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Chatham resigned his post of master-general of the trusted to Suetonius Paulinus, who caused desoordnance, to prevent greater disgrace; but the

lating wars

58-61 policy of ministers in planning the expedition was,

Conquests by Julius Frontinus


The Bilures totally defeated nevertheless, approved. The following epigram, of The Roman, Julius Agricola, commands in Britain.

78 which various readings exist, appeared at the Bran ab Llyr, the Blessed, lies alut,

80 The Druidical class gradually dissolved by the influence of Christianity in

300-400 “Lord Chatham for the warrior eurl) with [his) sabre The Britons defeat the Saxons

447-448 drawn,

Vortigern king Stood waiting for sir Richard Strachan;

The renowned arthur elected king


500 Sir Richarı, longing (or coger) to be at 'em,

Defeats Saxons Stood waiting for the earl of Chatham."

Cadwallawn, king of 'Gwynedd, defeated and "slain by the Saxons at Denisburn

about 634 WALDECK AND PYRMONT, united Ger- Reign of Roderie the Great

He unites the petty states into one principality; man principalities, established in 1682. The late

his death reigning family claim descent from the Saxon hero, Division of Wales-into north, south, and centrai Witikind, who flourished about 772. Prince George (or Powys-land). Victor, born 14. Jan. 1831, succeeded his father, The Welshi princes submit to Alfred

885 George, 15 May, 1845; abdicated; and on 22 Oct.

The Danes land in Anglesey.

900 1867, the states approved a treaty of annexation, Laws enacted by Howel Dha, prince of all wales, and the administration was transferred to Prussia, I

Athelstan sublues the Welsh Jan. 1868. Population in Dec. 1867, 756,807. Civil wars at his death.

about 948

Great battle between the sons of Howel Dha and WALDENSES (also called Valdenses, Vallen the sons of Idwal Voel; the latter victorious

about ses, and Vaudois), a sect inhabiting the Cottian Edgar invades Wales .

973 Alps, derives its name, according to some authors,

Danes invadle Wales; lay Anglesey waste, &c. from Peter de Waldo, of Lyons (1170). They had


Devastations committed by Edwin, the son of a translation of the Bible, and allied themselves to the Eineon Albigenses, whose persecution led to the establish the country reduced by Aedan, prince of North ment of the Holy Ottice or Inquisition. See dlbigen. Jedan, the usurper, slain in battle by Llewelyn ses.

The Waldenses settled in the valleys of
Piedmont about 1375, but were frequently dreadfully William 1. claims feudal authority over Wales

Part of Wales laid waste by the forces of Harold persecuted, especially in the 17th century, when Rhys ab Owain kills king Bleddyn, 1073; defeated

1070 Charles I. of England interceded for them (1627-9) and slain

• 1077 and Oliver Cromwell (1655-6) obtained them some Ravaying invasion of Hugh, earl of Chester

1079-80 degree of toleration. They were permitted to have

Invasion of the Irish and Scots

1080 a church at Turin, Dec. 1853. In March, 1868,

William I. invadles Wales

1081 Battle of Llechryd

1087 it was stated that there were in Italy 28 ordained [In this contlict the sons of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn Waldensian ministers, and 30 other teachers.

were slain by Rhys ab Tewdwr, the reigning

prince.) WALES, Cambria, Cymru, the land of the Rhys ab Tewdwr slain ; S. Wales conquered by the Cymry, called by the Romans Britannia Secunda.


1090 Welsh' and Wales are corruptions of Teutonic

Invasion of the English under William II.


The settlement in Wales of a colony of Flemings 1106 epithets applied to foreigners, especially Gauls. Violent seizure of Nest, wife of Gerald «le Windsor, After the Roman emperor Honorius gave up Britain, by Owain, son of Cadwgan ab Bled lyn

1108 Vortigern was elected king of South Britain. lle Cariligan conquered by Strongbow

1109 invited over the Saxons to defend his country Calw an assassinated against the Picts and Scots; but the Saxons per

Grullidel al Riny's lays clain to the sovereignty

II13 fidiously sent for reinforcements, consisting of

Another body of Flemings settle in Pembrokeshire Saxons, Danes, and Ingles, by which they made {The posterity of these settlers are still distinguished themselves masters of South Britain. Many of the

from the ancient British population by their lanBritons retired to Wales, and defended themselves

guage, manners, and customs). against the Saxons, in their inaccessible mountains, civil war in South Wales and Powysland leads to about 447: In tliis state Wales remained uncon

the subjugation of the country by the English ;

Henry I. erects castles in Wales. quered till Henry II. subdued South Wales in 1157;

· 1114 & seq.

Owain killed in battle with Gerald de Windsor 1116 and in 1282 Edward I. entirely reduced the whole Revolt of Owen Gwynedd on the death of llen. I. ; country, putting an end to its independence by the part of South Wales laid waste

• 1135 death of Llewelyn, the last prince.* In 1284 the The English defeated in several battles

1136 queen gave birth to a son at Caernarvon, whom Ed- Strongbow, earl of Pembroke, invested with the ward styled prince of Wales, now title of the heir to

powers of a count palatine in Pembroke

1138 the crown of Great Britain. Wales was united and

Henry II. invades Wales, receives a stont resistance

from Owen Gwynedıl, but sublues S. Wales incorporated with England by act of parliament, Confederacy of the princes of Wales for the recovery

1157 1536; see Britain.

of their independence


Prince Mauve said to have enigrated to America, Ostorius Scapula, proprætor of Britain, defeats the

about 1169 Cymry 50 Anglesey devastated

• 1173 The supreme authority' in Britannica Secunda in: The crusades preached in Wales by Baldwin, archi

bishop of Canterbury


The earl of Chester's inroad into North Wales. * The statute of Wales, enacted at Rhuddlan, 19 March, King John invades Wales, laying waste a great part 1284 (or March, 1283), alleres that--"Divine Proviilence of the principalities; exacts tribute and allehas now removed all obstacles, and transferred wholly giance and entirely to the king's dominion the land of Wales and The pope incites the Welsh to resist John its inhabitants, heretofore subjeet unto hin in feudal Revolt of the Flemings. right." The ancient laws were to be preserved in civil Llewelyn, prince of North Wales, commits great causes ; but the law of inheritance was to be changed, ravages ; overcomes Henry III.

1228 and the English criminal law to be put in force. Annals The earl of Pembroke and other nobles join Llewelyn of England

against Henry III. 1233; a truce




I211 I212 1220

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Feb. 1797

13 Oct.

11 Dec.

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Prince David ravages the marches, &c.

1244 Pembroke castle taken ; colonel Poyer shot, 25 Apr.* 16:49 Invasion of Henry III.


The lords marchers court suppressed Anglesey cruelly devastated by the English

Sept. 1245

“Charitable society of Ancient Britons" and Welsh Llewelyn ap Griffith, the last prince 1246 charity schools, established

1715 Welsh princes combine against the English 1250 The French land in Pembrokeshire, and are made Great invasion of the English; threatened extermi

prisoners nation of the Welsh, compelled to retreat with Rebecca or “Becca" riots broke out against tollloss.

• 1257 gates, Feb.; an old woman, a toll-keeper, was Welsh offers of peace refused


murdered, 10 Sept. ; many persons were tried and Llewelyn's incursions into English territory. 1263 punished

Oct. 1843 Reported conference between him and Simon de Cambrian Archæological Association founded 1846 Montfort against the Plantagenets


Subscriptions begun for a university in Wales Dec. 1863 Llewelyn does homage to Henry III. for a treaty A national unsectarian University college at Sept. 1267 Aberystwyth opened

9 Oct 1872 Edward the I. summons Llewelyn to Westminster; Great strike of colliers in S. Wales, 1 Jan. : ends on his refusal to come, deposes him, 1276: and


27 March, 1873 invades Wales

June, 1277 Llewelyn submits and obtains good terms 10 Nov.

SOVEREIGNS OF WALES. He marries Eleanor de Montfort

630. Cadwallawn, king of Gwynedd. The sons of Grufydd treacherously drowned in the 634. Cadwaladyr, his son.

river Dee, by the earl Warrenne and Roger 661. Idwal, son. Mortimer; great insurrection

1281 728. Rhodri, or Roderic; heroic defender. Hawarden castle taken by surprise by Llewelyn and 755. Cynan and Howel, sons; incessant war.

his brother David, 21 March ; they destroy Flint 818. Mervyn ; son-in-law, and Essylt, (wife). and Rhuddlan castles. Fruitless negotiations 844. Roderic the Great, son.

Nov. 1282 Great battle between Llewelyn and the English:

PRINCES OF GWYNEDD OR NORTH WALES AND FREQUESTLY Llewelyn slain, after the battle, by Adam Frankton


877. Anarawd, son of Roderic. Prince David surrenders, and is executed


915. Idwal Voel. Wales finally subdued by Edward I.

943. Howel Dha the Good, prince of all Wales. The first English prince of Wales, son of Edward, 948. Iefan and lago; sons of Idwal.

born at Caernarvon castle (see Princes of Wales, 972. Howel ap lefan, the Bad. P: 715)

25 April, 1284 984. Cadwallon, brother. Statute of Wales (see p. 713) enacted 19 March, 1284 985. Meredith ap Owen ap Howel Dha. Many insurrections suppressed and the leaders 992. Idwal ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel : able, brave. executed

1287-1320 998. Aedan, a usurper. Great rebellion of Owain Glyndwr, or Owen

1015. Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, good sovereign. Glendower (descendant of the last prince, 1023. Iago ap Idwal ap Meyric. Llewelyn), commences

1400 1039.

Griffith ap Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt; killed.
Radnor and other places taken by Owain Glyndwr 1401 1067. Bleddyn.
Allies with the Scots and the Percies : besieges 1073. Trahaern ap Caradoc.

1402 1079. Griffith ap Cynan; able; warlike; generous. And seizes Harlech castle

1404 1137. Owain Gwynedd ; energetic, successful warrior. Makes a treaty with France

10 May, 1169. Howel, son. Harlech castle retaken by the English forces 1407 1169. David ap Owain Gwynedd, brother; married sister Loses his allies by their defeat at Bramham inoor

of Henry II

19 Feb. 1408 1194. Llewelyn, the Great. Ravages the English territories

1409 1240. David ap Llewelyn. Refuses to ask for terms or submit; dies 21 Sept. 1415 1246. Llewelyn ap Griffith, last prince of the blood; slab His son submits

24 Feb. 1416

after battle, 11 Dec., 1282 Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry vi., takes refuge in Harlech castle


1459 Town of Denbigh burnt


1284. Edward Plantagenet (afterwards king Edward II) The earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., lands

son of Edward I., born in Caernarvon Castle a in Pembroke, and is aided by the Welsh Aug. 1485

the 25th April, 1284. It is asserted that immePalatine jurisdiction in Wales abolished by Henry

diately after his birth he was presented by his VIII.


father to the Welsh chieftains as their future Monmouth made an English county; counties of

sovereign, the king holding up the royal infant Brecknock, Denbigh, and Radnor formed


in his arms, and saying, in the Welsh language, Act for “laws and justice to be adininistered in Wales in same form as in England,” 27 Henry

* At the commencement of the civil war, Pembroke VIII.

castle was the only Welsh fortress in the possession of Wales incorporated into England by parliament


the parliament, and it was entrusted to the command of Divided into twelve counties


col. Laugharne. In 1648, he, and colonels Powel and Dr. Ferrar, bishop of St. David's,

burnt at the stake Poyer, embraced the cause of the king, and msah for heresy

30 March, 1555 Pembroke their head quarters; after the defeat as Lewis Owain, a baron of the exchequer, attacked St. Fagan's, they retired to the castle, followed by an and murdered while on his assize tour

army led by Cromwell. They capitulated, after having The bible and prayer-book ordered to be translated endured great sufferings from want of water. Langharse,

into Welsh, and divine service to be performed in Powel, and Poyer were tried by a court-martial, and that language

condemned to death ; but Cromwell having been indoel Welsh bible printed

to spare the lives of two of them, it was ordered that First congregation of dissenters assembled in Wales; they should draw lots for the favour, and three pares

Vavasour Powel apprehended while preaching 1620 were folded up, on two of which were written the penis, Beaumaris castle garrisoned for king Charles I. 1642 “Life given by God;" the third was left blank. The Powys castle taken by sir Thos. Myddelton

Oct. 1644

latter was drawn by colonel Poyer, who was shot Dr. Laud, formerly bishop of St. David's, beheaded accordingly on the above-mentioned day. Peurant on Tower hill

10 Jan. 1645 + WALES, PRINCESS OF. This title was held, sorte Surrender of Hawarden castle to the parliament authors say, during the early period of her life, by the general Mytton

princess Mary of England, elulostaughter of Henry VII, Charles I. takes refuge in Denbigh .

and afterwards queen Maryl She was created, they state, Rhuddlan castle surrenders.

by her father princess of Wales, in order to conciliate the Harlech castle surrenders to Cromwell's army under Welsh people and keep alive the name, and was the only Mytton

1647 princess of Wales in her own right; a rank she enjoyed Battle of st. Fagan's; the Welsh defeated by coli until the birth of a son to Henry, who was afterwards Horton, Cromwell's lieutenant

8 May, 1648 Edward VI., born in 1537. This is however denied by Beaumaris castle surrenders to Cromwell


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1562 1588


Eich Dym," literally in English, “This is your WALKING, see Pedestrianism.
man," but signifying, “This is your countryman
and king." See, however, Ich Dicu.

WALLACE MONUMENT, at Abbey Craig, 1301. Edward of Carnarvon nade prince of Wales and near Stirling, was inaugurated 27 Aug. 1869, and earl of Chester.

soon after given into the charge of the magistrates 1343. Edward the Black Prince. 1376. Richard, his son (afterwards Richard II.).

of Stirling. It cost about 13,000l. The telescope 1399. Henry (afterwards Henry V.), son of Henry IV. there was presented by the Scotch inhabitants of 1454. Edward, son of Henry VI. ; 'slain at Tewkesbury, Ipswich 24 June, 1865.

4 May, 14-1. 1471. Edward (afterwards Edward V.), son of Edward WALLACHIA, see Danubian Principalities. IV.

On 23 Dec. 1861, the union of Wallachia and 5483. Edward, son of Richard III. ; die in 1484. Moldavia, under the name of Roumania, was pro1489. Arthur, son of Henry VII ; died in 1502. 1503. Henry, his brother (afterwards Henry VIII.).

claimed at Jassy and Bucharest. Edward, his son (afterwards Edward VI.) was duke of Cornwall, and not prince of Wales,

WALLER'S PLOT. Edmund Waller, the 1610. Henry Frederic, son of James I. ; died 6 Nov. 1612. poet, and others, conspired to disarm the London 1616. Charles, his brother (afterwards Charles I.). militia and let in the royalists, May, 1643. The

Charles, his son (afterwards Charles II.), never plan was detected and punished, June-July, 1643; created prince of Wales.

Waller betrayed his confederates, and was suffered 1714. George Augustus (afterwards George II.).

to emigrate. 1729. Frederic Lewis, his son; died 20 March, 1751. 1751. George, his son (afterwards George III.).

WALLIS'S VOYAGE. Captain Wallis 1762. George, his son (afterwards George IV.): born

sailed from England on his voyage round the world, 12 Aug. 1841. Albert-Edward, son of queen Victoria : born , Nov.

26 July, 1766; and returned to England, 19 May, Baptized, king of Prussia a sponsor, 15 Jan. 1842. 1768. Travelled on the continent, and studied at Oxford and Edinburgh, in 1859.

WALLOONS, descendants of the ancient Visited Canada, with the dignity of a viceroy, and

inhabitants of the Low Countries. Some of them the United States, 1860.

fled to England from the persecution of the duke of Entered the university of Cambridge in Jan. : Alva, the governor of the Low Countries for Philip attended the camp at the Curragh, Dublin, July

II. of Spain, 1566. A church was given to them by to Sept. ; opened New Middle Temple Library, queen Elizabeth at Sandwich, and they still have one

31 Oct. 1861. Ordered to be prayed for Albert-Edward,

at Canterbury. Their language is considered to be instead of Albert, 8 Jan. ; visited the continent,

based on that of the ancient Gauls.
Syria, and Egypt, March-June; Germany and
Italy, Aug-Dec. 1862.

WALLS, see Roman Walls, China.
Admitted to the house of peers, 5 Feb. ; a privy
councillor, 8 Dec. 1863.

WALNUT-TREE has long existed in EngMarried to princess Alexandra of Denmark, 10 land.* The black walnut-tree (Juglans nigra) was

March, 1863
Visited Denmark and Sweden, Sept.-Oct. 1864 ; | before 1629.

brought to these countries from North America
Russia, Nov.-Dec. 1866.
Visited International Exhibition, Paris, May, 1867. WALPOLE'S ADMINISTRATIONS.
Visited Ireland ; arrived at Dublin, 15 April, 1868.

Mr. Walpole (afterwards sir Robert, and earl of Installed knight of St. Patrick, 18 April, 1868. Opened Leeds Fine Arts Exhibition, 19 May, 1868.

Oxford) was born in 1676; became secretary-at-war With the Princess at Glasgow, laid foundation of in 1708; was expelled the house of commons on a new university, 8 Oct. 1868.

charge of misappropriating the public money, 1711; Sail for the continent, 17 Nov. ; call at Paris ; committed to the Tower, 17 Jan. 1712; became

arrive at Copenhagen, 29 Nov: ; visit Berlin, | first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the Examine the Suez canal, Feb. : arrive at Constan- exchequer in Oet. 1715. He resigned, on a disunion tinople, 1 April; at Sebastopol, 13-17 April ;

of the cabinet, in 1717, bringing in the sinking at Athens, 19-24 April: land at Dover, 13 May 1869. fund bill on the day of his resignation. On the Inaugurated Victoria Embankment (Thames) 13 earl of Sunderland retiring in 1721, he resumed his July,

office, and held till Feb. 1742. He died 18 Opened Workinen's International

Exhibition, March, 1745.
Islington, 16 July, 1870.
Attacked with typhoid fever, about 19 Nov. 1871; SECOND WALPOLE ADMINISTRATION (APRIL, 1721).

greatest danger, 6-13 Dec, ; ameniment began Sir Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury.
14 Dec, ; last bulletin, 13 Jan. 1872.

Thomas, lord Parker, created earl of Macclesfield, lord Went to St. Paul's with the queen for thanksgiving, chancellor.

27. Feb.; sailed for the continent, 11 March; Henry, lord Carleton (succeeded by William, duke of visited the Pope, 27 March.

Devonshire), lord president. Opened new grammar school at Yarmouth, 6 June; Evelyn, duke of Kingston (succeeded by lord Trevor), the East London Museum, 24 June, 1872.

privy seal. At the opening of the great exhibition at Vienna, James, earl of Berkeley, first lord of the admiralty. 1 May, 1873.

Charles (viscount Townshend), and John, lord Carteret Issue: Albert-Victor, born 8 Jan. 1864 ;

(the latter succeeded by the duke of Newcastle), sucre

tarics of state.
George-Frederick, born 3 June, 1865;
Louise Victoria, born 20 Feb). 1867.

Duke of Marlborough (succeeded by the earl of Cadogan),

Alexandra, born 6 July, 1868.
Maud, born 26 Nov. 1869.

George Treby (succeeded by Henry Pelham), secretary-of-
Alexander John, born 7 April, died 8 April, 1871.

Viscount Torrington, &c. WALHALLA or VALHALLA (the Hall of Glory), a temple near Ratisbon, erected by Louis, * Near Welwyn, in Hertfordshire, there was the largest king of Bavaria, to receive the statues and walnut-tree on record; it was felled in 1627, and from it memorials of the great men of Germany, com

were cut nineteen loads of planks; and as much was

sold to a gunsmith in London as cost 1ol. carriage ; menced 18 Oct. 1830, and inaugurated 18 Oct. 1842, The name is derived from the fabled meeting-place branches. When standing it covered 76 poles of ground;

besides which there were thirty loads of roots and of Scandinavian heroes after death,

a space equal to 2299 square yards, statute measure.


WALRUS. One placed in the Zoological Gar- ' ratt-lane, near this place, a mock election of a mari dens in 1853 lived a few days only; another was of Garratt was formerly held, after every general eleplaced there in the autumn of 1867, and died 25 tion of parliament, to which Foote's dramatic piez, Dec.

The Mayor of Garratt (1763), gave no small izle WALTZ, the popular German national dance,

brity. was introduced into England by baron Neuman and

WAR, called by Erasmus " the malads & others in 1813. See Ruikes.

princes. Osymandyas of Egypt, the first warlike WANDEWASH (S. India), Here the French, king, passed into Asia, and conquered Bartrin, under Lally, were severely defeated by colonel Eyre 2100 B.C. Usher. He is supposed by some to be Coote, 22 Jan. 1760.

the Osiris of the priests. It is computed that, up to

the present time, no less than 6,800,000,000 of 3 WANDSWORTH, near London. Here was ' have perished on the field of battle ; ste Batiks, organised a "presbytery,” 20 Nov. 1572. In Gar- i and Secretaries.



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1092 France
1422 1471 | Spain,

1588. Franie

1118 Scotland.

1486 Spain

1024 Scotland.

1139 France




1020 France

1186 France

• 1512


• 1194 . 1195

1527 Spain.


1600 France

1216 Scotland


1542 France France

1234 Scotland

1546 Denmark

1665. France

1 294
1299 Scotland.

1550 Holland

1666 Scotland


• 1323

1549 .
1550 Algiers

1659. Scotland

1328 France



1072 France

1339 -
1360 | Scotland
1557. 1560 France

1089 France

1420' France


Peace of Ryswick, zo Sept. 1997 War of the Succession, commenced 4 May, 1702. Peace Edward IV. had stood godfather, was persuaded ty of Utrecht, 13 March, 1713.

Margaret, duchess of Burgundy, sister to Richard III., War with Spain, 16 Dec. 1718. Peace concluded, 1721. War; Spanish Wur, 23 Oct. 1739. Peace of Aix-la-Cha

to personate her nephew Richard, Edran Vis pelle, 30 April, 1748.

brother, which he did tirst in Ireland, where he War with France, 31 March, 1744. Closed also on 30 landed, 1492. The imposture was discovered by April, 1748.

Henry VII. 1493. Some writers consider that are War; the Seven Years' Wor, 9 June, 1756, Peace of Paris, beck was not an impostor.

10 Feb. 1763. War with Spain, 4. Jan. 1762. General peace, 19 Feb.

Warheek attempted to land in Kent, with 600 lira, 139 1763.

were taken prisoners, and executed, July, 1495 War with the United States of North America, 14 July,

Recommended by the king of France to Jalues IT 1774 Peace of Paris, 30 Nov. 1782.

Scotland, who gave him his kinswoman, loni Huntkis War with France, 6 Feb. 1778. Peace of Paris, 20 Jan.

daughter, in marriage, when he assumed the utbe con 1783

Richard IV. James IV, invaded England in his fabuit, War with Spain, 17 April, 1780. Closed same time, 20 1496. Jan. 1783

Left Scotland, and went to Bodinin, in Cornwall, where War with Holland, 21 Dec. 1780. Peace signed, 2 Sept.

3000 joined him, Sept. 1497. 1783.

On the approach of Henry touk sanctuary at Beaulien; War of the Revolution, 1 Feb. 1793.

Peace of Amiens, 27

surrendereil ; taken to London, Oct. 1497. March, 1802.

Said to have been set in the stocks at Westminster und War against Bonaparte, 29 April, 1803. Finally closed,

Cheapside, and sent to the Tower, June, 1490 18 June, 1815

Acenseil of plotting with the earl of Warwick to escape War with America, 18 June, 1812. Peace of Ghent, 24

ont of the Tower, by murdering the lieutenant, in; Dec. 1814.

the plot failed, and he was hanged at 1ybum, a3 lut; War with Russia, 27 March, 1854. Peace of Paris, 31

the earl beheaded, 28 Nov. 1499. March, 1856. For the wars with India, China, Persia, and Abyssinia,

WARBURG (N. Germany). Here the French ste those countries respectively.

were defeated by the duke of Brunswick and the

allies, 31 July, 1760. WAR AFFAIRS. On account of the war with Russia, the duke of Newcastle, previously colonial Ward, from observing a small fern and grass grow;

WARDIAN CASES. 1829, Mr. N. B. secretary, was appointed a secretary for war affairs, taries. War Office act, passed 20 June, 1870, ap- struci his well-known closely glazed cases, which and a cabinet minister, 9 June, 1854; see Secre ing in a closed glass bottle, in which he had placed

a chrysalis covered with moist earth, was led to one points a financial secretary (who may sit in parlia- atford to plants light, heat, and moisture, and exment) and other officers. of war department stores was passed in 1867. By clude deleterious gases, smoke, &r. They are parthe warrant abolishing purchase in the army, in

ticularly adapted for ferns. In 1833 they were first 1871, Mr. Cardwell became virtually uncontrolled employed for the transmission of plants to Sydney, minister of war.

&c., with great success, and professor Faraday

lectured on the subject in 1838. WAR, GAME OF (German, Kriegspiel), invented by a civilian in Germany (after the war which ended London in their wards, where they elect annually

WARDMOTES, meetings of the citizens of 1815), and completed by a Prussian officer about their common councilmen. The practice is said to 1824.' A society' (including von Moltke) was formed have begun in 1386. They had previously assembled at Magdeburg to study it. Prince Arthur lectured on this game at Dover, 13 March, 1872.

in Guildhall.

WARRANTS, GENERAL, do not sperify WARBECK'S INSURRECTION. Perkin the name of the accused. They were declared to be Warbeck, the son of a Florentine Jew, to whom illegal by lord chief justice Pratt, 6 Dec. 1763, in



4 Oct.

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relation to the seizure and committal of Mr. Wilkes The prince of Wales entertaineil by the president


Oct. 1860 for a libel on the king; see North Briton.

Washington fortified in

April, 1861 WARRIOR, sec under Mary of England, 1860.

President Lincoln shot by Booth in Ford's theatre, 14 April; died .

15 April, 1865 WARSAW, the metropolis of Poland. The diet

See United States, was transferred to this city from Cracow in 1506, and

IMPORTANT TREATIES OF WASHINGTON. it became the seat of government in 1689. Popula- Fixing X. W. boundary of British America and tion in 1859, 162,777.

United States, &c. .

12 June, 1846

" Reciprocity” treaty regulating trade with Canala, The Poles defeated in three days' battle by the

7 June, 1854 Swecles.

28-30 July, 1656 Referring the Alabama claims and the San Juan Alliance of Warsaw, between Austria ini Po

boundary question to arbitration, and settling lani, against Turkey, in pursuance of which, John.

disputes respecting fisheries (sce Alabama and Sobieski assisted in raising the siege of Vienna


8 May, 1871 (September following), signed

31 March, 1683 Warsaw surrenders to Charles XII.

· 1703 WASIUM (named from the roval house of Treaty of Warsaw between Russia and Poland,

Wasa or Vasa), a supposed new metal, discovered by

24 Feb. 1768 F.Bahr. of Stockholm, in 1862. In Nov. 1863 Nieklès The Russian garrison here expelled with the loss of 2000 killed and 500 wounded, and 36 pieces of

declared it to be a compound of didymium, yttrium, 17 April, 1794

and terbium. The Poles defeated by the Russians at Maciejovice,

WASTE LANDS. The inclosure of waste The king of Prussia besieges Warsaw, July; com

lands and commons, in order to promote agriculture, pelled to raise the siege, Sept. ; it is taken by the first began in England about the year 1547, and gave Russians

Nov. rise to Ket's rebellion, 1549. Inclosures were again Suwarrow, the Russian general, after the siege and

4 Nov.


promoted by the authority of parliament, 1785. The destruction of Warsaw, cruelly butchered 30,000

waste lands in England were estimated in 1794 to Poles, of all ages and conditions, in cold blood,

amount to 14 millions of acres, of which there were Warsaw constituted a duchy, and annexed to the taken into cultivation, 2,837,476 acres before June, house of Saxony .

Aug. 1807 1801. In 1841, there were about 6,700,000 acres of The duchy overrun by the Russians; Warsaw made

waste land, of which more than half was thought to the residence of a Russian viceroy The last Polish revolution commences at Warsaw,

be capable of improvement; see Agriculture.

29 Nov. 1830 WATCH OF LONDOx, at night, appointed Battle of Grochow, near Warsaw, in which the Russians were defeated, and forced to retreat with the

1253, proclaimed the hour with a bell before the inloss of 7000 men .

25 Feb. 1831 troduction of public clocks. Hardie. The old watch Battle of Warsaw, when, after two days hard was discontinued, and a new police (on duty day

fighting, the city capitulated, and was taken pos and night) commenced, 29 Sept. 1829; see Police. session of by the Russians: and great part of the Polish army retired towards Plock and Modlin,

WATCHES are said to have been first invented

6-8 Sept. at Nuremberg, 1477, although it is affirmed that The czar meets the emperor of Austria and the regent of Prussia; no result

20-25 Oct. 1860 Robert, king of Scotland, had a watch about 1310. (See Polanul, 1861-5.)

Watches first used in astronomical observations by

1500 WARTBURG, a castle in Saxony (V. Ger Authors assert that the emperor Charles v. was many), where Luther was conveyed for safety after the first who hai anything that might be called a the diet of Worms, April, 1521, and where he trans watch, though some call it a small table-clock

1530 lated the Bible into German.

Watches first brought to England from Germany in 1577

A watch which belonged to queen Elizabeth is preWARWICK CASTLE (Warwickshire), the served in the library of the Royal Institution, seat of the

London. Beauchamps, Nevilles, Plantagenets, Dudleys, Riches, and Grevilles, successively, and Spring Bracket-watches (watehes properly so-called) frequently besieged; suffered much by fire, 3 Dec.

by the English, and to M. Huyghens by the Dutch. 1871, some of the more ancient part being destroyed. Dr.Derham, in his Artificial Clockmaker, says that

Dr. Hooke was the inventor; and he appears cerWASHING MACHINES. Several have been

tainly to have produced what is called the pendulum invented by Americans. At an hotel in New York watch about 1658; manifest, among other evihundreds of garments are washed in a few minutes dences, from an inscription on one of the doubleby steam, and dried by a centrifugal machine

balance watches presented to Charles II., “Rob. (1862). The ingenious machines of Messrs. Horns

Hooke, inven. 1658 : T. Tompion, fecit, 1675."

1676 by; of Norwich, appeared in the great exhibition Repeating watches invented by Barlowe

Harrison's first time-piece produced (see Harrison), 1735 of London, 1862.

Watches and clocks were taxed in


The tax was repealed in 1798. See Clocks. WASHINGTON (in Columbia district, partly in Virginia and partly in Maryland, on the bank of WATER. Thales of Miletus, founder of the the Potomac, N.E. Virginia), the capital of the Ionic sect, considered water to be the original United States, founded in 1791, and made the seat principle of everything, about 594 B.c. Stanley. of government in 1800.

In the Roman Church water was first mixed with The house of representatives opened .

the sacramental wine, A.D. 122. Lenglet.

30 May, 1808 Washington was taken by the British forces under Cavendish and Watt demonstrated that water is general Ross, after his victory at Blauiensburg ;

composed of 8 parts of oxygen and 1 part of hyits superb structures and national library burnt,


1781-4 24 Aug. 1814 Water was decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen General Ross killed by some American riflemen, in gases by Lavoisier, 1783 : by the voltaic battery a desperate engagement at Baltimore 12 Sept.

by Nicholson and Carlisle, 1800 ; by the heat of Smithsonian institute (uhich see) founded 1846 the oxy-hydrogen flame by W. R. Grove

1846 Part of the capitol and the whole of the library of In freezing, water contracts till it is reduced to 42. the United States congress destroyed by fire,

or 40° Fahr. ; it then begins to expand till it be24 Dec. 1851 i comes ice at 32"

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