfaction

South Carolina secedes from the union

20 Dec throughout the free states).


Major Anderson, of United States army, occupies Disorganised state of Utah; troops march to sup

Fort Suiter in Carolina.

26 Dec port new governor

May and June, Delegates from South Carolina not received by the Riots in Washington against Irish electors; and in president

New York on account of changes in the police Vacillating policy of president Buchanan ; the secrearrangements


taries Cass, Cobb, Floyd, and Thompson resign, Insurrection in Kansas quelled . July,

Dec. 1860an. 1961 Commercial panic in New York

New York and other northern states protest against Outrage at Staten Island ; quarantine house burnt, the secession; a general fast proclained ; observed

7 Sept.

on. Dispute respecting right of search, settled May, 1858 Vicksburg, Mississippi, fortified . Tranquillity restored in Utah


Kansas admitted a state Great rejoicing at the completion of the Atlantic Secession (by convention) of Mississippi, 8 Jan. ; telegraph (see Electric Telegraph)


Alabama, Florida, 11 Jan. ; Georgia, 19 Jan. ; Lieut. Moffat seizes the American slave ship Echo Louisiana, 26 Jan. ; Texas (by legislature), and takes her to Charleston .

Sept. Death of W. H. Prescott, the historian 28 Jan. 1859 Jefferson Davis, elected by the six seceding states, Daniel Sickles, a government official, killed Philip

8 Feb. ; is inaugurated president of the “southern Barton Key, for adultery with his wife : acquitted confederacy," at Montgomery, Alabama, 18 Feb.

of inurder The American commodore Tatnal assists the Eng.

26 Feb. New (Morrill) tariff bill passed (nearly prohibits commerce with England)

. 2 March,

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ginia; the federals, seized with panic, flee in utter disorder

21 July, 1861 Meeting of U. S. Congress, 4 July; a loan of 250

million dollars authorised Meeting of confederate congress at Richmond, Virginia

20 July, Passport system introduced into the northern

states, and the liberty of the press greatly restricted

Aug. The charges in the Morrill tariff greatly raised;

the confederates prohibit exportation of cotton except by southern ports

Aug. Battle of Springfield or Wilson's Creek; confederates defeated

10 Aug. McClellan assumes command of the army of the Potomac.

20 Aug. Federal

Butler takes Fort Hatteras, N. gen. Carolina (700 prisoners and 1000 stand of arms),

29 Aug. Fast-day in federal states

26 Sept. Garibaldi declines command in the federal army,

Sept. Battle of Ball's Bluff"; federals defeated and gen.

Baker killed, near Leesburg, Virginia ; hundreds drowned

21 Oct. The federals and confederates enter Kentucky; the governor protests ; many skirmishes,

Sept.-Dec. Resignation of lieut.-gen. Scott, 31 Oct. ; George

McClellan made commander-in-chief of the federal ariny

i Nov. The federal general Sherman takes Port Royal forts,

S. Carolina
Capt. Wilkes, of federal war steamer San Jacinto,

boards the Royal British mail packet Trent,
and carries off Messrs. Mason and Slidell, con-
federate commissioners, and their secretaries, 8

Nov., and conveys them to Boston Great rejoicings in the northern states at the capture of Mason and Slidell

Nov. McClellan reviews 70,000 men .

20 Nov. Capt. Pegram, of confederate steamer Nashville,

burns the federal ship Harvey Birch, 19 Nov., and

brings the crew on to Southampton . A secession ordinance passed by a party in Mis

souri, 2 Nov. ; the same in Kentucky Dissensions increase between the republicans (abolitionists) and the democrats in New York, &c.

Nov. Jefferson Davis elected president of confederate

states for six years President Lincoln states that the federal armies comprise 660,971 men

2 Dec. Meeting of congress, which votes thanks to capt.

Wilkes, 2 Dec. ; the foreign envoys at Washington protest against his act .

3 Dec. The federals commence sinking hulks filled with

stones to block up Charleston harbour (S. Carolina)[much indignation in England).

21 Dec. Banks at New York, &c., suspend cash payments, A firm despatch from the British government

30 Nov.

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President Davis prepares for war (100,000 men to be raised)

March, 1861 Abm. Lincoln, inangurated president at Washing

ton, says, “the central idea of secession is the essence of anarchy".

. 4 March, Southern commnissioners not received by the president at Washington

12 March, Gen. Winfield Scott, in a leiter to president Lin

coln, sets before him four courses : either, I., to surrender to slavery half the territory acquired or to be acquired; II., to blockade all revolted ports; III., to say to seceding states, “Wayward sisters, go in peace!" or IV., to conquer the south, which would require 300,000 men and afterwards a resident army (the letter became public Oct. 1862)

March, Great excitement at the operation of the new Morill tariff, which begins

. 1 April, The war begins: Major Anderson refuses to surren

der Fort Sumter, Charleston, when summoned, it April ; it is taken by the secessionists, after a bloodless conflict

13 April, President Lincoln summons the congress to meet

on 4 July ; issues a proclamation, calling on the states to furnish a contingent of 75.000 men, &c.

15 April, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and

other states zealously respond, with vigorous preparations for war; Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri, decidedly refuse, asserting the proposed coercion to be wicked, illegal, and unconstitutional

April, The mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attack some

Massachusetts regiments on their way to Washington; several persons killed in the conflict,

19 April, President Davis issues letters of marque, 17 April ;

president Lincoln proclaims the blockade of the ports of seceding states

19 April, U.S. Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, fired by

command, and 15,000 stand of arins destroyed, 18 April ; 9 ships of war and naval stores in the navy varl, Norfolk, Va., burnt to prevent them falling into the hands of the southern confederates, who occupy the place

21 April, Virginia (except West Virginia) 'secedes by ordinance (the 8th state)

25 April, Lincolu calls for 42,034 volunteers for three years,

3 May, and inforis foreign powers of his intention to maintain the union by war

4 May, The confederates under Beauregard and Johnston,

in Virginia, threaten Washington, defended by the federals under generals Wintield Scott and George McClellan

May, The British queen commands her subjects to be

neutral in the ensuing war The federals enter Virginia ; Beauregard calls on

the Virginians to rise and expel them 1 June, Formal secession of Arkansas, 6 May ; North Carolina, 20 May; Tennessee (gth, ioth, and uth),

8 June, Several British vessels seized while endeavouring to

break the blockade; the southern privateer Sarannah captured

June, Neutrality announced by the French emperor,

10 June, Fast-day in confederate states

13 June, Missouri.-Gen. Lyon raises a federal ariny, and

defeats the state troops, 17 June; the federals successful at Carthage, 5 July ; Fremont takes cominand in West Missouri, 26 July ; federals victorious at Athens, 5 Aug. ; at Wilson's Creek (gen. Lyon killed), 10 Aug ; Fremont proclaims martial law, and freedom to slaves or rebels, 31 Aug. ; Lexington surrenders to confederates, 20

ot. ; Fremont blamed, retires ; succeeded by Hunter

2 Nov. Virginio. - Federais defeated at Big Bethell, 10 Jume; occupy Harper's Ferry, evacuated by the confederates, 16 June; col. Pegrim and 600 confederates surrender at Beverley

13 July, [Very many skirmishes, with various results.) McClellan defeats confederates at Rich Mountain,

11 July; Paterson permits the junction of the confederates under Johnston and Beauregard near Manassas, 15 July ; who are repulsed at

Blackburn's Ford, near Centreville 18 July, Battle of Bull Run (which see) or Manassas, Vir

arrives, 18 Dec. 1861 ; Mason, &c., surrendered, sail for Europe

I Jan. 1862 Phelps' fruitless expedition to Ship Island, Mississippi Sound

3 Dec. 1861-Jan. Confederate general Zollicoffer defeated by Thomas and slain at Mill Springs or Somerset, Kentucky,

19 Jan, Tennessee.---The federals (Grant) take Fort Henry,

6 Feb. ; Fort Donnelson, with 15,000 prisoners,

16 Feb.; and Nashville Confederates defeated at Pea Ridge, Arkansas,

6, 7, 8 March, Confederate iron-plated ship Merrimac destroys

federal vessels Cumberland and Congress in Hampton roads, 8 March; is repulsed by federal ironclad floating battery Monitor

9 March, McClellan and his army (100,000) cross the Potomac

and find the confederate camp at Bull Run evacuated

10 March, McClellan resigns general command, and assumes

that of the army of the Potomac only ; Fremont that of the Mountain department; and Halleck that of the Mississippi

11 March, Burnside's expedition sails, 11 Jan. ; takes Roanoke, N. Carolina, 7, 8 Feb. : New bern

14 March, Capt. Wilson (British) boldly rescues his vessel,


13 May,

23 Feb


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Emily St. Pierre, a merchantman, from the federals Lincoln's proclamation of confiscation of property 21 March, 1862 of rebels

20 July, 1862 (She was sailing from Calcutta to New Brunswick, Fierce attack of Breckenridge (confederates) in and while attempting to inquire whether a block

Baton Rouge ; the federals soon after retire, ade existed, was captured off Charleston bar by a

5 Aug federal ship of war, Her captain, and his cook Pope's troops ravage Virginia ; Banks, his suboriiand steward, were permitted to remain on board nate, defeated at Cear Mountain by gen. Thus on her voyage to Philadelphia. On 21 March,

“ Stonewall" Jackson

9 Aug Wilson with his two associates succeeded, by [According to some accounts he obtained the name stratagem and courage, in recovering the com

by promising Beauregard, at the battle of Bull mand of the vessel, overcoming two U.S. officers

Run, that his brigade should stand like a “stone and 13 sailors, and brought her into Liverpool.

wall;" others say that Beauregard gave the name The owners of the ship gave him 2000 guineas,

himself. ] and the Liverpool merchants presented him with McClellan retreats from Harrison's Landing (said a magnificent testimonial of their admiration of

to have lost 70,000 men, killed, wounded, prison his gallantry. The British government refused

ers, and deserters)

16 10% to restore the vessel when claimed by the The federals surprised, and Pope loses his barza,

Confederates defeated at Winchester

23 March,

Jackson turns the flank of Pope's army, and attacks General Burnside occupies Beaufort and Fort Macon

him at Groveton, 29 Aug. ; and when reinfonet 1 April,

by Lee, defeats him and McDowell at Bull Run, Slavery abolished in district of Columbia, 4 4 April, 30 Aug. ; Pope retreats to Centreville 1 Sept. McClellan advances into Virginia, with the view of The remains of Pope's army flee behind the lines

taking Richmond; he besieges York town, held of Washington, 2 Sept. ; he is removed to the by 30,000 confederates

5 April,

north-west to act against the Indian insurrection Correspondents of English newspapers excluded

3. Selit. from federal army .

5 April, McDowell superseded; charged with treachers, he Great battles of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, near claims a trial

Corinth, Tennessee; confederates victorious, but McClellan appointed commander-in-chief, saves lose their able gen. Albert Johnstone; they retire

Washington, and marches against the confede 6, 7 April,

rates under Lee, who have crossed the Potonac Treaty between Great Britain and the United and entered Maryland

5, 6 Serit States for the suppression of the slave trade, Severe conflicts at South Mountain Gap (or Middie

7 April,

town), 14-16 Sept. ; confederates, after a great Federals take Fort Pulaska on the Savannah, ir

fight near Antietam Creek and Sharpsburg mail, April ; and New Orleans

25-28 April,

retreat Yorktown evacuated by confederates

17 Sept 3 May, Harper's Ferry surrendered to Jackson, 15 Sept; The Seward-Lyous treaty between Great Britain

he crosses Potomac and joins Lee's army 17 Sept. and the United States, for suppression of the Federal cause declining in the West; they lose slave trade, signed 7 April ; ratified 20 May,

Lexington, Aug. ; and Munsforlville 17 Sept Confederates repulsed at Williamsburg, 5 May; their Thanksgiving-day in southern states,

18 Sept. naval depót at Norfolk, Virginia, surrenders, 10 Rosencrans defeats the confederates at Iuka May ; they burn the Merrimac 11 May,

19 Sepit. Commodore Farragut with a flotilla ascends the Confederates re-enter Virginia laden with stores Mississippi May,

22 Sept Little Rock, Arkansas, taken by federais.

Lincoln proclaims freedom to the slaves in the conStonewall Jackson defeats Banks at Winchester,

federate states, on 1 Jan. 1863, if the states hare 18 May, not returned to the union

22 Sept. McClellan takes Hanover court-house

Secret convention of 16 governors of states at Skirmishes in Virginia ; success varying May,

Altoona, Pennsylvania, approve Lincoln's policy Severe battles of Fair Oaks, before Richmond

24 Sept. (indecisive)

31 May, 1 June, Draught of 40,000 men ordered in New York state Beauregard and the confederates retreat from

by 15 Oct.

Sept. Corinth, Tennessee, 30 May ; pursued by Halleek Lincoln suspends habeas corpus writ, and antio and the federals


rises severe measures against disloyal persons Memphis, on the Mississippi, taken 6 June,

25-27 Sept. Federals defeated near Charleston

16 June, Desperate but indecisive conflicts near Corinth, Federal forces under Fremont, Banks, and

Tennessee, 3-5 Oct ; and at Perrysville, Kentucky McDowell, placed under Pope; Fremont resigns,

8,00 27 Jume,

Confederate gen. Stuart crosses Upper Potomac, Federals suffer through several severe engagements and enters Pennsylvania ; enters Chambersburg in Virginia

25-30 June,

and other places, carrying off horses, ammunition, General Butler excites great indignation by his &c; rides round the federal army, and returns to military rigour at New Orleans May and June,

10, 13 Oct United States debt estimated at 100,000,000l. June, Gold at 29 premium at New York

Ott Seven days' conflict on the Chickahorniny before Great democratic meeting at New York, condemning Richmond; the confederate gen. Lee compels

the president's policy

12 Oct. McClellan to abandon the siege and retreat 17 At New Orleans Butler compels all persons who miles, taking up a position at Harrison's Land

refuse to take the oath of allegiance to send in ing, on James's river

25 June-1 July,

their names and register their property to the The tariff still further raised .

provost marshal

12 Oct Many conflicts in Kentucky, Missouri, and Ten McClellan's head-quarters at Harper's Ferry 17 Oct. nessee, through confederate guerilla parties

Raid of confederate gen. Morgan in Kentucky; he June and July,

carries off &o federal waggons of ammunition, &c. Lincoln visits and encourages the army of McClellan,

18 Oct. and calls for 300,000 volunteers

July, Ten confederate prisoners at Palmyra shot by orier Lincoln's assent to a bill confiscating the property of gen. MeNeil in consequence of the disappearand emancipating the slaves of all rebels in arms

ance of Abraham Allsman

18 Oct. after 60 days

17 July,

Rosencrans supersedes Buell in the west, Halleck supersedes McClellan as commander-in-chiei

M. Drouyn de Lhuys, on behalf of the French 26 July,

government, proposes joint mediation in the Slow volunteering; many emigrations to Canada

American conflict to Great Britain and Russia, and Europe ; habeas corpus suspended ; the pre

30 Oct. ; declined by Gortschakull, 8 Nov.: by sident ordains a draft if the volunteers are not

earl Russell ready by 15 Aug.



27 May,

his camp

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30 Oct.

13 Nov

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July, Public debt of United States estimated"

The confederate steamer Alabama, capt. Semmes,

captures many U.S. vessels, and excites much 1,222,000,000 dollars

1 July,
alarm at New York

Oct-Dec. Pope takes command in Virginia .

14 July, Elections for next congress; great majority for the


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