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China, their armies in two bloody battles, in one of which the ground was strewed with dead bodies for upwards of four leagues.
The same year Yong-tsi was slain by his general Hujaku; and Sun, a prince of the blood, advanced in his room. After this the Moguls, attacking the em pire with four armies at once, laid waste the provinces of Shansi, Honan, Pecheli, and Shan-tong. In 1214 Jenghiz-khan sat down before Peking; but instead of assaulting the city, offered terms of peace, which were accepted, and the Moguls retired into Tartary. Af ter their departure, the emperor, leaving his son at Peking, removed his court to Pyen-lyang near KayPeking ta- fong-fu, the capital of Honan. At this Jenghiz khan ken. being offended, immediately sent troops to besiege Peking. The city held out to the fifth month of the year 1215, and then surrendered. At the same time the Moguls finished the conquest of Lyau-tong; and the Song refused to pay the usual tribute to the Kin. In 1216, Jenghiz-khan returned to pursue his conChinese de- quests in the west of Asia, where he staid seven years; against the during which time his general Muhuli made great progress in China against the Kin emperor. He was greatly assisted by the motions of Ning tsong emperor of the Song, or southern China; who, incensed by the frequent perfidies of the Kin, had declared war against them, and would hearken to no terms of peace, though very advantageous proposals were made. Notwithstanding this, however, in 1220, the Kin, exerting themselves, raised two great armies, one in Shensi, and the other in Shan-tong. The former baffled the attempts of the Song and king of Hya, who had united against them; but the latter, though no fewer than 200,000, were entirely defeated by Muhuli. In 1221, that officer passed the Whang-ho, and died after conquering several cities.
In 1224, the Kin emperor died; and was succeeded khan de- by his son Shew, who made peace with the king of kingdom of Hya; but next year, that kingdom was entirely deHya; stroyed by Jenghiz khan. In 1226, Oktay, son to Jenghiz-khan, marched into Honan, and besieged Kayfong fu, capital of the Kin empire, but was obliged to withdraw into Shensi, where he took several cities, and cut in pieces an army of 30,000 men. In 1227 and dies. Jenghiz-khan died, after having desired his sons to demand a passage for their army through the dominions of the Song, without which he said they could not easily vanquish the Kin.
24 Moguls quarrel
with the Song.
After the death of that great conqueror, the war was carried on with various success; but though the Moguls took above 60 important posts in the province of Shensi, they found it impossible to force Ton-quan, which it behoved them to do in order to penetrate effectually into Honan. In April 1231 they took the capital of Shensi, and defeated the Kin army which came to its relief. Here one of the officers desired Prince Toley to demand a passage from the Song through the country of Han-chong-fu. This proposal Toley communicated to his brother Oktay, who approved of it as being conformable to the dying advice of Jenghiz-khan. Hereupon Toley, having assembled all his forces, sent a messenger to the Song generals to demand a passage through their territories. This, however, they not only refused, but put the messenger to death; which so enraged Toley that he swore to
make them repent of it, and was soon as good as his China. word. He decamped in August 1231; and having forced the passes, put to the sword the inhabitants of. Wha-yang and Fong-chew, two cities in the district Exploits of of Hang-chong-fu. Then having cut down rocks to fill up deep abysses, and made roads through places almost inaccessible, he came and besieged the city of Hang-chong-fu itself. The miserable inhabitants fled to the mountains on his approach, and more than 100,000 of them perished. After this, Toley divided his forces, consisting of 30,000 horse, into two bodies. One of these went westward to Myen-chew: from thence, after opening the passages of the mountains, they arrived at the river Kyaling, which runs into the great Kyang. This they crossed on rafts made of the wood of demolished houses; and then, marching along its banks, seized many important posts. At last, having destroyed more than 140 cities, towns, or fortresses, they returned to the army. The second detachment seized an important post in the mountains, called Toutong, six or seven leagues to the eastward of Hang-chong-fu. On the other side Oktay advanced, in October, towards Pu chew a city of Shansi; which being taken after a vigorous defence, he prepared to pass the Whang-ho. Toley, after surmounting incredible difficulties, arrived in December on the borders of Honan, and made a show as if he designed to attack the capital of the Kin empire. On his first appearance in Honan through a passage so little suspected, every body was filled with terror and astonishment, so that he proceeded for some time without opposition. At last the emperor ordered his generals, Hota, Ilapua, and others, to march against the enemy. Toley boldly attacked them; but was obliged to retire, which he did in good order. Hota was for pursuing him, saying that the Mogul army did not exceed 30,000 men, and that they seemed not to have eaten any thing for two or three days. Ilapua, however, was of opinion that there was no occasion for being so hasty, as the Moguls were enclosed between the rivers Han and Whang-ho, so that they could not escape. This negligence they soon had occasion to repent of: for Toley, by a stratagem, made himself master of their heavy baggage; which accident obliged them to retire to Tang-chew. From thence they sent a messenger to acquaint the emperor that they had gained the battle, but concealed the loss of their baggage. This good news filled the court with joy; and the people who had retired into the capital for its defence, left it again, and went into the country: but, in a few days after, the vanguard of the Moguls, who had been sent by the emperor Oktay, appeared in the field, and carried off a great number of those that had quitted the city.
In January 1232, Oktay passing the Whang-ho, Capital of encamped in the district of Kay-fong-fu, capital of the the Kin Kin empire, and sent his general Suputay to besiege empire bethe city. At that time the place was near 30 miles in circumference; but having only 40,000 soldiers to defend it, as many more from the neighbouring cities, and 20,000 peasants, were ordered into it; while the emperor published an affecting declaration, animating the people to defend it to the last extremity. Oktay, having heard with joy of Toley's entrance into Honan, ordered him to send succours to Suputay. On
China. the other hand, the Kin generals advanced with empire of the Kin. Gan-yong, a young Mogul lord, Ch
150,000 men to relieve the city; but being obliged having assumed the government of some cities in
distance of the Moguls made bim think of living at Juning Bravery of Oktay, at last, notwithstanding his successes, resol. ease ; but wbile he flattered himself with these vain the te ved to return to Tartary; and offered the Kin empe. hopes, the enemy's army arrived before the city and sieged.
ror peace, provided he became tributary, and delic invested it. The garrison were terrified at their apvered up to him 27 families which he named. These proach; but were encouraged by the emperor, and his offers were very agreeable to the emperor; but Supu. brave general Hu-sye-hu, to hold out to the last. As tay, taking no notice of the treaty, pushed on the there was not in the city a sufficient number of men, siege of the capital with more vigour than ever. By the women, dressed in men's clothes, were employed the help of the Chinese slaves in bis army, the Mogul to carry wood, stones, and other necessary materials to general soon filled the ditch ; but all his efforts seem- the walls. All their efforts, however, were ineffeced only to inspire the besieged with new vigour. The tual. They were reduced to such extremities, that Moguis at that time made use of artillery, but were for three months they fed on human flesh; killing the unable to make the least impression upon the city walls. old and feeble, as well as many prisoners, for food. They raised walls round those they besieged, which This being known to the Moguls, they made a genethey fortified with ditches, towers, and battlements. ral assault in January 1234. The attack continued They proceeded also to sap the walls of the city; but from morning till night; but at last the assailants were were very much annoyed by the artillery of the besie- repulsed. In this action, however, the Kin lost all ged, especially by their bombs, which sinking into the their best officers ; upon which the emperor resigned galleries, and bursting under ground, made great ha- the crown to Cheng-lin a prince of the blood. Next vock among the miners. For 16 days and nights the morning, while the ceremony of investing the new emattacks continued without intermission ; during which peror was performing, the enemy mounted the south time an incredible number of men perished on both walls, which were defended only by 200 men; and
sides ; at length, Suputay, finding that he could not the south gate being at the same time abandoned, the Peace con- take the city, withdrew his troops, under pretence of whole army broke in. They were opposed, however, cluded;
conferences being on foot. Soon after the plague be. by Hu-sye-hu; who, with 1000 soldiers, continued to gan
in Kay-fong.fu; and raged with such violence, fight with amazing intrepidity. In the mean time Unhapr that, in 50 days, 900,000 biers were carried out, be- Shew-fo, seeing every thing irreparably lost, lodged fate of sides a vast multitude of the poorer sort, who could not the seal of the empire in a house ; and then causing emperor
sheaves of straw to be set round it, ordered it to be set and bro- In a short time two unlucky accidents occasioned on fire as soon as he was dead. After giving this orken. a renewal of the war; which now put an end to the der he banged himself, and bis commands were exe2
Here the Siege o
The empire of China was now to be shared between the Song, or southern Chinese, and the Moguls. It had been agreed upon, that the province of Honan should be delivered up to the Song as soon as the war was finished. But they, without waiting for the expiration of the term, or giving Oktay notice of their proceedings, introduced their troops into Kay-fong-fu, Lo-yang, and other considerable cities. On this the Mogul general resolved to attack them; and repassing the Whang-ho, cut in pieces part of the garrison of Lo-yang, while they were out in search of provisions. The garrison of Kay-fong-fu likewise abandoned that place; and the Song emperor degraded the officers who had been guilty of those irregularities, sending ambassadors to Oktay, at the same time, to desire à continuance of the peace. What Oktay's answer was we are not told, but the event shoved that he was not well pleased; for, in 1235, he ordered his second son Prince Kotovan, and his general Chahay, to attack the Song in Se-chwen, while others marched towards the borders of Kyang-nan.
tween the Song and
36 Dreadful engage. ment.
In 1236, the Moguls made great progress in the province of Huquang, where they took several cities, and put vast numbers to the sword. This year they introduced paper or silk money, which had formerly been used by Chang-tsong, sixth emperor of the Kin. Prince Kotovan forced the passages into the district of Hang-chong-fu in the province of Shensi, which he entered with an army of 500,000 men. Here a terrible battle was fought between the vast army of the Moguls and the Chinese troops, who had been driven from the passages they defended. The latter consisted only of 10,000 horse and foot, who were almost entirely cut off; and the Moguls lost such a number of men, that the blood is said to have run for two leagues together. After this victory the Moguls entered Sechwen, which they almost entirely reduced, committing such barbarities, that, in one city, 40,000 people chose rather to put an end to their own lives than submit to such cruel conquerors.
In 1237, the Moguls received a considerable check before the city of Gantong in Kyang-nan, the siege of which they were obliged to raise with loss. In 1238, they besieged Lu-chuw, another city in the same province. They surrounded it with a rampart of earth and a double ditch; but the Chinese general ordered their intrenchments to be filled with immense quantities of herbs steeped in oil, and then set on fire, while he shot stones upon them from a tower seven stories high. At the same time a vigorous sally was made; and the Mogul army being thrown into the utmost disorder, were obliged finally to abandon the siege, and retire northwards.
In 1239, these barbarians were opposed by a general called Meng-kong, with great success; who, this and the following year, gained great honour by his exploits. While he lived, the Moguls were never
able to make any considerable progress; but his death, China. in 1246, proved of the greatest detriment to the Chinese affairs and soon after, the Tartars renewed the war with more vigour and success than ever. In 1255, they re-entered the province of Se-chwen; but still met with vigorous opposition in this quarter, because the Chinese took care to have Se-chwen furnished with good troops and generals. Though they were always beaten, being greatly inferior in number to their enemies, yet they generally retook the cities the Moguls had reduced, as the latter were commonly obliged to withdraw for want of provisions and forage. In 1259 they undertook the siege of Ho-chew, Siege of a strong city to the west of Peking, defended by Vang-Ho-chew. kyen, a very able officer, who commanded a numerous garrison. The siege continued from the month of February till August; during which time the Moguls lost an immense number of men. On the roth of August they made a general assault in the night. They mounted the walls before the governor had intelligence; but were soon attacked by him with the utmost fury. The Mogul emperor, Meng-ko, himself came to the scalade; but his presence was not sufficient to overcome the valour of Vang-kyen. At the Moguls desame time the scaling-ladders of the Moguls were feated, and blown down by a storm; upon which a terrible slaugh- their empe ter ensued, and amongst the rest fell the emperor him- ror killed. self. Upon this disaster the Mogul generals agreed to raise the siege, and retired towards Shen-si.
On the death of Meng ko, Hupilay, or Kublay Khan, who succeeded him, laid siege to Vu-chang-fu, a city not far distant from the capital of the Song empire.
At this the emperor being greatly alarmed, distributed immense sums among his troops; and, having raised a formidable army, marched to the relief of Vuchang-fu. Unfortunately the command of this army was committed to the care of Kya-tse-tau, a man without either courage or experience in war. He was besides very vain and vindictive in his temper; often using the best officers ill, and entirely overlooking their merit, which caused many of them to go over to the Moguls. The siege of Vu-chang-fu was commenced, and had continued a considerable time, when Kya-tse tau, afraid of its being lost, and at the same time not daring to take any effectual step for its relief, made proposals of peace. made proposals of peace. A treaty was accordingly concluded, by which Kya-tse-tau engaged to pay an annual tribute of about 50,000l. in silver and as much in silk; acknowledging likewise the sovereignty of the Moguls over the Song empire. In consequence of this treaty, the Moguls retreated after the boundaries of the two empires had been fixed, and repassed the Ky. ang; but 170 of them having staid on the other side of the river, were put to death by Kya-tse-tau.
This wicked minister totally concealed from the Treachery emperor his having made such a shameful treaty with of a Chithe Moguls; and the 170 soldiers massacred by his ster. order, gave occasion to a report that the enemy had been defeated; so that the Song court believed that they had been compelled to retreat by the superior valour and wisdom of Kya-tse-tau. This proved the ruin of the empire; for, in 1260, the Mogul emperor sent Hauking to the Chinese court to execute the treaty according to the terms agreed on with Kya-tse-tau.
China. The minister, dreading the arrival of this envoy, imprisoned him near Nanking; and took all possible care that neither Hupilay, nor Li-tsong the Chinese emperor, should ever hear any thing of him.
It was impossible such unparalleled conduct could fail to produce a new war. Hupilay's courtiers incessantly pressed him to revenge himself on the Song for their treacherous behaviour; and he soon published a manifesto against them, which was followed by a renewal of hostilities in 1268. The Mogul army amounted to 300,000 men; but notwithstanding their numbers, little progress was made till the year 1271. Syan-yang and Fan-ching, cities in the province of Se-chew, had been besieged for a long time ineffectually; but this year an Igur lord advised Hupilay to send for several of those engineers out of the west, who knew how to cast stones of 150 pounds weight out of their engines, which made holes of seven or eight feet wide in the strongest walls. Two of these engineers were accordingly sent for; and after giving a specimen of their art before Hupilay, were sent to the army in 1272. In the beginning of 1273 they planted their engines against the city of Fan-ching, and presently made a breach in the walls. After a bloody conflict the suburbs were taken; and soon after the Moguls made themselves masters of the walls and gates of the city. Nevertheless, a Chinese officer, with only 100 soldiers, resolved to fight from street to street. This he did for a long time with the greatest obstinacy, killing vast numbers of the Moguls; and both parties are said to have been so much overcome with thirst, that they drank human blood to quench it. The Chinese set fire to the houses, that the great beams, falling down, might embarrass the way of their pursuers; but at last, being quite wearied out, and filled with despair, they put an end to their own lives. After the taking of Fan-ching, all the materials which had served at the siege were transported to Seyenyang. The two engineers posted themselves against a wooden retrenchment raised on the ramparts. This they quickly demolished; and the besieged were so intimidated by the noise and havock made by the stones cast from these terrible engines, that they immediately surrendered.
In 1274, Pe-yen, an officer of great valour, and endowed with many other good qualities, was promoted to the command of the Mogul army. His first exploits were the taking of two strong cities; after which he passed the great river Ky-ang, defeated the Song army, and laid siege to Vu-chang-fu. This city was soon intimidated into a surrender; and Pe-yen, by restraining the barbarity of his soldiers, whom he would not allow to hurt any body, soon gained the hearts of the Chinese so much, that several cities surrendered to him on the first summons. In the mean time the treacherous Kya-tse-tau, who was sent to oppose Pe-yen, was not ashamed to propose peace on the terms he had formerly concluded with Hupilay; but these being rejected, he was obliged at length to come to an engagement. In this he was defeated, and Peyen continued his conquests with great rapidity. Ha ving taken the city of Nanking, and some others, he marched towards Hang-chew-fu, the capital of the Song empire. Peace was now again proposed, but ejected by the Mogul general; and at last the em
press was constrained to put herself, with her son, then an infant, into the hands of Pe-yen, who immediately sent them to Hupilay.
The submission of the empress did not yet put an end to the war. Many of the chief officers swore to do their utmost to rescue her from the hands of her enemies. In consequence of this resolution they distributed their money among the soldiers, and soon got together an army of 40,000 men. This army attacked the city where the young emperor Kongtsong was lodged, but without success; after which, and several other vain attempts, they raised one of his brothers to the throne, who then took upon him the name of Twon-tsong. He was but nine years of age when he was raised to the imperial dignity, and enjoyed it but a very short time. In 1277 he was in great danger of perishing, by reason of the ship on board which he then was being cast away. The poor prince fell into the water, and was taken up half dead with the fright. A great part of his troops perished at that time, and he soon after made offers of submission to Hupilay. These, however, were not accepted; for, in 1278, the unhappy Twon-tsong was obliged to retire into a little desert island on the coast of Quang-tong, where he died in the 11th year of his age.
Notwithstanding the progress of the Moguls, vast p territories still remained to be subdued before they of could become masters of all the Chinese empire. On em the death of Twon-tsong, therefore, the mandarins raised to the throne his brother, named Te-ping, at that time but eight years of age. His army consisted of no fewer than 200,000 men; but being utterly void of discipline, and entirely ignorant of the art of war, they were defeated by 20,000 Mogul troops. Nor was the fleet more successful; for being put in confusion by that of the Moguls, and the emperor in danger of falling into their hands, one of the officers taking him on his shoulders, jumped with him into the sea, where they were both drowned. Most of the mandarins followed this example, as did also the enpress and minister, all the ladies and maids of honour, and multitudes of others, insomuch that 100,000 people are thought to have perished on that day. Thus ended the Chinese race of emperors; and the Mogul dynasty, known by the name of Twen, commenced.
Though no race of men that ever existed were R more remarkable for cruelty and barbarity than the I Moguls; yet it doth not appear that the emperors of the Ywen dynasty were in any respect worse than their predecessors. On the contrary, Hupilay, by the Chinese called Shi-tsu, found the way of reconciling the people to his government, and even of endearing himself to them so much, that the reign of his family is to this day stiled by the Chinese the wise government. This he accomplished by keeping as close as possible to their ancient laws and customs, by his mild and just government, and by his regard for their learned men. He was indeed ashamed of the ignorance and barbarity of his Mogul subjects, when compared with the Chinese. The whole knowledge of the former was summed up in their skill in managing their arms and horses, being perfectly destitute of every art or science, or even of the knowledge of letters. In 1269, he had caused the Mogul characters to be contrived
China trived. In 1280, he caused some mathematicians search joined in order to come to a general engagement, China.
for the source of the river Whang-ho, which at that Chu gained a second victory, and burnt 100 of the
contented himself with the title of king of U. In king of U.
and so that Chu found himself in a coudition to assume the the kingdoms of Tonquin and Cochin-china. Both title of emperor. This he chose to do at Nanking on Becomes these enterprises ended unfortunately, but the first re- the first day of the year 1368. After this his troops en peror of markably so ; for of 100,003 persons employed in it, entered the province of Honan, which they presently
China, only four or five escaped with the melancholy news of reduced. In the third month, Chu, who had now the destruction of the rest, who all perished by ship- taken the title of Hong-vu or Tay-tsu, reduced the wreck. Shi-tsu reigned 15 years, died in the Botlı year fortress of Tong-quan ; after which his troops entered of his age, and was succeeded by bis grandson. The Pecheli from Honan on the one side, and Shang-tong
throne continued in the Ywen family to the year 1367, on the other. Here his generals defeated and killed 44
when Shun-ti, the last of that dynasty, was driven out one of Shun-ti's officers, after which they took the Mozels dri- by a Chinese named Chu. During this period the city of Tong-chew, and then prepared to attack the retot. Tartars had become enervated by long prosperity; capital, from which they were now but 12 miles distant.
and the Chinese had been roused into valour by their on their approach the emperor filed with all his family
48 sonk in sloth and debauchery; and the empire, besides, nasty of Ywen. In 1370 he died, and was succeeded Moguis
was oppressed by a wicked minister named Ama. In by bis son, whom the successor of Hong-vu drove be- driven bee Eviloits of June 1355, Chu, a Chinese of mean extraction, and yond the Kobi or Great Desert, which separates Chi-yond the Cha.
desert. head of a small party, set out from How-chew, passed na from Tartary.
na from Tartary. They continued their incursions, the Kyang, and took Tayping. He then associated however, for many years; nor did they cease their atbimself with some other malcontents, at the head of tempts till 1583, when vast numbers of them were cut whom he reduced the town of Tu-chew, in Kyang- in pieces by the Chinese troops. nan. Soon after he made himself master of Nanking, The 21st dynasty of Chinese emperors, founded in China a. baving defeated the Moguls who came to its relief. In 1368 by Chu, continued till the year 1644, when they gain con. December 1356, he was able to raise 100,000 men, were again expelled by the Tartars. The last Chinese quered by
the Tarat the head of whom he took the city of U.chew, in emperor was named Whay-tsong, and ascended the the east borders of Quang-si; and here, assembling his throue in 1628. He was a great lover of the sciengenerals, it was resolved neither to commit slaughter ces, and a favourer of the Christians ; though much nor to plunder. The most formidable enemy he had addicted to the superstitions of the Bonzes. He to deal with was Chen-yew-lyang, styled, “ emperor of found himself engaged in a war with the Tartars, and the Han.” This man being grieved at the progress a number of rebels in different provinces. That he made by Chu, equipped a fleet, and raised a formida- might more effectually suppress the latter, he resolved ble army, in order to reduce Nan-chang-fu, a city of to make peace with the former; and for that end sent of Kyang-si, which his antagonist had made himself one of his generals, named Ywen, into Tartary, at master of. The governor, however, found means to the head of an army, with full power to negotiate a inform Chu of his danger; upon which that chief peace; but that traitor made one upon such shameful caused a fleet to be fitted out at Nanking, in which terms, that the emperor refused to ratify it. Ywen, he embarked 200,000 soldiers. As soon as Chen-yew- in order to oblige his master to comply with the terms lyang was informed of his enemy's approach, he raised made by himself, poisoned bis. best and most faithful the siege of Nan-chang-fu, and gave orders for at general, named Mau-ven-lorg : and then desired the tacking Chu's naval force. An engagement ensued Tartars to march directly to Peking, by a road ditbetween a part of the fleets, in which Chu proved ferent from that which he took with his victorious; and next day, all the squadrons having they accordingly did, and laid siege to the capilal. VOL. VI. Part I.