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1850 1855

1194

12 Sept.

145,403 females; in all 403,519. In 1859, in all 517,366; Public-houses allowed to be opened on Sundays from in 1861, 540,322; Dec. 1865, 626,639; in 1871, 729,654; 1 o'clock till 3, and from 5 till 11 P.M..

1828 1877, 849,021.

England, 59,335; Scotland, 15,081; Ireland, 14,080; total, Chinese immigrants are now virtually excluded.

88, 496 in. Victoria, see Hong-Kony, Vancouver's Island, Docks, 127,352 licenses were issued for the sale of beer, cider,

The prescribed time enlarged. Thames 1870, Wrecks 1852.

and perry in the united kingdom, producing a revenue Victoria Cross, a new order of merit, instituted to

of 304,6881.; and 93,936 licenses for the sale of spirits; revenue, 560,5571..

1858 reward the gallantry of persons of all ranks in the army Between 100,000,0001. and 150,000,000l. said to be invested and navy, 5 Feb. 1856. It is a Maltese cross made of in the liquor trade. The licensed victuallers actively Russian cannon from Sebastopol. The queen conferred

opposed Mr. Bruce's licensing bill, which was with. drawn

summer of 1871 the honor on 62 persons (of both services) on Friday, 26 Licensed victuallers in the United Kingdom, 99,465..... 1872 June, 1857; and on many of the Indian army, 2 Aug. New licensing act, regulating hours of opening and shut1858.

ting, etc., passed and came into execution.....10 Aug. 1872

[It caused much irritation, and was said to have con. Victoria Institute, or PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY duced to the fall of the Gladstone ministry, 1874.) OF GREAT BRITAIN, established 22 June, 1865; its pri- Public-houses in Ireland closed on Sundays, by act passed,

16 Aug. 1878 mary object being the attempt to reconcile apparent dis

Payment for licenses raised.....

...June, 1880 crepancies between Christianity and science.

Victualling Office (London), for managing the Victoria Park (E. London) was originated by an victualling of the royal navy, was instituted Dec. 1663. act passed in 1841, which enabled her majesty's com- The number of commissioners was five, afterwards seven, missioners of woods and forests to purchase certain lands and then reduced to six. The various departments on for a royal park, with the sum of 72,0001. raised by the Tower hill, St. Katherine's, and Rotherhithe, were resame act, by the sale of York house to the duke of moved to Deptford in Aug. 1785, and the office to SomSytherland. The act described the land to be so pur- erset house, 1783. In 1832 the office of commissioners chased, containing 290 acres, situate in the parishes of was abolished, and the victualling office made one of five St. John, Hackney; St. Matthew, Bethnal-green; and departments under the lords of the admiralty. St. Mary, Stratford-le-Bow. The park was completed and opened to the public in 1845. Lady (then Miss) margraviate of Austria, 984; virtual capital of the Ger

Vienna (the Roman Vindobona), was capital of the Burdett-Coutts presented a handsome drinking-fountain, and was present at its inauguration, 28 June, 1862. The man empire, 1273; since 1806, capital of the Austrian park was visited by the queen, 2 April, 1873; and, in dominions only. Population in 1857, 476,222; 1872,

901,000; see Austria. memory of her reception, she presented a clock and peal of bells to St. Mark's church; recognition service, 21 | Walled and enlarged with the ransom puid for Richard I.

Vienna made an imperial city.....

1136 May, 1874.

of England, 40,0001. Victoria Railway Bridge (tubular), over the Besieged by the Turks under Solyman the Magnificent

with an army of 300,000 men; but he was forced to St. Lawrence, Montreal, erected by Mr. James Hodges,

raise the siege with the loss of 70,000 of his best troops, 1529 under the superintendence of Mr. Robert Stephenson and Besieged by the Turks...

..July, 1083 Mr. A. M. Ross, engineers, was begun 24 May, 1854, and The siege raised by John Sobieski, king of Poland, who formally opened by the prince of Wales, 25 Aug, 1860. Vienna taken by the French under prince Murat, 14 Nov. It forms part of the Grand Trunk railway, which con

1805; evacuated...

12 Jan. 1806 nects Canada and the seaboard states of North America. Captured by Napoleon I...

13 May, 1809

.14 Oct. The length is about sixty yards less than two English Restored on the conclusion of peace..

.Nov. 1814 miles, and about 7} times longer than Waterloo bridge, Imperial Academy of Sciences founded.

1846 and ten times longer than new Chelsea bridge; the the revolt in Hungary induces an insurrection in Vienna, height sixty feet between the summer level of the river

13 March, 1848 and the under surface of the central tube. It is support- A second insurrection: Count Latour, the war minister

, The emperor retires, 17 May; returns...

...Aug. ed by 24 piers. The cost was 1,700,0001. On 5 Jan.

is murdered.....

...6 Oct.
1855, while constructing, the bridge was much injured The emperor again takes fight...
by floating ice, but the stonework remained firm.

Vienna is bombarded by Windischgrätz and Jellachich,
28 Oct.; its capitulation...

30 Oct. Victoria Regia, the magnificent water-lily brought Conferences respecting the Russo-Turkish war held at to this country from Guiana by sir Robert Schomburgk, The fortifications demolished, and the city enlarged and

.1853-5 in 1838, and named after the queen. Fine specimens are beautified..

.1857-8 at the Botanic Gardens at Kew, Regent's Park, etc. It The imperial parliament (Reichsrath) assembles here, was grown in the open air in 1855, by Messrs. Weeks, of

31 May, 1860

The Prussians encamp near Vienna; state of siege proChelsea.

claimed.

...July, 1866 Victoria Steamer sunk; see Wrecks, 24 May, Visited by the sultan...

27 July, 1867 1881.

New palace of the fine arts founded by the emperor,

about 18 Sept. 1868 Victoria University constituted; is to consist of The great international exhibition opened by the emperOwen's College, Manchester, and others; the charter was or; the prince of Wales and many dignitaries prosent, granted in April; the first council met, 14 July, 1880.

1 May, 1673

* A conference of the four great powers, England, France, Victory, MAN-OF-War, of 100 guns, the finest first- Austria, and Prussia, was held 24 July, when a note was rate ship in the navy of England, was lost in a violent agreed on and transmitted for acceptance to St. Petersburg tempest near the Race of Alderney, and its admiral, sir and Constantinople, 31 July. This pote was accepted by the John Balchen, and 100 gentlemen's sons, and the whole czar, 10 Aug, but the sultan required modifications, which crew, consisting of 1000 men, perished, 8 Oct. 1744.— The contained four points: 1. The promptest possible evacuation l'ictory, the flag-ship of Nelson at the battle of Trafal- of the principalities. 2. Revision of the treaties. 3. Maingar, 21 Oct. 1805, is kept in fine preservation at Ports-tenance of religious privileges to the communities of all con:

fessions. 4. A definite settlement of the convention respect. mouth.

ing the holy places. It was approved by the four powers, and Victuallers, an ancient trade in England. The the conferences closed on 16 Jan. 1854. A new conference of Vintners' company of London was founded 1437; their plenipotentiaries, from Great Britain (lord John Russell), France

(M. Drouyn de l'Huys), Austria (count Buol), Turkey (Arif hall rebuilt in 1823.

Efendi), and Russia (count Gortschakoff), took place, March, None shall sell less than one full quart of the best beer

Two points, the protectorate of the principalities and or ale for 1d, and two quarts of the smaller sort for id. 1603 the free navigation of the Danube, were agreed to; but the The power of licensing public houses was granted to sir proposals of the powers as to the reduction of the Russian Giles Mompesson and sir Francis Mitchel...

1621 power in the Black Sea were rejected by the czar, and tbe The number in England then was about 13,000..

conference closed, 5 June, 1854. The English and French In Great Britain about 76,000 public-houses.

1790 onvoy's assent to the Austrian propositions was not approred Licensed Victuallers' School established..

1803 of by their governments, and they both resigned their official Licensed Victuallers' Asylum established. 22 Feb. 1827 | positivus.

7 Oct.

1854.

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18 Aug

[The enormous building with annexes was designed French cavalry under marshal Soult, 11 April, 1812.by Mr. Scott Russell, most ably supported by the Austrian engineers; the grand central rotunda, 312 feet in

VILLAFRANCA, a small port on the Mediterranean, diameter, with lofty dome, is an exaggerated Pantheon, near Genoa, was bought for a steam-packet station by a suspended on iron girders in place of masonry, and Russian company, about Aug. 1858, which caused some

dwarfs St. Peter's at Rome.) Great financial failures; affeci all Europe........9 May, 1973 political excitement.—At VILLAFRANCA, in Lombardy, Visit of the czar, 1-7 June; of the shah of Persia. 30 July,

the emperors of France and Austria met, on 11 July, 1859 Prizes to exhibitors presented by the archduke Albert, (after the battle of Solferino), and on 12 July signed the

preliminaries of peace, the basis of the treaty of Zurich Visit of Victor Emmanuel, king of Italy, 17-22 Sept.; of the emperor of Germany..

.17-23 Oct.

(which see). Water-works inaugurated by the emperor........ 24 Oct. The exhibition closed...

2 Nov.

Villa Viciosa. 1. In Portugal. Here the PortuNew bed of the Danube inaugurated.. .30 May, 1876 guese, under the French general Schomberg, defeated Ring Theatre burned; 580 lives lost. .., 8 Dec. 1881 the Spaniards, 1665.—2. In Castile, Spain. Here the International art exhibition to be opened. ...1 April, 1882

struggle for the Spanish crown was decided in favor of TREATIES OF VIENNA,

Philip V. by Vendôme's victory over Staremberg and 1. The treaty between the emperor of Germany and the king the Austrians, 10 Dec. 1710.

of Spain, by which they confirmed to each other such parts Villain, or VILLEIN, see Slavery in England. of the Spanish dominions as they were respectively possessed of; and by a private treaty the emperor engaged to Ville de Havre, French Atlantic mail steamer, 5100 employ a force to procure the restoration of Gibraltar to Spain, and to use means for placing the Pretender on the tons, sailed from New York for Havre, 15 Nov. 1873; was throne of Great Britain. Spain guaranteed the Pragmatic run into by a Glasgow clipper, Lochearn, about 2 A.M., Sanction. 30 April, 1725.

22 Nov., and sank in twelve minutes; 226 out of 313 2. Treaty of alliance between the emperor of Germany, Charles

VI., George II., king of Great Britain, and the states of Hol persons perished. land, by which the Pragmatic Sanction was guaranteed, and the crew of the Lochearn rescued 87, who were conveyed the disputes as to the Spanish succession terminated. (Spain

to Cardiff by the American vessel Trimountain, capt. acceded to the treaty on the 22d of July.) Signed 16 March,

Urquhart, arriving there.....

1 Dec. 1873 1731 3. Treaty of peace between the emperor Charles VJ. of Ger

The Lochearn, beginning to sink, 28 Nov., was abandoned

by her crew, who were rescued by the British Queen, many and the king of France, Louis XV., by which the lat.

and brought to Plymouth

.7 Dec. ter power agreed to guarantee the Pragmatic Sanction, and on judicial examination, the Lochearn was exonerated in Lorraine was ceded to France. Signed 18 Nov. 1738; see

England, but censured in France ..

..Jan. 1874 Pragmatic Sanction. 4. Treaty between Napoleon I. of France and Francis (II. of Germany) I. of Austria, by which Austria ceded to

Villeta (Paraguay, South America). Here Lopez France the Tyrol, Dalmatia, and other territories, which and the Paraguayans were totally defeated by the Brawere shortly afterwards declared to be united to France zilians and their allies, 11 Dec. 1868. Lopez and 200 under the title of the Illyrian Provinces, and engaged to adhere to the prohibitory system adopted towards England men fled; 3000 prisoners were made; and the war was by France and Russia. 14 Oct. 1809.

considered to be ended. 5. Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prus.

sia, confirming the principles on which they had acted by Vimiera (in Portugal), where the British and Spanthe treaty of Chaumont, 1 March, 1814. Signed 23 March, ish forces, under sir Arthur Wellesley, defeated the

1815. 6. Treaty between the king of the Netherlands on the one part, French, under marshal Junot, duke of Abrantes, 21 Aug. and Great Britain,

Russia, Austria, and Prussia on the other, 1808. The attack, made with great bravery, was galagreeing to the enlargement of the Dutch territories, and lantly repulsed; it was repeated by Kellermann at the vesting the sovereignty in the house of Orange. 31 May, head of the French reserve, which was also repulsed.

1815. 7. Treaty by which Denmark ceded Swedish Pomerania and The French, charged with the bayonet, withdrew on all

Rugen to Prussia, in exchange for Lauenburg, 4 June, points in confusion, leaving many prisoners.

1815. 8. Commercial treaty for twelve years between Austria and Vincennes, a strong castle near Paris ; a residence Prussia. Signed at Vienna, 19 Feb. 1853.

of the French kings from the twelfth to the fourteenth 9. Treaty for the maintenance of Turkey, by the representa

tives of Great Britain, France, Austria, and Russia. Signed century. Henry V. of England died at the Bois de 9 April, 1854.

Vincennes, 31 Aug. 1422. At the fosse of the castle, 10. Treaty between Austria and Prussia and Denmark, by Louis duc d'Enghien was shot by order of Napoleon,

which Denmark ceded the duchies. 11. Treaty of peace between Austria and Italy; Venetia given after a hasty trial, early on the morning of 22 March, up to Italy. 3 Oct. 1866.

1804, Vienne, the ancient Vienna Allobrogum (S.E. Vincent, CAPE ST. (S.W. Portugal) ; see Cape St. France). Here the emperor Valentinian II. was put to Vincent and Rodney's Victories. death by Arbogastes, 15 May, 392, and a short reaction in favor of paganism followed. Vienne was capital of

Vincent de Paul, St., CHARITABLE SOCIETY, the kingdom of Burgundy in 432 and 879, and sometimes founded in 1833, in France, by twelve young men. It gave its name to the kingdom. A general council was

extends its extremely beneficial operations into Britain. held here in 1311. Vienne was annexed to the French Its power excited the jealousy of the French governmonarchy, 1448.

ment, which suppressed its central committee of Paris in

Oct. 1861. St. Vincent de Paul was born 1576; estabVigo (N.W. Spain) was attacked and burned by the lished the congregation of Lazarists, or Vincentines, 1625; English, under Drake and Norris, in 1589. Sir George Sisters of Charity, 1634; a foundling hospital, 1648. He Rooke, with the combined English ard Dutch fleets, at- died 1660. tacked the French fleet and the Spanish galleons in the Vincent, St. (West Indies), long a neutral island; port of Vigo, when several men-of-war and galleons were but at the peace of 1763 the French agreed that the taken, and many destroyed, and abundance of plate and right to it should be vested in the English. The latter other valuable effects fell into the hands of the conquer- soon after engaged in a war against the Caribs, on the ors, 12 Oct. 1702. Vigo was taken by lord Cobham in windward side of the island, who were obliged to con1719, but relinquished after raising contributions. It sent to a peace, by which they ceded a large tract of was again taken by the British, 27 March, 1809. land to the British crown. In 1779 the Caribs greatly

Vikings. Scandinavian chiefs, Swedes, Danes, and contributed to the reduction of this island by the French, Norsemen, who in the fourth century migrated-east- who, however, restored it in 1783. In 1795 the French ward, to the countries beyond the Baltic; westward and landed some troops, and again instigated the Caribs to an southward, chiefly to the British Isles.

insurrection, which was not subdued for several months.

The great eruption of the Souffriere mountain, after the Villafranca. Near here, and Llerena, Spain, the lapse of nearly a century, occurred in 1812. Population British cavalry, under sir Stapleton Cotton, defeated the l in 1861, 31,755.

Santa Cruz.

mas..

Vincy (N. France). Here Charles Martel defeated down or unroofed, etc. (a report reached London that

the isle was submerged)..

29 Oct. 1867 the Neustrians, 21 May, 717, and acquired their country.

Earthquake at St. Thomas and other isles; much damVine. The vine was planted by Noah, 2347 B.C.

age; few lives lost..

Nov.

A negro insurrection, in which M. Fon(Gen. ix. 20). A colony of vine-dressers from Phocea, taine, a planter, was killed; Fredericksted and 36 out in Ionia, settled at Marseilles, and instructed the South of 50 sugar plantations were burned, and about 3000 Gauls in tillage, vine-dressing, and commerce, about 600

whites rendered homeless. During the suppression

by col. Garde, the governor, about 200 negroes were B.C. Some think that vines are aborigines of Langue

killed..

.......1-5 Oct. 1878 doc, Provence, and Sicily; and that they grew spontaneously on the Mediterranean shores of Italy, France,

Virgin Mary. The Assumption of the Virgin is and Spain. The vine was carried into Champagne, and a festival in the Greek and Latin churches, in honor of part of Germany, by the emperor Probus, about A.D. 279. the miraculous ascent of Mary into heaven, according The vine and sugar-cane were planted in Madeira in to their belief, 15 Aug. A.D. 45. The Presentation of the 1420. In the gardens of Hampton-court palace is an old Virgin is a feast celebrated 21 Nov., said to have been and celebrated vine, said to surpass any known vine in instituted among the Greeks in the eleventh century; Europe; see Grapes and Wine. The Tokay vines were

its institution in the West is ascribed to pope Gregory planted in 1350.

XI., 1372; see Annunciation, and Conception, Immacu

late. Vine disease. In the spring of 1845, Mr. E. Tucker, of Margate, observed a fungus (since named oidium Tuckeri) on Virginals; an early keyed instrument of the kind grapes in the hot-houses of Mr. Slater, of Margate. It is a termed clavichords; used in the sixteenth and serenwhitish mildew, and totally destroys the fruit.

teenth centuries; played on by queen Elizabeth and The spores of this oïdium were found in the vineries at Ver

sailles in 1847. The disease soon reached the trellised vines, Mary queen of Scots. According to Johnson, it owed its and in 1850 many lost all their produce.

name to young women being the usual performers. TalIn 1852 it spread over France, Italy, Spain, Syria, and in Zante lis, Morley, Purcell, Gibbons, and Bull composed for this and Cephalonia attacked the currants, reducing the crop to

instrument. one twelfth of the usual amount. Through its ravages, the wine manufacture in Madeira ceased

Virginia, see Rome, 449 B.C. for several years. Many attempts have been made to arrest the progress of this disease, but without much effect. Sulphur-dust is the most States. The name was given by Raleigh, 13 July, 1584,

Virginia, one of the original states of the United efficacious remedy. The disease had much abated in France, Portugal, and Ma. to the whole region from the Cape Fear river to Hali

deira, in 1863 In 1862 Californian vines were introduced fax, discovered by Cabot in 1497. Vain attempts to

into the two latter. New malady (microscopic insect, phylloxera vastatrix) in s. plant colonies were made in 1585, at Roanoke, N. C. France, observed..

1865 The first permanent English settlement in America was Remedy, sulphuret of carbon, recommended by M. Du- made at Jamestown, Virginia, 23 May, 1607. Virginia

.Aug. 1873 Not successful; great destruction; 12,0001. offered for a

was made a royal province 1624; Bacon's Rebellion, remedy

....July, 1876 1676. Virginia seceded from the Union, 17 April, 1861 Phylloxera prevalent in Malaga and France; reported (see West Virginia). Virginia readmitted to represenJuly, Aug. 1878; Portugal, Italy, Spain, Sept.-Nov.

tation in congress, 1870. During the civil war, 1861-5, 1879; appears in Victoria, Australia

Nov. 1880

Virginia was a principal theatre of operations. RichVinegar. The ancients had several kinds, which mond was made the capital of the Southern Confederacy, they used for drink. The Roman soldiers were accus- May, 1861, and from that time it was the objective point tomed to take it in their marches. The Bible repre- of the operations of the national army. The principal sents Boaz, a rich citizen of Bethlehem, as providing battles fought in Virginia were: Bull Run, 21 July, 1861 ; vinegar for his reapers (1312 B.C.), a custom still preva- Ball's Bluff, 21 Oct. 1861; Hampton Roads (Monitor and lent in Spain and Italy.

Merrimac) 9 March, 1862; Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines,

31 May-1 June, 1862; Seven Days' Battle, 25 JuneVinegar Hill (near Enniscorthy, in Wexford, S.E. 1 July, 1862; Cedar Mountain, 9 Aug.; Second Bull Run, Ireland). Here the Irish rebels, headed by father John, 29-30 Aug. 1862; Fredericksburg, 13 Dec. 1862; Chana priest, encamped and committed many outrages on the cellorsville, 2-3 May, 1863 ; Wilderness, 5-6 May, 1864; surrounding country. They were gradually surrounded Spottsylvania, 8-12 May, 1864 ; New Market, 15 May, by the British troops, commanded by Lake, 21 June, 1864; Cold Harbor, 3 June, 1864; mine explosion at 1798; and after a fierce struggle, with much slaughter, Petersburghi, 30 July, 1864 ; Winchester, 19 Sept. 1864 ; totally dispersed.

Fisher's Hill, 22 Sept. 1864; Five Forks, 1 April, 1865; Vintners, see Pictuallers.

Petersburgh and Richmond taken, 3 April, 1865; Lee's

surrender, 9 April, 1865. See United States, Richmond, Viol and Violin. The lyre of the Greeks became Grant's Virginia Compaign, Peninsular Campaign, etc. our harp, and the viol of the middle ages became the violin. The violin is mentioned as early as 1200, in the Virginia City, see Nevada. legendary life of St. Christopher. It was introduced into

Virginius, American blockade-runner, see Cuba, England, some say, by Charles II. Straduarius (or Stra

1873. divarius) of Cremona, was a renowned violin-maker (1700 to 1722). The eminent violinist Paganini visited Eng- Virtue, LEAGUE OF, see Tugendbund. land, 1831; died at Nice, 27 May, 1840.

Visconti, the name of a noble Italian family, which Virgin Islands (West Indies), an eastern group ruled in Milan from about 1277 to 1447; the heiress of discovered by Columbus (1494): Virgin Gorda, Tortola, the family was married to Francesco Sforza, who became

duke 1450. Anegada, etc., and the Danish isles, St. Thomas, Santa Cruz, and St. John.

Viscount (Vice Comes), anciently the name of the Tortola settled by Dutch buccaneers about 1648; expelled

deputy of an earl. The first viscount in England creby the English (who have held it since)..

1666 ated by patent was John, lord Beaumont, whom Henry St. Thomas settled by Danes 1672, and St. John a few VI. created viscount Beaumont, giving him precedence

years after; held by the British 1801-2, 1807-15; pro). above all barons, 10 Feb. 1440.--Ashmole. This title is posed sale to the l'nited States for 1,500,5001, to be made a "territory." Danish proclamation, 25 Oct.

of older date in Ireland and France. John Barry, lord 1837; purchase declined by United States senate,

Barry, was made viscount Buttevant, in Ireland, 9 Rich.

23 March, May, 1870 II. 1385.-Beatson. By a dreadful hurricane off St. Thomas, the royal mail steamers Rhone and Wye were entirely wrecked; the Visible Speech, a term applied by Mr. Alex, Conway and Derwent, and above 50 other vessels, Melville Bell to his “Universal Self-Interpreting Physidriven ashore; about 1000 persons said to have per

ological Alphabet," comprising thirty symbols repreMuch suffering occasioned in Tortola; houses blown senting the conformations of the mouth when uttering

ished.

sounds. He stated that about fifty different types would | The office was abolished in 1838, but has since been frebe required to print all known languages with these quently revived and suppressed. symbols. He expounded his system to the Society of

Vladimir (central Russia), a city founded in the Arts, London, 14 March, 1866; and published a book in twelfth century, and the capital of a grand-duchy from 1867.

1157 to about 1328. Visigoths, separated from the Ostrogoths about 330; Voiron, see Veseronce. see Goths. The emperor Valens, about 369, admitted

Volcanoes. In different parts of the earth there them into the Roman territories upon the condition of their serving when wanted in the Roman armies ; and are above 200 volcanoes which have been active in modTheodosius the Great permitted them to form distinct ern times; see Elna, Vesuvius, and Iceland. In Mexico,

a plain was filled up into a mountain more than a thoucorps commanded by their own officers. In 400, under sand feet in height by the burning lava from a volcano, Alaric, they invaded Italy, and in 410 took Rome. They in 1759. A volcano in the isle of Ferro broke out 13 founded their kingdom of Toulouse, 414; conquered the Sept. 1777, which threw out an immense quantity of red Alani, and extended their rule into Spain, 414; expelled the Romans in 468; and finally were themselves water, that discolored the sea for several leagues. A conquered by the Saracens under Muza, in 711, when new volcano appeared in one of the Azore islands, 1 their last king, Roderie, was defeated and slain ; see

May, 1808. Spain for a list of the Visigothic kings. Their rule in

Volhynia, a Polish province, annexed to Russia France ended with their defeat by Clovis at Vouglé, in 1793. 507.

Volsci, an ancient Latin people, frequently at war Visitations, see Heralds.

with the Romans. From their capital, Corioli, Caius

Martius (who defeated them about 490 B.C.) derived his Vital Force, defined by Humboldt “as an un- name Coriolanus. The story of his banishment by his known cause preventing the elements from obeying ungrateful countrymen, of his revenge on them by bringtheir primitive affinities.” This theory is now opposed ing the Volsci to the gates of Rome, yet afterwards by many physiologists, and animal motion is attributed sparing the city at the entreaties of his mother, Volumtó muscular and nervous irritability, illustrated by the nia (487 B.C.), is considered by many as a poetical legend. researches of Galvani, Humboldt, sir Charles Bell, Mar- The Volsci and their allies were totally defeated at Sushall Hall, and others. The subject has been much dis- trium by the consul Valerius Corvus (346), and incorcussed recently by Huxley and other eminent physiolo- porated with the Roman people about 338. gists.

Volsinii, the inhabitants of an Etrurian city, who, Viti Isles, see Fiji.

after a sharp contest, were completely overcome by the Vittoria (N. Spain), the site of a victory obtained Roman consul Titus Coruncanius, 280 B.C. by Wellington over the French army commanded by Voltaic Pile or BATTERY was constructed by GalJoseph Bonaparte, king of Spain, and marshal Jourdan, vani; see Galvanism in article Electricity. The prin21 June, 1813. The hostile armies were nearly equal, ciple was discovered by Alessandro Volta, of Como (born from 70,000 to 75,000 each. After a long and fearful 1745), for thirty years professor of natural philosophy at battle, the French were driven, towards evening, through Pavia, and announced by him to the Royal Society of the town of Vittoria, and in their retreat were thrown London in 1793. The battery was first set up in 1800. into irretrievable confusion. The British loss was 22 Volta was made an Italian count and senator by Napoofficers and 479 men killed; 167 officers and 2640 men leon Bonaparte, and was otherwise greatly honored. wounded. Marshal Jourdan lost 151 pieces of cannon, While young he invented the electrophorus, electric pis451 wagons of ammunition, all his baggage, provisions, tol, and hydrogen lamp. He died in 1826, aged 81. The cattle, and treasure, with his baton as a marshal of France. form of the Voltaic battery has been greatly improved Continuing the pursuit on the 25th, Wellington took by the researches of modern philosophers. The nitricJourdan's only remaining gun.

acid battery of sir W. R. Grove was constructed in 1839;

Alfred Smee's battery in 1840; the carbon battery of Vivarium, see Aquavivarium,

prof. Robert Bunsen in 1842. The first is very much Vivisection. Physiological experiments upon liv- used in this country; that of Bunsen on the continent; ing animals having much increased, the societies for the see Copper-zinc Couple. prevention of cruelty to animals in Dresden and Paris in 1859 requested the opinion of a committee of eminent which Garibaldi and his followers held a strong position.

Volturno, a river in S. Italy, near Capua, near to scientific men on the merits of the knowledge thus ac- This was furiously assailed by the royal troops on 1 Oct. quired. Their judgment was not unanimous. The 1860, who were finally repulsed after a desperate strugLondon society took up the question in 1860, and print- gle, the fiercest in which Garibaldi had yet been ened a pamphlet by Mr. G. Macilwain against vivisection. gaged. He was aided greatly by a band of Piedmontese In Aug. 1862, an international conference to discuss the from Naples. On 2 Oct. gen. Bixio completed the vicquestion was held at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, tory by capturing 2500 fresh Neapolitan troops and disThe subject was discussed in 1866, and a prize awarded

persing others. by the London society. Sir Charles Bell's opinion of vivisection was that it either obscured the subject it

Voluntary Contributions. Public contribuwas meant to illustrate, or misled men into practical er- tions for the support of the British government against rors of the most serious character.

the policy and designs of France amounted to two mill.

ions and a half sterling in 1798. About 200,0001. were Discussion revived in consequence of the prosecution transmitted to England from India in 1799. Sir Robert when chloroform or any other anæsthetic is used...1873-6 Peel

, of Bury, among other contributions of equal amount, Rival societies: 1. Society for the abolition of vivisec- subscribed 10,0001. — Annual Register. See Patriotic

tion, 1875; 2. International Association for total sup. Fund. In 1862 nearly a million pounds were subscribed pression of vivisection..

in the British empire for the relief of the Lancashire Commission (viscount Cardwell, prof. Huxley, and others) to inquire into the practice, appointed 23 June,

cotton-spinners; see Cotton and Mansion-house, where 1875; report signed, 8 Jan.; published, March, 1876; a voluntary contributions for beneficent purposes are conbill to regulate vivisection (Cruelty to Animals act)

tinually received. brought into parliament; strongly opposed by the medical profession in general, June, July; passed, 15 Volunteers were enrolled in England for the Aug. 1876. Vivisectors are to have a license or cer- American war, 1778, and especially in consequence of

the threatened invasion of revolutionary France, 1793-4. Vizier, GRAND, an officer of the Ottoman Porte, said Besides our large army, and 85,000 men voted for the to have been first appointed by Amurath I., about 1386. sea, we subsidized 40,000 Germans, raised our militia to

1876

tificate.

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100,000 men, and armed the citizens as volunteers; the prize, etc., won by private John Wyatt (London rifle

brigade). yeomanry formed cavalry regiments. Between 1798

...23 July, 1894

Volunteers estimated at 165,000 in.. and 1804, when this force was of greatest amount, it Sixth meeting at Wimbledon, began 11 July; the queen's numbered 410,000, of which 70,000 were Irish.* On prize was won by private Sharman (4th West York), 26 Oct. 1803, king George III. reviewed in Hyde Park

'18 July; the meeting ended with a review by the duke 12,401 London volunteers, and on 28 Oct. 14,676 more. Seventh meeting at Wimbledon, began 9 July; queen's

of Cambridge...

.22 July, 1865 The English volunteers were, according to official ac- prize won by Angus Cameron (6th Inverness), 17 July; counts, 341,600 on 1 Jan. 1804; see Naval Volunteers. the value of about 70001. distributed in prizes, and reIn May, 1859, in consequence of the prevalence of the the volunteers reviewed by the prince of Wales at

view by duke of Cambridge....

.21 July, 1866 fear of a French invasion, the formation of volunteer Brighton, 2 April; at York, 11 Aug.; by duke of Camcorps of riflemen commenced under the auspices of the bridge at Hyde Park...

..23 June, government, and by the end of the year many thousands Estimate of volunteers: 135,000 infantry, 27,000 artil

..9 Oct. were enrolled in all parts of the kingdom. The volun- About' 1100 volunteers visit Brussels, headed by col. teers were said to be “a force potentially the strongest Loyd Lindsay; warmly received; first prize gained defence of England,” 19 April, 1870: see Artillery A880

by Curtis, of the 11th Sussex rifles.. .11-22 Oct.

Parliamentary vote for volunteers, 361,0091.......6 June, 1867 ciation and Naval Artillery Volunteer Force.

Metropolitan and Berkshire volunteers reviewed in YEOMANRY were enrolled by lord Chatham in 1761. The

Windsor great park...,

.10 June, present 49 regiments of cavalry (about 300 each) cost

Eighth meeting at Wimbledon, began 8 July; Belgian 80,0001..

1870

Garde Civique and volunteers (above 2000) received by [The first Middlesex volunteers were formed in 1803

prince of Wales, 13 July; resignation of lord Elcho, as the duke of Cumberland's sharpshooters. They re

chairman of the council; succeeded by earl Spencer, tained their organization as a rifle club when other

18 July; grand review by prince of Wales, the sultan, volunteers were disbanded. In 1835 they were per

etc.; the queen's prize given to sergeant Lane (Bristol) mitted by the duchess of Kent to take the name of the

by the princess of Teck.......,

. 20 July, Royal Victoria Rifle Club.]

Grand review in New Sefton park, Liverpool......5 Oct. Circular letter from col. Jonathan Peel proposing organi.

About 28,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen at

Windsor.. zation of National Volunteer Association for promoting

.20 June, 1868 the practice of rifle-shooting, 12 May, 1859. It was es

Review of regulars and volunteers at Edinburgh.. 4 July, tablished in London, under the patronage of the queen

Ninth meeting at Wimbledon, 13 July; the queen's and prince-consort, Mr. Sidney (afterwards lord) Her.

prize gained by lieut. Carslake (5th Somerset). 25 July, bert, secretary at war, president, and the earl of Derby

Lord Elcho re-elected chairman of the council (earl and other noblemen vice-presidents. (Annual subscrip

Spencer resigned)..

.Feb. 1869

Memorial to government respecting the capitation grant; tion one guinea, or a composition for life of ten guineas),

16 Nov. 1859
signed by noblemen and gentlemen.

19 Feb. 2500 volunteer officers presented to the queen; a dinner

Volunteers reported to number 170,000

Review of volunteers of southern and western counties followed, with the duke of Cambridge in the chair, and

at Portsmouth... a ball...

.26 April, .7 March, 1860 The queen reviews about 18,450 volunteers in Hyde Park,

Tenth meeting at Wimbledon, 3 July; queen's prize 23 June,

gained by corporal Angus Cameron (6th Inverness), 2d (Mr. Tower, of Wealdhall, Essex, aged 80, was pres

time, 13 July; grand review..

.......24 July, ent as a private; he had been present as an officer in a

Volunteers' act, 1863, amended..

.......9 Aug. volunteer review in 1803.)

“ Army Service Corps "' to be composed of volunteers; First meeting of the National Association for rifle-shoot

established by royal warrant...

12 Nov. ing held at Wimbledon; capt. Edward Ross (North

Eleventh meeting at Wimbledon, 11 July; queen's prize York) obtained the queen's prize of 2501. and the gold

won by corporal Humphries (6th Surrey).....19 July, 1870 medal and badge of the association... 2-7 July,

Letter from the lord mayor recommending the enlarge[M. Thorel, a Swiss, obtained a prize.j

ment of the volunteer system, and its greater efficiency, Successful sham-fight at Bromley, Kent. 14 July,

22 Sept. Above 20,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen at Edin

Establishment of an extensive rifle-range, drill-ground, burgh.

.7 Aug
armory, etc., for the London volunteers, resolved on,

3 Oct. Above 10,000 Lancashire volunteers reviewed by the

Distribution of breech-loaders commenced.

.Nov. earl of Derby at Knowsley..

..1 Sept. Lord Herbert stated that the association had a capital of

Lord Elcho (chairman) resigned; succeeded by the earl

of Ducie.. 30001, and an annual income of 15001. .

..June, 1871 16 Feb. 1861 Volunteers in Britain estimated at about 160,000... May,

Twelfth meeting at Wimbledon, 8 July; queen's prize Second meeting at Wimbledon; Mr. Jopling (S. Middle

won by ensign A. P. Humphry, undergraduate (Camsex) gains the queen's prize and the association medal,

bridge university), aged 19.

.18 July, Vote for volunteer force, 1872-3, 473,2001.. 4-10 July,

.....24 June, 1872 Review of 11,504 volunteers at Wimbledon, 13 July; of

Thirteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 8 July; queen's prize 9000 at Warwick..

24 July,
won by color-sergeant Michie (London Scottish),

16 July, Registered number of volunteers, 162,681. . 1 April, 1862

The Elcho shield, the International trophy, and the Irish 20,000 volunteers reviewed by lord Clyde at Brighton,

21 April,

International trophy (all won by the English) placed in the custody of the lord mayor.......

27 July, Third meeting at Wimbledon; Mr. Pixley (S. Victoria)

Some volunteers visit Ghent..

.14-21 Sept. gains the queen's prize, etc..

1-14 July,

Fourteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 7 July; queen's prize A commission recommends that an annual grant of

won by sergeant Robert Menzies (1st Édinburgh), either 20s., 308., or 34s. be given to each volunteer ac

15 July, 1873 cording to circumstances..

Volunteers visit Havre; shoot for prizes; 50 obtain Fourth meeting at Wimbledon, 7 July, etc.; the queen's

prizes, end of May; given...

.29 June, 1874 prize, etc., won by sergeant Roberts (12th Shropshire),

14 July, 1863 Fifteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 6 July; queen's prize An act to amend and consolidate the acts relating to

won by private W. C. Atkinson (1st Durbam)..14 July,

An "efficient volunteer" defined by order in council the volunteer force of Great Britain was passed,

21 July,

(substitute for schemes of 27 July, 1863, and 15 Oct.

1872). 22,000 volunteers reviewed by the prince of Wales in

.....Aug.

. April, 1875 Hyde Park (great improvement noticed)......28 May, 1864 Resignation of earl of Ducie as chairman..

Sixteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 12 July; queen's prize Fifth meeting at Wimbledon, 11 July, etc.; the queen's

won by capt. George Pearse (15th Devon).....20 July,

175,387 enrolled volunteers, 1874; 181,080.. * The first regiment of Irish volunteers was formed at 30,000 volunteers reviewed by the prince of Wales in Dublin, under command of the duke of Leinster, 12 Oct. 1779. Hyde Park (“complete success." - Times.)....1 July, 1876 They armed generally to the amount of 20,000 men, and re- Seventeenth meeting at Wimbledon, 10-22 July; queen's ceived the unanimous thanks of the houses of lords and com- prize won by sergeant Pullman, 2d (South) Middlesex, mons in Ireland, for their patriotism and spirit, for coming

18 July, forward and defending their country. At the period when 185,501 enrolled volunteers.. the force appeared, Irish affairs bore a serious aspect; man- Eighteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 9-21 July; queen's ufactures had decreased, and foreign trade had been hurt by prize won by private George Jamieson (a Scot), or 15th a prohibition of the export of salted provisions and butter. Lancashire corps (Liverpool).

.17 July, 1877 No notice of the complaints of the people had been taken in 193,026 enrolled volunteers...

..Jan. 1878 the English parliament, when, owing to the alarm of an inva- Nineteenth meeting at Wimbledon, 8-20 July ; queen's sion, ministers allowed the nation to arm, and an immense prize won by private Peter Ray (a Scot), 11th Stirling, force was soon raised. The Irish took this occasion to de.

16 July, mand a free trade, and government saw there was no trifling 203,213 enrolled volunteers.

.Nov. with a country with arms in its hands. The Irish parliament Twentieth meeting at Wimbledon, 14-26 July; queen's unanimously addressed the king for a free trade, and it was prize won by corporal George Taylor, 4ith Lancashire, grantod, 1779.

22 July, 1879

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.... Oct.

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