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Proclamation for increase of army by 150,000/-Chris. Note of Savas Pacha to the powers acknowledging cortians and others to serve..

.26 Nov. 1877 ruptions in judicial affairs and promising efficient reReported intrigues at Constantinople by peace and war forms (in Times). ..

.30 Jan. 1880 parties...

Nov. Col. and Mrs. Synge (distributors of relief to Mussulmans) The soltan issues a rather vague proclamation of am

captured by Greek brigands, near Salonica, about 19 nesty to Bulgaria...

.about 27 Nov.

Feb. ; released for 10,0001... ..about 24 March, Surrender of Plevna, 10 Dec.; circular note to the great Mr. Göschen sent as temporary ambassador; arrives at powers requesting mediation,

.12 Dec.

28 May, Parliament opened; the sultan's speech censures the New ministry under Kadri Pacha..

... about 8 June, war, and praises his generals and soldiers. ....13 Dec. Identic note from European powers, 11 June; given in The ministry, censured, resigns; still holds office; Sulei

12 June, man dismissed; crisis at Constantinople......5–7 Jan. 1878 Osman Pacha, war-minister, dismissed. ...about 10 July, Hamdi Pacha, grand-vizier..

.11 Jan. Naval demonstration by the European powers at Dul. New ministry under Ahmed Nefik; grand.viziership cigno, suggested by earl Granville..

..July, abolished.....

..4, 5 Feb. Collective note of the Berlin conference presented, British fleet enter the Dardanelles without permission

15 July, of the sultan..

13 Feb. Madame Skobeleff, mother of the Russian general, The parliament dissolved by the sultan. ...14 Feb.

robbed and murdered near Philippopolis by Ouzalis, a Insurrection in Crete, Thessaly, Epirus, etc. (see Greece),


.18 July. Feb., March, Midhat Pacha, governor of Syria, and Hamed Pacha of Treaty of peace with Russia signed at San Stefano (see

Smyrna exchange offices..

Aug. Stefano), 3 March; ratified at St. Petersburg, 17 March, Collective note from the powers urging cession of DulOsman Pacha honorably received by the sultan,

cigno, etc., to Montenegro, and proposing to aid the 24 March,

prince in taking possession.. Grand duke Nicholas and the sultan exchange visits at The ministry modified under Said Pacha, premier, Constantinople.. .26 March,

12 Sept. Ahmed Nelik replaced by Sadyk as prime - minister, A final note from the powers respecting cession of Dul.

about 18 April
cigno to Montenegro, delivered..

....15 Sept. Insurrection near Rhodope, in Roumelia, against Rus- Admiral Beauchamp Seymour, commander of combined sians, going on (see Rhodope)...

. April, fleet at Ragusa, sent to make a demonstration near Insurrection (said doubtfully to be in favor of the ex. Dulcigno....

20 Sept. sultan Murad) in Constantinople, suppressed; Ali The sultan refuses to surrender Dulcigno; the French Suavi, a softa and fanatical reformer, with others, decline to partake in attack on the town, killed ....20 May,

about 27 Sept. Public offices, etc., at Constantinople destroyed by fire; Note from the sultan limiting his concessions and resistattributed to incendiaries.

22 May,
ing coercion; presented..

.3 Oct. Office of grand-vizier revived for Mehemet Ruchdi, May; Immediate cession of Dulcigno ordered by the sultan, soon replaced by Safvet..

.29 May,
about 23 Oct.; effected...

.26 Nov. Secret agreement between the marquess of Salisbury and The combined fleet disperses.

4 Dec. count Schouvaloff, Russian ambassador. ... ..30 May, Note from the sultan to the powers respecting the Secret British convention with Turkey (defensive alli

Greeks arming.

.14 Dec. ance); if, by the treaty of Berlin, Russia acquires Kars, Circular from the powers recommending arbitration, 24 Ardahan, or Batoum, Great Britain is to join the sultan

Dec. 1880; declined by Turkey and Greece, in arms in defending his dominions, he engaging to re

early in Jan. 1881 form his government; Cyprus to be held by Great Circular from Turkey proposing conference at ConstanBritain till Russia returns its acquisitions

....4 June,
tinople, etc..

.about 15 Jan. Cyprus ceded to Great Britain... ...3 July Notes from the powers presented.

.21 Feb. Berlin conference meets, 13 June; treaty signed (see Conference at Constantinople; agreement between TurBerlin)...

.13 July,

key and the powers, proposals referred to Athens, A conspiracy against the sultan suppressed,

30 March, about 10 July, Mr. Henry Suter, engaged in mines, seized by brigands A ministerial crisis ends; the vizier Safvet Pacha's pol

at Cassandra, in Salonica...

about 8 April, icy approved by the sultan, who gives him a present; Rebellion in Albania (which see) suppressed.. ... May,

ratification of the treaty of Berlin announced ..4 Aug. Midhat Pacha's palace surrounded by soldiers; he esTrial of Suleiman Pacha for misconduct during the war capes and appeals to the powers..

17 May, begun....

.. Aug The sultan protests against French invasion of Tunis The Turks said to be grossly ill-treated in Bulgaria, and

(which see)...

.May, other surrendered places.

..Aug Midhat surrenders, claiming a fair trial...about 17 May, Sasvet Pacha's circular to foreign powers refusing to Turkey protests against the Tunis treaty of 12 May.. May,

recognize Greek proposal for annexation of Candia, Mr. Suter's release for 15,0001. ransom announced,
Thessaly, etc...
..8 Aug

23 May, Murder of Mehemet Ali Pacha at Ipek, near Scutari, by Convention between Turkey and Greece arranged at Con. Albanian rioters...

.6 Sept. stantinople, settling frontiers; Thessaly ceded by TurAlleged conspiracies on behalf of the ex-sultan Murad; key...

.24 May, instigated by the ulemas,

..about 10 Sept. Mr. Göschen leaves Constantinople; his mission successAlbanian leader with 40,000 men said to be ruling from ful; succeeded by lord Duslerin, 26 May, who arrives Janina to Montenegro. ..12 Sept. at Constantinople...

.15 June, German circular to the powers on Turkish delays in car- Trial of Midhat l'acha and others for murder of the late rying out the Berlin treaty.

.middle Sept.

sultan Abdul-Aziz; convicted; Mustapha Fahri Bey The sultan accepts the reforms proposed by the British

and Hadji Mehmed actual assassins; others, Mahmoud government; announced..

.24 Oct.

and Nouzi Pachas, the sultan's brothers-in-law, Midhat Insurrectionary movements in Macedonia ......Oct.

Pacha, and others, accomplices.... .27, 28 June, Midhat Pacha appointed governor-general of Syria to in. Sentence, death to all, except two subordinates to im. augurate reforms.

.. about 11 Nov.

.29 June, Suleiman Pacha sentenced to degradation and imprison. Turco-Greek convention ceding Thessaly to Greece, ment, 2 Dec.; absolved the sultan..

.4 Dec.
signed at Constantinople...

.2 July, New ministry, Kheredine Pacha (grand-vizier), Cara- The trial of Midhat and others said to be a mockery; theodori, and ot rs

4 Dec.
pardon expected, ..

..July, Macedonian insurrection ended..

.3 Jan. 1879 (See Candia, Egypt, Greece, Montenegro, and Servia.) Definitive treaty of peace with Russia, signed....8 Feb.

TURKISH SULTANS. British fleet leaves the sea of Marmora.. . March, Definitive treaty with Austria, published. 26 May, 1299. Othman, Osman, or Ottoman, founded the empire, re. Mahmoud Nedem, old statesman, returns to Constanti

tained the title “emir," but ruled despotically. nople on invitation...

..30 June, 1326. Orchan, son, took the title " sultan." Kheredine, Caratheodori, and others compelled to resign 1360. Amurath (or Murad) I. ; stabbed by a soldier, of which through opposition of the assembly of ulemas (their

wound he died. policy said to be against the Koran); succeeded by 1389. Bajazet I., Ilderim, son; defeated by Tamerlane, and died Aariti Pacha....

28, 29 July,

imprisoned. The Russians evacuate Turkey.

July, Aug 1403. Solyman, son; dethroned by his brother. New ministry under Said Pacha.

.18, 19 Oct. 1410. Musa Chelebi; strangled. Pressure for reforms put upon the government by the 1413. Mahomet I., son of Bajazet.

British; admiral Hornby and the fleet enter Turkish 1421. Amurath II., son. waters; quit....

...carly in Nov. 1451. Mahomet II., son; took Constantinople, 1453. Baker Pacha appointed inspector general of gendarmerie 1481. Bajazet II., son. in Asia Minor.

announced 18 Nov. 1512. Selim I., son. Great financial depression.

.. Nov., Dec. 1520. Solyman I. or II., the Magnificent, son. Omcial relations with Great Britain temporarily sus- 1566. Selim II., son.

pended on account of the imprisonment of Dr. Köller, 1574. Amurath III., son; killed his five brothers; their motha German missionary, and Ahmed Tewfik, who assisted

er, in grief, stabbed herself. him in translations....

..31 Dec. 1595. Mahomet III., son; strangled all his brothers, and Successful intervention of sir A. H. Layard....1-10 Jan. 1880

drowned his father's wives.

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1603. Ahmed (or Achmet) I., son.

Turret Ships, see Nary of England. 1617. Mustapha I., brother; deposed by the Janissaries, and imprisoned.

Tuscan Order OF ARCHITECTURE, a debased 1618. Osman II., nephew; strangled by Janissaries.

Doric, used in Tuscany for buildings in which strength 1022. Mustapha 'I. again; again deposed, sent to the Seven is chiefly required.- Wotton.

Towers, and strangled. 1623. Amurath IV., brother of Osman II.

Tuscany, formerly a grand-duchy in central Italy, 1640. Ibrahim, brother; strangled by the Janissaries.

the northern part of the ancient Etruria (which see). It 1648. Mahomet IV., son; deposed by 1687. Solyman II. or III., brother.

formed part of the Lombard kingdom, after the conquest 1691. Ahmed (or Achmet) II., son of Ibrahim, nephew. of which by Charlemagne, 774, it was made a marquis1695. Mustapha II., eldest son of Mahomet IV.; deposed. 1703. Ahmed (or Achmet) III., brother; deposed, and died in ate for Boniface about 828. His descendant, the great prison in 1736.

countess Matilda, bequeathed the southern part of her 1730. Mahmud I. (or Mahomet V.), son of Mustapha II. domains to the pope (1115). In the northern part (then 1754. Osman III., brother.

called Tuscia), the cities Florence, Pisa, Sienna, Lucca, 1757. Mustapha III., brother.

etc., gradually became flourishing republics. Florence 1774. Abdul-Ahmed, or Hamid I. (or Achmet IV.), brother. 1789. Selim III., son of Mustapha III. ; deposed by the Janis became the chief under the government of the Medici saries.

family; see Florence. The duchy in that family began 1807. Mustapha IV., son of Abdul-Ahmed; deposed, and, with in 1531, and the grand-duchy in 1569. After the exthe late sultan Selim, murdered.

tinction of the Medicis in 1737, Tuscany was given by 1808. Mahmud II., or Mahomet VI., brother. 1839. Abdul Medjid (son), 2 July (born 23 April, 1823); died 25 the treaty of Vienna (1738) to Francis, duke of Lorraine

June, 1861. 1861. Abdul-Aziz, brother, born 9 Feb. 1830; deposed 29 May; ceded his hereditary estates to France. Population in

(married to Maria Theresa of Austria in 1736), who had alleged suicide, 4 June, 1876 (see 1881). 1876. Amurath V. (Murad), son of Abdul-Medjid, born 21 Sept. 1860, 1,826,830.

1840; proclaimed 30 May; deposed for bad health, 31

The French enter Florence.

. 28 March, 1799 Abdul Hamid II., brother, 31 Aug ; born 22 Sept. 1842. The grand-duke is dispossessed, and his dominions given ("He is not a tyrant, he is not dissolute, he is not a

to Louis duke of Parma (of the royal house of Spain), bigot or corrupt."'-Lord Beaconsfield, 27 July, 1878.) with the title of king of Etruria

1801 Son : Mehemed Selim, born 11 Jan. 1870. Tuscany incorporated with the French empire.

1807 The grand-duchy given to Eliza, sister of Napoleon...... 1808

1914 Turkey Trade, commenced in the year 1550. The Ferdinand III. restored...

Lucca united to Tuscany.

1847 Turkey or Levant Company of London was instituted by Leopold II. grants a free constitution. ..15 Feb. 1848 charter of Elizabeth in 1579.

Insurrection at Florence; republic proclaimed ; the Turkeys and Guinea Fowls, first brought to He is restored by the Austrians..

grand-duke flies...

11 Feb. 1849

...July, 1850 England about 1523, and to France in 1570. Turkeys are Rigorous imprisonment of the Madiai, husband and wife, natives of America, and were consequently unknown to converts to Protestantism, for reading the Biblo.. May, 1852 the ancients.

The earls of Shaftesbury and Roden and others in vain intercede for them at Florence.....

..Oct. Türkheim (E. France). Here the elector of Bran- They are released after the intervention of the British denburg and the imperialists were defeated by the French government.

... March, 1853

(An annuity was provided for them by subscripunder Turenne, 5 Jan. 1675.

tion.) Turkish Baths, see Baths.

The Tuscan army demand alliance with the Sardinians;

the grand-duke refuses, and departs to Bologna; the Turkish Compassionate Fund, instituted by king of Sardinia is proclaimed dictator, and a provis. the Daily Telegraph, and supported by lady Burdett The king assumes the command of the army, but de

..27 April, 1859 Coutts, the archbishop of Canterbury, and others, to re

clines the dictatorship..

.30 April, lieve sufferers by the war, Aug. 1877.

The Sardinian commissary Buoncompagni inrested with

the powers of government.. Turkomans, see White Sheep.

.11 May,

Prince Napoleon arrives at Leghorn, addresses the Tus. Turner's Act, 13 & 14 Vict. c. 35 (1850), relates to

cans, and erects his standard..

..... 23 May,

The grand-duke Leopold II. abdicates in favor of bis son the court of chancery.


.....21 July, Turner's Legacies. Joseph M. W. Turner, a great Tuscan constituent assembly meets. ...11 Aug. landscape-painter, was born in April

, 1775, and died 19 lt declares against the house of Lorraine, and votes for annexation to Sardinia......

...Sept. Dec. 1851. He bequeathed to the nation all the pict- Prince Eugene of Savoy-Carignan elected governor-genures and drawings collected by him and deposited at his eral of central Italy; he declines, but recommends residence, 47 Queen Anne street, on condition that a suit

Buoncompagni, Nov , who is accepted by the Tuscans,

8 Dec. able gallery should be erected for them within ten years; Annexation to Sardinia voted by universal suffrage, 11, and directed his funded property to be expended in found- 12 March; decreed

22 March, 1860 ing an asylum at Twickenham for decayed artists. The Prince Eugene appointed governor..... 26 March,

Florence made the capital of Italy, by decree published will was disputed by his relatives, but a compromise was

11 Dec. 1864 made. The oil - paintings (100 in number) and the

(See Italy and Florence.) drawings (1400) were obtained by the nation, and the

SOVEREIGNS OF TUSCANY. engravings and some other property were transferred to the next of kin. The drawings were cleaned and mount- 1531. Alexander I. ed under the careful superintendence of Mr. Ruskin, and 1537. Cosmo I. the pictures were sent to Marlborough House for exhibition. In 1861, many of the pictures were removed from 1569. Cosmo I., Medici. the South Kensington Museum to the National Gallery, 1574. Francis I.

1587. Ferdinand I. others in 1869. The sketches, plates, etc., of Turner's 1608. Cosmo II. “Liber Studiorum were sold for about 20,0001., 28 1621. Ferdinand II. March, 1873,

1670. Cosmo III. (visited England, and wrote an account of

his travels). Turning, see Luthe. In our dock-yards, blocks and 1723. John Gaston (last of the Medici). other materials for our ships of war are now produced 1737. Francis II. (duke of Lorraine); became emperor of Ger.. by an almost instantaneous process, from rough pieces many in 1745. of oak, by the machinery of Mr. (afterwards sir Mark 1765. Leopold I. (emperor in 1790).

1790. Ferdinand 111. (second son of Leopold I.); expelled by Isambard) Brunel (died 1819); see Blocks.

the French in 1800. Turnpikes, see Tolls. Turpentine-tree (Pistacia terebinthus) came from 1801. Louis I., duke of Parma

1803. Louis II. Barbary, before 1656. Spirits of turpentine were first applied with success to the rot in sheep, one third of the 1808–14. Eliza Bonaparte (married to Bacciocchi, made prince spirit diluted with two thirds water, 1772.

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of Lucca).



Type-composing Machine. The best-known 1814. Ferdinand III. restored. 1824. Leopold II., 18 June (born 3 Oct. 1797; abdicated, 21 chine is that invented by Timothy Alden, of Yarmouth,

and most perfect type-composing and distributing maJuly, 1859); died 29 Jan. 1870. 1859. Ferdinand IV., 21 July (born 10 June, 1835); protested Mass.; born 1819, died 1858. It was first patented in

against the annexation of his grand-duchy, 26 March, 1856. This machine was imperfect, and was afterwards

1860. Son, Leopold Ferdinand, born 2 Dec. 1868.

much improved by Henry W. Alden, cousin of the in

ventor. Tusculum (now Frascati), a city of Latium (S.

He was assisted in this work by William Italy). The Tusculans supported Tarquinius Superbus Mackay. The machine, thus improved, was worked in against the Romans, by whom they were totally defeated, the Tribune office during the years 1855-60. The neces497 B.C.

The Tusculans, on account of their friendship sity of a “distributor” that would not require the type with Rome, suffered much from the other Latins, who

to be classified had long been felt, and during the trial at took their city, 374, but were severely chastised for it. the Tribune office, John T. Slinger, a practical scientific Here Cicero during his retirement wrote his "Tusculanæ machinist, discovered a method by which it could be Disputationes,” about 46 B.C.

effected. He also remedied several minor defects, which Twelfth-day, the feast of the Epiphany, or maui- rendered the machine practical and useful. See under festation of Christ to the Gentiles, 6 Jan.; see Epiphany.

Printing, 1842-72. Twelve Tables, see Decemvirs.

Type-founding, see under Printing, 1452, 1720.

Type-writers. M. Foucault sent to the Paris Twins, joined together, have been born frequently, but seldom lived long. Helen-Judith, joined Hungarian exhibition of 1855 a writing-machine for the blind; and twins, were born in 1715, and died in 1723. Millie- several were invented by Wheatstone. After successive Christine, negro twins, born in North Carolina in 1851, improvements

, Messrs. Remington, in America, in 1873, were wholly distinct in the upper part of the body, but contracted to construct 25,000. The speed is said tó one in the lower part of the spinal column and pelvis; have been raised to seventy-five words a minute. the four legs obeying nerves from a common centre. The action of the type-writer somewhat resembles that of a

pianoforte. Pressure upon a key marked with a letter raises They sang and danced well, and were named the “ Two

à hammer with a type-cut letter, which presses upon paper; headed Nightingale.” The will, understanding, and con- provision is made for inking the type, shifting, etc. science were distinct; see Siamese Twins.

Tyrant. In early Greek history, the term was apTwin-ship, see under Steum.

plied to any man who governed with irresponsible “Twopenny Trash," a term given to W. Cob- power. Solon objected to the term, and chose the name bett's Weekly Political Register, after 2 Nov. 1816, when Archõn (ruler), 594 B.C. The earliest tyrants were he reduced the price from 12}d. to 2d.; the sale greatly those at Sicyon, beginning with Cleisthenes, in the increased.

seventh century B.C. Tyranny declined in Greece about Tyburn (W. London), at the west end of Oxford" | 490 B.C., and revived after the close of the Peloponnesian road (now street), the chief place in London for the ex- war, 404 B.C.; see Thirty Tyrants. ecution of malefactors till 1783. Pennant (who died Tyre (Phænicia), a great city, said to have been first 1798) remembered Oxford street as “ a deep, hollow built by Agenor. Another city was built 1257 (about road, and full of sloughs, with here and there a ragged 2267, Hales) B.C. It was besieged by the Assyrians, house, the lurking-place of cutthroats."

who retired from before it, after a siege of upwards of In conformity with an act passed in 1697 a so-called "Tyburn five years, 713 B.C. Taken by Nebuchadnezzar, 572 B.C., ticket” was given to the prosecutor of a criminal executed and the city demolished, when the Tyrians removed to at Tyburn. The ticket gave exemption from serving on juries and parochial oflices. The act was repealed in 1818.

an opposite island, and built a new and magnificent city. “Tyburnia" (a N. W. suburb of London) was built It was taken by Alexander with much difficulty, after between 1839 and 1850, on the green fields and nursery island to the continent by a mole.-Strabo. Tyre was

a siege of seven months, July, 332 B.C. He joined the grounds in Paddington belonging to the see of London. Tyler's Insurrection, in opposition to the poll- 3 April, 1799; and by the allied fleet, during the war

captured by the Crusaders, 7 July, 1124; by the French, tax imposed on all persons above 15, 5 Nov, 1380. One of the collectors, acting with indecent rudeness to Wat against Mehemet Ali, 1841. Tyler's daughter, was struck dead by the father, June,

Tyre, ERA OF, began on 19 Oct. 125 B.C., with the 1381. His neighbors took arms, and in a short time al- month of Hyperberetæus. The months were the same most the whole of the population of the southern and east

as those used in the Grecian era, and the year is similar ern counties rose, extorting freedom from their lords, and

to the Julian year. To reduce this era to ours, subtract plundering. On 12 June, 1381, they gathered upon Black- 124; and if the given year be less than 125, deduct it heath to the number of 100,000 men, and on 14 June from 125, and the remainder will be the year before murdered Simon of Sudbury, archbishop of Canterbury,

Christ. and sir Robert Hales, the royal treasurer. The king,

Tyrol, the eastern part of ancient Rhætia, now a Richard II., invited Tyler to a parley, which took place province of the Austrian empire, was ceded to the house on the 15th at Smithfield, where the latter addressed the of Hapsburg in 1359 by Margaret, the heiress of the last king in a menacing manner, now and again lifting up his count. It became an appanage of the younger (or Tyrol) sword. On this the mayor, Walworth, stunned Tyler branch of the imperial house, which came to the throne with a blow of his mace, and one of the king's knights in the person of Maximilian II., in 1618. The French despatched him. Richard temporized with the multi- conquered the Tyrol in 1805, and united it to Bavaria ; tude by promising a charter, and thus led them out of but in 1809 an insurrection broke out, headed by Andrew the city, when sir R. Knolly's and a band of knights Hofer, an innkeeper, who drove the Bavarians out of the attacked and dispersed them with great slaughter. The Tyrol, thoroughly defeated some French detachments, insurrection in Norfolk and Suffolk was subducal by the but laid down his arms at the treaty of Vienna. He was bishop of Norwich, and 1500 of the rebels were executed. subsequently accused of corresponding with the Aus

Tynemouth (Northumberland). Here are remains trians, captured and sent to Mantua, and there shot by of a monastery built by king Edwin, 625; destroyed by trian emperor ennobled his family in 1819

, and erected

order of the French government, 20 Feb. 1810. The Austhe Danes ; rebuilt by king Egfrid, 671-85; often raraged by Danes, 795–993 ; refounded and made a castle, his statue in Innspruck in 1834. The Tyrolese riflemen by Robert de Mowbray, 1090; plundered by Scots, 1316 were very effective in the Italian war in 1859. and 1389; fortified for Charles I., 1642; taken by Scots, Tyrone (near Ulster, N. Ireland), formerly the ter1614; finally ruined, 1665; and made a depot, 1783, The ritories of the O'Neills, and the seat of the insurrection chapel has been restored. Tynemouth was made a

in 1641. borough, returning one member to parliament, 1832. An Tyrrheni included the ancient Etruscans, and other aquarium, winter-garden, etc., was opened 27 Aug. 1878. I tribes, said to have come from Lydia, Asia Minor,


Ubiquitarians or UBIQUARIANS, a small German | John Macdonald, a footman, who wrote his own life, informs sect, originated by John Brentius about 1560, who as

us that he had a fine silk umbrella, which he brought from

Spain; but he could not with any comfort to himself use it, serted that the body of Christ was present everywhere the people calling out, Frenchman! why don't you get a (ubique).

coach ?' ” The hackney - coachmen and chairmen were

clamorous against their rival. The footman says he "per. Uhlans, the German lancers, very effective in the sisted for three months, till they took no further notice of war in 1870.

this novelty. Foreigners began to use tbeirs; and then the

English." 1778. Ukraine (Polish for a frontier), a vast fertile plain in Russia, ceded to the Cossacks by Poland in 1672, and

"Uncle Tom's Cabin," a story by Mrs. H. Beecher obtained by Russia in 1682. The country was divided, Stowe, published in portions in a newspaper in 1850 ; Poland baving the west side of the Dnieper, and Russia complete in March, 1852 ; setting forth the evils of negro the east. The whole country was assigned to Russia by slavery. The sale was enormous, and the translations the treaty of partition in 1795.

numerous, and it greatly contributed to emancipation.

The rev. Josiah Henson, sometimes improperly called Ulm, in Würtemberg, S. Germany, where a PEACE the original “ Uncle Tom," was received by the queen at was signed, 3 July, 1620, by which Frederick V. lost Buckingham palace, 2 March, 1877, and was much beneBohemia (having been driven from it previously). Ulm fited by his visit to Britain. was taken by the French in 1796. After a battle between the French and Austrians, in which the latter,

Unction, EXTREME, see Anointing. under gen. Mack, were defeated with dreadful loss by Undulatory Theory of Light supposes a promarshal Ney, Ulm surrendered with 28,000 men, the gressive wave-like motion between the eye and the luflower of the Austrian army, 17-20 Oct. 1805.

minous body seen. It is said to have been suggested by

Francisco Grimaldi about 1665, and was propounded by Ulphilas's Bible, see under Bible.

Robert Hooke and Huyghens, about 1672 ; opposed by Ulster, the N. division of Ireland. After the death Newton; but confirmed by Thomas Young by experiof Strongbow, 1176, John de Courcy was made earl of ments in 1801, and is now generally adopted; see Ulster; Hugh de Lacy was earl, 1243; and Walter de Emission and Light. Burgh, 1264; whose descendant, Elizabeth, married Uniformity Acts. That of 2 and 3 Edward VI., Lionel, son of Edward III., 1352. He thus became earl 15 Jan. 1549, ordained that the order of divine worship of Ulster. In 1611, the British colonization of the for- drawn up by Cranmer and others, “ with the aid of the feited lands (termed the Ulster settlements or pluntations) Holy Ghost,” should be the only one used after 20 May. began, much land being granted to the corporation of The penalties for refusing to use it were fine and imLondon ; see Irish Society. The consequent rebellion prisonment. This act was confirmed in 1532; repealed of the Irish chieftains, Roger More, Phelim O'Neale, by Mary, 1554; and re-enacted by Elizabeth in 1559. McGuire, earl of Inniskillen, and others, broke out on 23 The act of Uniformity, 14 Charles II. c. 4, was passed in Oct. 1641 (see Ireland).—Ulster King-at-Arms appointed 1662. It enjoined uniformity in matters of religion, and for Ireland, 1553.-By the ancient “ Ulster tenant-right,” | obliged all clergy to subscribe to the thirty-nine articles, the outgoing tenant of a farm received from his successor and use the same form of worship, and the same book a sum of money for the privilege of occupancy. A modi- of common prayer. Its enforcement on 24 Aug. 1662, fied form of this right was adopted in the Irish land act, termed Black Bartholomew's day, caused, it is said, uppassed 8 July, 1870.

wards of 2000 ministers to quit the church of England. Ultramontanists (from ultra montes, beyond the This day was commemorated by dissenters in 1862. The mountains), a term originally applied in France to those Act of Uniformity Amendment act, whereby shortened who upheld the extreme authority of the pope in oppo- services were authorized, and other changes made, was sition to the freedom of the Gallican church, which had passed 18 July, 1872. The Uniformity of Process act, been secured by various bulls, and especially by the con- which made many law changes, was passed 23 May, cordat of 15 July, 1801. Ultramontanists now are those 1832. who maintain the official infallibility of the bishop of Uniforms. Military uniforms were first used in Rome.

France" in a regular manner" by Louis XIV. about 1668. Ulundi (Zululand, South Africa). On 4 July, 1879, In England the uniform was soon afterwards adopted the Zulus, commanded by their king, Cetywayo, who in the military service, but with little analogy to the had refused the conditions of peace, were totally defeated modern dress; see under Nary. near here by lord Chelmsford, after a severe conflict. Unigenitus, see Bull. Capt. Wyatt-Edgell, 17 lancers, and 9 men were killed, Uninflammable Salts. At the British Associaand about 53 wounded. The British were attacked in tion, 15 Sept. 1859, MM. Versmann and Oppenheim anthe open country by the Zulus, who enveloped our hol. nounced their discovery that fabrics steeped in solutions low square and charged on all sides up to within 60 yards, of tungstate of soda, or sulphate or phosphate of ammowhen they broke and fled under the heavy fire. They nia, burn without flame. were pursued and routed by cavalry. About 23,000

Union Chapel, Islington, rebuilt; opened 5 Dec. Zulus engaged, 1500 killed. The British showed much firmness and the Zulus displayed great courage.


1877; was termed a “congregational cathedral.” Rev. royal kraal at Ulundi and other military kraals were

Dr. H. Allon, minister, 1852. burned.

Union Chargeability Act, providing for the

better distribution of the charge for relieving the poor Umbrella, described in early dictionaries as portable penthouse to carry in a person's hand to screen in unions, was passed in June, 1865. One object of the him from violent rain or heat."' Umbrellas appear in act is the improvement of the dwellings of agricultural

laborers. the carvings at Persepolis. Niebuhr saw a great Arabian prince returning from a mosque, he and each of his family Union Jack. The original flag of England was having a large umbrella carried by their side. Old China- the banner of St. George, i. e., white with a red cross, ware shows the Chinese shaded by umbrellas. It is said which, 12 April, 1606 (three years after James I. ascendthat the first person who generally used an umbrella in ed the throne), was incorporated with the banner of the streets of London was the benevolent Jonas Hanway, Scotland, i. e., blue with a white diagonal cross. This who died in 1786.

combination obtained the name of "Union Jack," in al.

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21 Feb.

lusion to the union with Scotland; and the word Jack is rian about 1730. They were not included in the Tolerconsidered a corruption of the word Jacobus, Jacques, or ation act till 1813. There were 229 congregations in James. This arrangement continued until the union England in 1851. Their tenets resembled those of the with Ireland, 1 Jan. 1801, when the banner of St. Patrick, Arians and Socinians (which see). The Unitarian mari. e., white with a diagonal red cross, was amalgamated riage-bill was passed June, 1827. In Dec. 1833, by a with it, and forms the present Union flag.

decision of the vice-chancellors, the Unitarians (as such) Union of Calmar, 1397; OF UTRECHT, 1579.

lost the possession of lady Hewley's charity; the decisUnion of England and Scotland by the ac

ion was affirmed on appeal in 1842. British and Foreign cession of James VI. of Scotland as James I. of England, 1825; meeting in London, 13 June, 1878.

Unitarian Association founded, to promote Unitarianism, 24 March, 1603. The legislative union of the two kingdoms (as Great Britain) was attempted, but failed in

United Brethren, see Moravians. 1604 and 1670; in the reign of Anne, coinmissioners

United Irishmen, a political society which met were appointed, the articles discussed, and, notwithstand- secretly, to establish a republic, became active in 1795. ing a great opposition made by the Tories, every article Theobald Wolf Tone, the founder, was captured by sir in the union was approved by a great majority, first in John Warren in the Hoche, one of six frigates destined the house of commons, and afterwards by the peers, 22 to support the rebellion, in Oct. 1798. He anticipated July, 1706; was ratified by the Scottish parliament, 16 his punishment by suicide in prison, Nov. 1798. Jan. 1707, and became law 1 May, same year.

United Kingdom. England and Wales were Union of Great Britain and Ireland effected united in 1283; Scotland to both in 1707; and the Brit2 July, 1800.

ish realm was named the United Kingdom on the union Proposed in the Irish parliament.

22 Jan. 1799

of Ireland, 1 Jan. 1801; see Union.— The UNITED KIxGRejected by the commons of Ireland, the votes being

DOM ALLIANCE, for the total suppression of liquor 105 for, to 106 against, the union..

traffic, was founded 1 June, 1853; see Permissive Bill. The English house of commons on the same question The subscribed manifesto of this alliance occupied a

divided : 140, 141, and 149 for union; against it, 15, 25, and 28 respectively..

page of the Times, 11 Dec. 1871. United Kingdom Lord Castlereagh detailed his plan of the union, in the Beneficent Association, founded 1863, grants annuities to Irish house of lords, founded on the resolutions of

poor persons of a better class. the British parliament thereon...

5 Feb. 1800 Votes of the commons agreeing to it, 161 against 115, 17

United Presbyterian Church, in Scotland, was Feb.; and again, 152 against 108...

formed 13 May, 1847; see Burghers and Relief Church. The houses of lords and commons wait on the lord-lieu.

tenant with the articles of union .. ..27 March, United Provinces (Holland, Zealand, Utrecht,
The act passed in the British parliament........2 July, Friesland, Groningen, Overyssell, and Guelderland), the
The imperial united standard first displayed at the
Tower of London, and upon Bedford Tower, Dublin

deputies of which met at Utrecht, 23 Jan. 1759, and Castle, on the act of legislative union becoming an

signed a treaty for their mutual defence; see Holland. operative law...

1 Jan. 1801

United Service Institution, Whitehall, Lon(For attempts to dissolve this union, see Repeal.)

don, was established in 1830. Its museum contains Union Relief Act, passed in 1862, continued in many remarkable military and naval relics. The lect1863, to enable boards of guardians of certain unions to ures given are reported in its journal, which first apobtain temporary aid to meet the extraordinary expendi-peared in 1857. The United Serrice Gazette first pubture for relief occasioned by the distress in the cotton lished 9 Feb. 1833. manufacturing districts.

United States of America were so styled by the Union Repeal Association, IRELAND, see Re- congress of the revolted British provinces, 4 July, 1776. peal of the Union.

Their flag was declared to be thirteen stripes, alternately Unionists. A Spanish political party, long headed red and white, and thirteen stars in a blue field, corby marshal Serrano, In 1869 they advocated the elec- responding with the then number of states of the Union, tion of the duc de Montpensier as king; see Progresistas 14 June, 1777. The government of the United States is and Spain.

a representative democracy. Each of the states has a Unions, see Poor and Trades.

separate and independent legislature for the administra

tion of its local affairs, but all are legislated for, in matUnit, a gold coin, value 20s., issued by James I. in ters of imperial policy, by two houses of congress: the 1604.

senate, whose members are elected for six years, and the Unitarians, termed Socinians from Lælius Socinus, house of representatives, elected for two years, to which who founded a sect in Italy about 1546. They profess delegates are sent from the different states. Representato believe in and worship one only self-existent God, in tion in the senate is by states, without regard to popuopposition to those who worship the Trinity in unity. lation; in the house of representatives the representaThey consider Christ to have been a mere man, and do tion is in proportion to population. The president of the not admit the need of an atonement or of the complete United States is elected every fourth year by electors inspiration of the Scriptures. Michael Servetus printed chosen by the free voice of the people, each state being a tract in disparagement of the doctrine of the Trinity. entitled to as many electoral votes as it has senators In 1553, proceeding to Naples through Geneva, Calvin and representatives in congress. The election of Abrainduced the magistrates to arrest him on a charge of ham Lincoln as president on 4 Nov. 1860 was followed blasphemy and heresy. Servetus, refusing to retract his by the secession of eleven slave-holding states, and led to opinions, was condemned to the flames, which sentence the great civil war, 1861–5; see Confederates, and below. was carried into execution, 27 May, 1553. Servetus is

The thirteen states of the Union at the declaration of inde. numbered among those anatomists who made the nearest

pendence in 1776; those with a * prefixed seceded from the approach to the doctrine of the circulation of the blood, federal government in 1860 and 1861, aud were subdued in before Harvey established that doctrine. Matthew Ha

New Hampshire.

Delaware. mont was burned at Norwich for asserting Christ not to


Maryland. be the Son of God, 1 June, 1579. The Unitarians were Rhode Island.

* Virginia numerous in Transylvania in the seventeenth century;


* North Carolina. New York.

* South Carolina, they came to England about 1700, and many of the

New Jersey.

* Georgia. original English Presbyterian churches became Unita


(Seo separate articles.


1776.. 1800. 1510.

POPULATION. (See Slavery in America.)
Slavce. Total.

Slares. Total.
2,614,300 | 1830..

.2,009,050 12,858,670 1860 .... 896,849 5,309,756 1840..

17,069,453 1870.... .1,191,364 7,239,903 | 1850.

.3,204,313 23,191,876 | 1880...

S'aves. Total. .3,952, 801 31,415,980

38,558,371 50,155,783

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