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"The Tenth Biennial Report of the Board of Regents, October, 1902,” is the bulkiest Regents' Report yet issued. It is addressed not as usual to the Governor, but to the Governor and the Honorable Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives of the 28th Legislature of the State of Texas.
The Report opens with elaborate tables of statistics of attendance of students. One of these showing the comparative registration of men and women in the University since its opening, is of especial interest in view of the discussion now going on relative to co-education. It appears that so far, despite the absence of dormitories for women, the proportion of women has been large, over one-third in the Academic and Engineering Departments, and fairly constant. With the impetus given by the erection of the Women's Building the percentage of women will probably increase. One is inclined to wonder if the Academic Department, apart from the Engineers, may not presently see a preponderance of women. Already this is the case in a number of classes. Here is food for thought. The table follows:
Nearly four pages are next taken up with a list of positions of distinction held by University of Texas men in our own and other universities and in the service of the United States. It is not a bad showing.
The next topic is The University and the Public Schools. It appears that the University is more and more furnishing teachers for the schools, though really this part of its work is hardly more than begun.
"Many of the graduates, as well as the under-graduates of the University enter the profession of teaching, and are to be found in the faculties of the schools in every portion of Texas. In order that the University may, in a systematic and discriminating way, assist students in securing positions as teachers, and school boards in obtaining desirable teachers, a Faculty Committee on the Recommendation of Teachers was appointed two years ago. This committee has since that time been actively discharging its duties. During the spring and summer of 1902, alone, this committee located about fifty students in various positions, including those of City Superintendents, High School Principals, Ward Principals, High School teachers, and teachers in the lower grades. The services of the committee are rendered without charge to students or to school boards. In no other way can the University more effectively and speedily minister to the needs of the common schools than in increasing the number of teachers possessed of sound scholarship and professional training. In this way the influence of both the common schools and the University is greatly widened and deepened."
Under the heading Affiliated Schools a statement is made of the work of the Affiliated School Committee. There is steady progress here, the best omen for the future being the existence of a cordial feeling between the University and the schools.
Appropriately put next to the Affiliated Schools is the section Summer Schools. As a means of improving the scholarship and teaching power of our high school teachers the importance of the Summer Schools is not fully understood. The number of students in attendance is, however, growing rapidly and the courses offered are yearly more attractive.
The Report next seeks to emphasize the importance of the work here in Texas history.
"The history of Texas throws peculiar light on many a pressing social and industrial problem of the present day, and the prospective, as well as the actual, citizen of the State ought to have the true record of its expe
riences available for his use. In it he will find at once inspiration and instruction. It will be the best guide for the makers and administrators of our laws; and in helping to complete such a record, the University is discharging one of its highest obligations to the State."
The Schools of Botany and Zoology are evidently close to the heart of the authorities. Recent reports both of President to Regents and Regents to Governor have laid special stress on the work of these schools for the economic interests of the State and their vast possibilities of development. The present Report is no exception. Concerning the economic aspect of Botany the Report says:
This school has met with encouraging results in its efforts to organize a corps of advanced workers for prosecuting the study of the vegetation of the vast State of Texas. It is believed that an intimate knowledge of the plant life in the various and varied parts of the State will furnish an indication of the natural zones or areas in which climatic and soil conditions favor the cultivation of some one or other of the crops or plants of commercial value. This is, in effect, an effort to discover and map out the various areas of the State with respect to their capacities as culture areas.
"The school has accomplished something in the line of investigating specific questions of large economic importance. Students are being trained to investigate the nature and cause and prevention of destructive plant diseases, especially where plants or soil conditions are the cause of such diseases. The most substantial progress has been made in the investigation of matters pertaining to forestry in Texas, and in promoting a general knowledge and appreciation of the State's forest conditions and resources. Instruction in forestry is now a part of the botany curriculum in the University. Illustrated lectures have been given under various auspices which have aided in awakening a lively concern in forestry matters. Extensive investigations have been made in the forests themselves. Excursions have been made to many quarters of the State where various types of timber occur, and an extended and fully illustrated report prepared which is now in process of publication."
The importance of Zoology in education is strongly presented and its practical application discussed.
"From the modern point of view the science of Zoology is of basic importance in all education leading up to the historical, ethical, physical, pedagogical, anthropological, and sociological sciences, sciences but imperfectly developed as yet, but already replete with magnificent promise. All of these subjects make use of the methods and facts of Zoology.
"Zoology finds immediate practical application in a multitude of other subjects of great importance to the human race, from specialties like oyster, bee, and silk culture to important subjects like medicine, veterinary science, agriculture, forestry and fish culture. To all of these subjects Zoology forms an indispensable foundation. The significance of enabling the youth of Texas to devote themselves to a thorough study and mastery of all these subjects must be apparent to anyone who con
siders the vast unexplored resources of the State and is alive to the urgent need of increasing the commercial efficiency of the commonwealth. The great forces of nature can only be controlled and utilized as the result of obedient study. Natura non vincitur nisi parendo. The condition of our forest, crops, fisheries and cattle interests are such as to demand immediate and exhaustive studies in Economic Zoology. The young people of Texas should be given an opportunity to make careful study of the habits of the many noxious insects that annually destroy a large portion of the wealth of the State. Until this is done the development of commercial prosperity and attendant culture must be greatly retarded if not altogether inhibited.
"The applications of the physiological aspect of Zoology are, if anything, even more important than those above indicated. Allusion is made to all those subjects which have to do with public and individual sanitation, matters of great moment in any State, but especially in Texas, where the stamping out of diseases, which, like malaria, owe their origin in men and animals to parasitic infection, has not yet been seriously considered. Whole regions of the State of Texas must ultimately depend for their prosperity and development on these applications of zoological science. Both the more advanced nations of the Old World and the more enterprising comonwealths of our own country have long since found that merely as a business proposition the investing of money in furnishing opportunities for obtaining a knowledge of nature is vastly more lucrative than all other investments which it is within the power of men to make."
A full review is next made of the Mineral Survey. After explaining its establishment and organization and the removal of the collections of the former geological survey from the capitol to the University the Report describes the work of the survey in detail. In eighteen months as the product of extensive field work no less than four elaborate Bulletins have been issued, the first on Texas Petroleum (July, 1901), the second entitled Sulphur, Oil and Quicksilver in Trans-Pecos Texas (February, 1902), the third on Coal, Lignite and Asphalt Rocks (May, 1902), the fourth on the Quicksilver Deposits of Brewster County (October, 1902). In conjunction with the United States Geological Survey the University Mineral Survey is making a topographical map of the southwest part of Brewster County and the southeast part of Presidio County.
"Due attention has been paid also to the erection of astronomical points for the assistance of engineers and surveyors. There have been erected at Terlingua permanent monuments of the true and the magnetic meridian, so that the variations of compass bearings may be accurately ascertained."
The Chemical Work is stated to have been of the most varied character. "The total number of analyses completed from May 1, 1901, to August 31, 1902, was 848. Many of these analyses required a considerable number of separate estimations, so that the total number of such estimations would run about five thousand."
The office work has been extensive. In all 16,084 pieces of mail matter have been sent out. Moreover much pains have been spent on relabeling and reclassifying the collections of the old Survey and in completing valuable files.
A discussion follows of the part the Mineral Survey should play in the State's exhibit at St. Louis. The University and Survey collections should, it is held, be drawn on for St. Louis, of course under proper precautions to secure safe return of the specimens sent.
As for the future of the Survey itself the Regents maintain that it has justified its existence.
"The plans that have been made for future work embrace reports on the following subjects, viz.:
Cement and cement rocks.
Clays and the Clay industry.
Ores of gold, silver, lead and copper.
Building and ornamental stones.
Coal measures of the carboniferous.
"As at present outlined, this work will require four additional years for completion. Allowing four thousand copies for each bulletin the total number to be distributed would be 28,000 and adding to this the 23,000 that will be distributed by April 1, 1903, the total number of copies distributed by 1907 would be 51,000. To accomplish this work would call for an expenditure of $60,000, or $15,000 for each of the four years. By the expiration of this time the series of economic bulletins would have embraced the most important of the subjects now demanding attention, and work could then be prosecuted along other and cognate lines. By that time also there would have been collected and permanently installed a magnificent display of the minerals and the mineral products of the State, a great object lesson in natural wealth.
"Is all of this worth doing? If the results of experience elsewhere can be relied upon, it is certainly worth doing. In no other way can the capital needed to develop what we have be secured except by plain, straightforward reliable reports prepared by men who have no other object in view than to ascertain the truth."
The Library is the next subject taken up. Record is made of the receipt of the Ashbel Smith library, of the new steel cases purchased, and of the installation of the collections of the Texas State Historical Society and of the Texas Academy of Science. The section concludes with an argument for a new building and for adequate funds to buy books.
A brief treatment follows of these subjects: Training in the Gymnasium, Athletics, Band and Glee Club, Literary Societies, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., Student Associations, University Hall, Fellowship. All these have received notice in recent numbers of the Record.
Under the heading University Funds mention is made of a sum of eleven or twelve thousand dollars now in the State Treasury and bearing no