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International trophy won by England........ .19 July, 1879 Vouglé, or VOUILLÉ (S.W. France, near Poitiers), Standard of efficiency: 69 per cent. 1863; 85 per cent. where Alaric II., king of the Visigoths, was defeated 1868; 96 per cent.

1880 Earl Stanhope elected chairman in room of earl Wharn- and slain by Clovis, king of France, 507, who subdued cliffe.

. May, the whole country from the Loire to the Pyrenees. A Twenty-first meeting at Wimbledon, 12–24 July; Queen's

peace followed between the Franks and Visigoths, who prize won by Alexander Ferguson, private ist Argyll,

21 July,

had been settled above one hundred years in that part East York volunteer artillery corps resign on account of of Gaul called Septimania. Clovis soon afterwards made

dismissal of col. Humphrey (through continued personal Paris his capital. disagreements), 16 June; resignations said to be illegal,

29 June, Voyages. By order of Pharaoh-Necho, of Egypt, Sergeant William Marshman, tried by court-martial for

some Phænician pilots sailed from Egypt down the alleged fraudulent marking at the rifle meetings, 1878, 1879, 1880, acquitted....

.13 Aug.-16 Sept.

Arabian gulf, round what is now called the Cape of Earl Stanhope, chairman, succeeded by earl Brownlow, Good Hope, entered the Mediterranean by the Strait

4 May, 1881 of Gibraltar, coasted along the north of Africa, and at Twenty-second meeting at Wimbledon, 11-23 July; queen's prize won by private Thomas Beck, 3d Devon, 19 July,

length arrived in Egypt, after a navigation of about

three years, 604 B.C. — Herodotus. The first voyage EASTER-MOXDAY REVIEWS AND SHAM FIGHTS.

round the world was made by a ship, part of a Spanish Brighton..

.21 April, 1862, and 5 April, 1863 Guildford.

28 March, 1864 Squadron which had been under the command of MaBrighton.

.17 April, 1865, and 2 April, 1866 gellan (who was killed at the Philippine islands in a Dover..

:22 April, 1867 skirmish) in 1519-20; see Circumnavigators and NorthPortsmouth (the most successful hitherto, 29,490 volun

west Passage. teers present).

.13 April, 1868 Dover (bad weather)..

.....29 March, 1869 Brighton, 18 April, 1870 (considered a failure). 10 April, 1871 Charles Voysey having been deprived for heresy (see

Voysey Establishment Fund.

The rev. Mock battle between sir Arthur Horsford (12,180 men, 22 guns) and gen. Lysons (11,082 men, 20 guns), Church of England, 1871), began a series of services at

1 April, 1872 St. George's hall, Langham place, 1 Oct. 1871. The fund Small reviews at Wimbledon and other places, 14 April,

for their maintenance was supported by bishop Hinds 1873; 6 April, 1874; 29 March, 1875; at Tring, etc., 17 April, 1876; at Dunstable, etc., 2 April, 1877; at Staines, of Norwich (retired), sir John Bowring, and other emietc., 22 April, 1878; at Dover, Ryegate, Wimbledon, nent liberals. He termed his congregation a “ Theistic etc., 14 April, 1879; Brighton, battle, successful, 29

Church." March, 1880..

.18 April, 1881 Above 52,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen at Wind

Vulcan, see Planets. The Greek god blephaistos sor, 9 July. ["A magnificent success; the crowning

answered to the Roman Vulcan. achievement of the volunteer movement." Times, 11 July]...

Vulcanite (vulcanized india - rubber), also termed ElCHO CHALLENGE SHIELD, shot for by teams, anu kept E bonite.

by the winning nation: Won by England: 1862, 1863, 1865, 1867, 1868, 1870, 1871, Vulgate (from vulgatus, published), a te applied 1872, 1876, 1881 (July 22).

to the Latin version of the Scriptures which is authorScotland: 1864, 1866, 1869, 1874, 1879 (July 24). Ireland: 1873, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1880 (July 22).

ized by the council of Trent (1546), and which is attrib

uted to St. Jerome, about 384. The older version, called Vossein, PEACE OF, between the elector of Bran- the Italic, is said to have been made in the beginning denburg and Louis XIV. of France; the latter engaged of the second century. A critical edition was printed not to assist the Dutch against the elector; signed 6 by order of pope Sixtus V. in 1590, which, being conJune, 1673.

sidered inaccurate, was superseded by the edition of Voting Papers, see Dodson's Act. The proposal pope Clement V. in 1592. The earliest printed vulgate to use them was negatived in the debates on reform in is without date, by Gutenburg and Fust, probably about 1867; adopted by the Ballot act in 1873.

1455; the first dated (Fust and Scheffer) is 1462.


Wacht des Deutschen Vaterland (“ Watch Easter, to abate id. A master having under him six of the German Fatherland"). German national hymn, In 1866 the annual amount of wages paid in the United

men was allowed id. a day extra...

1495 by Reichardt, first performed 2 Aug. 1825. Very popu- Kingdom was estimated by Mr. Gladstone at 250,000,lar during the war 1870-1.

0001.; by Mr. Bass at 350,000,0001. ; and by prof. Leone

Levi'at 418,300,0001., earned by 10,697,000 workers, Wadham College (Oxford). Founded by Nich- ages 20 to 60. olas Wadham, and Dorothy his wife, in 1613. In this in 1872–8 many trades struck for increase of wages, and college, in the chambers of Dr. Wilkins (over the gate- In 1878 prof. Levi estimated that 603,000,0001. were earned

frequently were successful; in 1877-9, unsuccessful. way), the founders of the Royal Society frequently met (by men, 390,000,0001. ; by women, 113,000,0001.); after prior to 1658.

deducting for holidays, etc., 422,700,0001.

He says that "in no other country are wages more libWager of Battle, see Appeal.

eral, but in no other country are they more wastefully

used." See Strikes. Wages in England. The wages of sundry workmen were first fixed by act of parliament 25 Edw. III.

Laborers' wages

Corn 1350. Haymakers had but one penny a day. Master

per week.

per quarter. 8. d.

8. d. carpenters, masons, tilers, and other coverers of houses,


62 0 had not more than 3d. per day (about 9d. of our money); 1837


55 10 and their servants, 14d.-Viner's Statutes.


53 3
11 0..

48 2 By the 23 Henry VI. the wages of a bailiff of husbandry

11 9....

57 1 was 238. 4d. per annum, and clothing of the price of 58., with meat and drink; chief hind, carter, or shep

WAGES OF HARVEST-MEN IN ENGLAND AT herd, 20s., clothing, 4s.; common servant of husbandry, 158., clothing, 40d. ; woman-servant, 10s., clothing, 48.. 1444 Year.

8. d. By the 11 Henry VII. a like rate of wages with a little


per diem 0 1 advance; as, for instance, a freemason, master - car.


0 2 penter, rough mason, bricklayer, master-tiler, plumber,

1568. glazier, carver, or joiner, was allowed from Easter to


06 Michaelmas to take 6d. a day without meat and drink;


08 or, with meat and drink, 4d.; from Michaelmas tó




0 4


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2 0


WAGES OF HARVEST-MEN IN ENGLAND AT DIFFERENT the cause of the duke's son, the earl of March, afterwards PERIODS-continued.

Edward IV., and the civil war was continued. An art Ycar.

and industrial exhibition was opened at Wakefield, 30 1740

per diem 0 10

Aug. 1865. The Bishoprics act, authorizing the estab1760.

1 0 1788.

1 4 lishnient of a see at Wakefield, was passed 16 Aug. 1878. 1794.

1 6

Wakes, the ancient parish festivals on the saint's 1800. 1811.

2 1 day to commemorate the dedication of the church; reg1850.

3 0

ulated in 1536, but gradually became obsolete. 1857.

5 0 then increased.

Walbrook Church (London), a masterpiece of sir Waghorn's New Overland Route to India. Christopher Wren, completed in 1679. There was a Lieut. Waghorn devoted a large portion of his life to church here in 1135, and a new church was erected in connect India with England. On 31 Oct. 1845, he ar- 1429. rived in London by a new route, with the Bombay mail Walcheren (an island at the mouth of the Scheldt, of the 1st of that month. His despatches reached Suez Holland). The unfortunate expedition of the British on the 19th, and Alexandria on the 20th, whence he to this isle in 1809 consisted of 35 ships of the line, and proceeded by steamboat to a place twelve miles nearer 200 smaller vessels, principally transports, and 40,000 London than Trieste. He hurried through Austria, land forces, the latter under the command of the earl of Baden, Bavaria, Prussia, and Belgium, and reached Lon-Chatham, and the fleet under sir Richard Strachan. For don at half-past four on the morning of the first-men- a long time the destination of the expedition remained tioned day. The authorities of the different countries secret; but before 28 July, 1809, when it set sail, the through which he passed eagerly facilitated his move- French journals had announced that Walcheren was the

The ordinary express, by way of Marseilles, point of attack. Flushing was invested in Aug.; a reached London 2 Nov. following. Mr. Waghorn subse-dreadful bombardment followed, and the place was taken quently addressed a letter to the T'imes newspaper, in 15 Aug.; but no suggestion on the part of the naral · which he stated that in a couple of years he would bring commander, nor urging on the part of the officers, could the Bombay mail to London in 21 days. He died 8 Jan. induce the earl to vigorous action until the period of 1850.

probable success was gone, and necessity obliged him to The Overland Mail, which had left Bombay on 1 Dec. 1845, return with as many of the troops as disease and an unarrived early on the 30th in London, by way of Marseilles healthy climate

had spared. The place was evacuated ertions made by the French government to show that the 23 Dec. 1809. The house of commons instituted an inroute through France was shorter and better.

quiry, and lord Chatham resigned his post of masterWagnerism, see under Music.

general of the ordnance, to prevent greater disgrace; but

the policy of ministers in planning the expedition was, Wagons were rare in the last century. They, with nevertheless, åpproved. The following epigram, of which carts, etc., not excepting those used in agriculture, were various readings exist, appeared at the time: taxed in 1783. The carriers' wagons are now nearly

“Lord Chatham for the warrior earl) with [his) sabre drawn, superseded by the railways.

Stood waiting for sir Richard Strachan; Wagram, a village near Vienna, where Napoleon I. Sir Richard, longing (or eager) to be at 'em,

Stood waiting for the earl or Chatham.” totally defeated the archduke Charles, 5, 6 July, 1809. The slaughter on both sides was dreadful; 20,000 Aus

Waldeck and Pyrmont, united German princitrians were taken by the French, and the defeated army palities, established in 1682. The late reigning family retired to Moravia. An armistice was signed on the claim descent from the Saxon hero, Witikind, who flour12th ; and on 24 Oct., by a treaty of peace, Austria ceded ished about 772. Prince George Victor, born 14 Jan. all her sea-coast to France; the kingdoms of Saxony and 1831, succeeded his father, George, 15 May, 1845. Heir: Bavaria were enlarged at her expense; part of Poland Frederic, son, born 20 Jan. 1865. On 22 Oct. 1867, the in Galicia was ceded to Russia; and Joseph Bonaparte states approved a treaty of annexation, and the adminwas recognized as king of Spain.

istration was transferred to Prussia, 1 Jan. 1868. Popu

lation in Dec. 1871,56,218; 1875, 57,743. Wahabees, or WAHABITES, a warlike Mahometan reforming sect, considering themselves the only true

Waldenses (also called Vallenses, Vallenses, and followers of the prophet, established themselves in Ara- Vaudois), a sect inhabiting the Cottian Alps, derive their bia about 1750, under the rule of Abd-el-Wahab, who name, according to some authors, from Peter de Waldo, died 1787. His grandson, Saoud, in 1801, defeated an

of Lyons (1170). They had a translation of the Bible, expedition headed by the caliph of Bagdad. In 1803 and allied themselves to the Albigenses, whose persecuthis sect seized Mecca and Medina, and continued their tion led to the establishment of the Holy Office or Inconquests, although their chief was assassinated in the quisition; see Albigenses. The Waldenses settled in midst of his victories. His son, Abdallah, long resisted the valleys of Piedmont about 1375, but were frequentMahommed Ali, pacha of Egypt, but in 1818 was defeat- ly dreadfully persecuted, especially in the seventeenth ed and taken prisoner by Ibrahim Pacha, who sent him century, when Charles I. of England interceded for them to Constantinople, where he was put to death. The (1627-9), and Oliver Cromwell by threats (1655-6) obsect, now flourishing, is well described by Mr. W. Gifford tained them some degree of toleration. They were perPalgrave, in his “ Journey and Residence in Arabia in mitted to have a church at Turin, Dec. 1853. In March, 1862–3," published in 1865. It is influential in India, 1868, it was stated that there were in Italy 28 ordained and is suspected of a tendency to insurrection.

Waldensian ministers, and 30 other teachers. Wahlstatt, see Kutzbach.

Wales, Cambria, Cymru, the land of the Cymry,

called by the Romans Britannia Secunda. Welsh and Waits, the night minstrels who perform shortly be- Wales are corruptions of Teutonic epithets applied to fore Christmas. The name was given to the musicians foreigners, especially Gauls. After the Roman emperor attached to the king's court. We find that a company Honorius gave up Britain, Vortigern was elected king of waits was established at Exeter in 1400 to “ pipe the of South Britain. He invited the Saxons over to dewatch." The waits in London and Westminster were fend his country against the Picts and Scots; but the long officially recognized by the corporation.

Saxons perfidiously sent for reinforcements, consisting Wakefield (W. Yorkshire), an ancient town. Near of Saxous, Danes, and Angles, by which they made it a battle was fought between the adherents of Marga- themselves masters of South Britain. Many of the ret, the queen of Henry VI., and the duke of York, in Britons retired to Wales, and defended themselves against which the latter was slain, and 3000 Yorkists fell upon the Saxons in their inaccessible mountains, about 447, the field, 31 Dec. 1460. The earl of Warwick supported in this state Wales remained unconquered till Henry II.



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subdued South Wales in 1157; and in 1282 Edward I. The earl of Pembroke and other nobles join Llewelyn entirely reduced the whole country, an end being put Prince David ravages the marches, etc.


1244 to its independence by the death of Llewelyn, the last Invasion of Henry III..

1245 prince.* In 1284 the queen gave birth to a son at Anglesey cruelly devastated by the English.. ..Sept. Caernarvon, whom Edward styled prince of Wales, now Llewelyn ap Griffith, the last prince.


1256 title of the heir to the crown of Great Britain.

Welsh princes combine against the English.

Great invasion of the English; threatened extermination was united and incorporated with England by act of of the Welsh, compelled to retreat with loss.

1257 parliament, 1536; see Britain and Bards.

Welsh offers of peace refused.......

1257-62 Llewelyn's incursions into English territory.

1263 Ostorius Scapula, proprætor of Britain, defeats the Reported conference between him and Simon de MontCymry...

fort against the Plantagenets

1265 The supreme authority in Britannica Secunda intrusted

Llewelyn does homage to Henry III. for a treaty..Sept. 1267 to Suetonius Paulinus, who caused desolating wars...58-61 Edward I. summons Llewelyn to Westminster; on his reConquests by Julius Frontinus...


fusal to come, deposes him, 1276; and invades Wales, The Silures totally defeated...

June, 1277 The Roman, Julius Agricola, commands in Britain. 78 Llewelyn submits and obtains good terms. 10 Nov. Bran ab Llyr, the Blessed, dies about.

80 He marries Eleanor de Montfort.

..13 Oct. The Druidical class gradually dissolved by the influence The sons of Gruffydd treacherously drowned in the river of Christianity in...


Dee, by the earl Warrenne and Roger Mortimer; great The Britons defeat the Saxons. .447-448 insurrection ....

1291 Vortigern king..

448 Hawarden castle taken by surprise by Llewelyn and his The renowned Arthur elected king.

about 500

brother David, 21 March; they destroy Flint and Defeats Saxons.

.about 527

Rhuddlan castles, Fruitless negotiations .......Nov. 1282 Cadwallawn, king of Gwynedd, defeated and slain by

Battle between Llewelyn and the English near Aber Edw; the Saxons at Denisburn..

..about 634

Llewelyn slain, after the battle, by Adam Frankton, Dyvnwal Moelmud, said to have come from Armorica,

11 Dec. and to have established his authority west of the Prince David surrenders, and is executed.....

1283 Tamar and Severn as king of the Cymry........ about 640 Wales finally subdued by Edward I..... Reign of Roderic the Great...

844 The first English prince of Wales, son of Edward, born at He unites the petty states into one principality; his

Caernarvon castle (see Princes of Wales, p. 736), death.


25 April, 1284 Division of Wales -- into north, south, and central (or Statute of Wales (see note above) enacted.....19 March, Powysland).

Many insurrections suppressed and the leaders executed, The Welsh princes submit to Alfred. 885

1287-1320 The Danes land in Anglesey..

900 Great rebellion of Owain Glyndwr, or Owen Glendower Laws enacted by Howel Dha, prince of all Wales. .about 920 (descendant of the last prince, Llewelyn), commences. 1400 Athelstan subdues the Welsh...

933 Radnor and other places taken by Owain Glyndwr...... 1401 Civil wars at his death..

.about 948 Allies with the Scots and the Percies: besieges CaernarGreat battle between the sons of Howel Dha and the


1402 sons of Idwal Voel; the latter victorious.. 954 And seizes Harlech castle..

1404 Edgar invades Wales. ... .. about 973 Makes a treaty with France.

.10 May, Devastations committed by Edwin, the son of Eineon... 980 Harlech castle retaken by the English forces.

1407 Danes invade Wales; lay Anglesey waste, etc........980-1000 Loses his allies by their defeat at Branham moor, 19 Feb. 1408 The country reduced by Aedan, prince of North Wales.. 1000 Ravages the English territories...

1409 Aedan, the usurper, slain in battle by Llewelyn... 1015 Refuses to ask for terms or submit; dies. .21 Sept. 1415 Part of Wales laid waste by the forces of Harold.. 1063 His son submits...

24 Feb. 1416 William I. claims feudal authority over Wales. Rhys abOwain kills king Bleddyn, 1073; defeatedandslain; 1077 Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI., takes refuge in

1459 Ravaging invasion of Hugh, earl of Chester.. 1079-80 Town of Denbigh burned.

1460 Invasion of the Irish and Scots..

1080 The earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., lands in William I. invades Wales.

Pembroke, and is aided by the Welsh..

Aug. 1485 Battle of Llechryd. ..

1087 Palatine jurisdictions in Wales abolished by Henry VIII. 1535 [In this conflict the sons of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn were

Monmouth made an English county; counties of Breckslain by Rhys ab Tewdwr, the reigning prince. Rhys ab 'Tewdwr slain: S, Wales conquered by the English, 1090 Act for laws and justice to be administered in Wales

nock, Denbigh, and Radnor formed Invasion of the English under William II..


in same form as in England," 27 Hen. VIII.. The settlement in Wales of a colony of Flemings. 1106 Wales incorporated into England by parliament.

1536 Violent seizure of Nest, wife of Gerald de Windsor, by

Divided into twelve counties..

1543 Owain, son of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn..

1108 Dr. Ferrar, bishop of St. David's, burned at the

stake for Cardigan conquered by Strongbow..


.30 March, 1555 Cadwgan assassinated...

1112 Lewis Owain, a baron of the exchequer, attacked and Gruffydd ab Rhys lays claim to the sovereignty. 1113

murdered while on his assize tour. Another body of Flemings settlo in Pembrokeshire.

The Bible and prayer-book ordered to be translated into [The posterity of these settlers are still distinguished

Welsh, and divine service to be performed in that from the ancient British population by their language,


1562 manners, and customs.)

Welsh Bible printed..

1588 Civil war in South Wales and Powysland leads to the

First congregation of dissenters assembled in Wales; subjugation of the country by the English; Henry I.

Vavasour Powel apprehended while preaching.. 1620 erects castles in Wales..

1114 et seq.
Beaumaris castle garrisoned for king Charles I..

1642 Owain killed in battle with Gerald do Windsor.


Powys castle taken by sir Thomas Myddelton....... Oct. 1614 Revolt of Owen Gwynedd on the death of Henry 1.; part

Dr. Laud, formerly bishop of St. David's, beheaded on of South Wales laid waste.....

Tower hill..

..10 Jan. 1645 The English defeated in several battles.

1136 Surrender of Hawarden castle to the parliament general Strongbow, earl of Pembroke, invested with the powers

Mytton.... of a count palatine in Pembroke.....

1138 Charles I. takes refuge in Denbigh. Henry II. invades Wales, receives a stout resistance from

Rhudd castle surrenders.... Owen Gwynedd, but subdues South Wales..


Harlech castle surrenders to Cromwell's army under Confederacy of the princes of Wales for the recovery of


1647 their independence..


Battle of St. Fagan's; the Welsh defeated by col. Horton, Prince Madoc said to have emigrated to America. .about 1169

Cromwell's lieutenant..

.....8 May, 1648 Anglesey devastated...


Beaumaris castle surrenders to Cromwell. The crusades preached in Wales by Baldwin, archbishop

Pembroke castle taken; colonel Poyer shot... 25 April,t 1649 of Canterbury.

1188 The earl of Chester's inroad into North Wales.


† At the commencement of the civil war, Pembroke castle King John invades Wales, laying waste a great part of

was the only Welsh fortress in the possession of the parliathe principalities; exacts tribute and allegiance. 1211

ment, and it was intrusted to the command of col. Langharne. The pope incites the Welsh to resist John..

1212 Revolt of the Flemings.

In 1648, he, and colonels Powel and Poyer, embraced the cause

1220 Llewelyn, prince of North Wales, commits great ravages;

of the king, and made Pembroke their headquarters; after overcomes Henry III. ...

the defeat at St. Fagan's they retired to the castle, followed 1228

by an army led by Cromwell. They capitulated, after having

endured great sufferings from want of water. Langharne, * The statute of Wales, enacted at Rhuddlan, 19 March, | Powel, and Poyer were tried by a court martial, and condemn 1284 (or March, 1283), alleges that "Divine Providence has ed to death; but Cromwell having been induced to spare the now removed all obstacles, and transferred wholly and entire lives of two of them, it was ordered that they should draw ly to the king's dominion the land of Wales and its inhabi. | lots for the favor, and three papers were folded up, on two of ints, heretofore subject unto him in feudal right." The an. which were written the words, "Life given by God;" the cient laws were to be preserved in civil causes; but the law third was left blank. The latter was drawn by col. Poyer, of inheritance was to be changed, and the English criminal who was shot in London accordingly on the above-mentioned law to be put in force.-Annals of England.

day, after long imprisonment. -- Pennant.

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The lords marchers' court suppressed..

1688 | 1841. Albert Edward, son of queen Victoria ; born 9 Nov. “Charitable Society of Ancient Britons" and Welsh char

Baptized. king of Prussia a sponsor, 15 Jan. 1842. ity schools, established (now at Ashford).


Travelled on the continent, and studied at Oxford and Cymmrodorion Society (for charitable purposes) estab.

Edinburgh, in 1859. lished...

.1751-81 Visited Canada, with the dignity of a viceroy, and the The French land in Pembrokeshire, and are made pris.

United States, 1860. oners.

..Feb. 1797 Entered the university of Cambridge in Jan. ; attended Rebecca or “Becca" riots broke out against toll-gates,

the camp at the Curragh, Kildare, July to Sept.; Feb.; an old woman, a toll-keeper, was murdered, 10

opened New Middle Temple Library, 31 Oct. 1861. Sept.; many persons were tried and punished. ... Oct. 1843 Ordered to be prayed for as Albert Edward, 8 Jan. ; visCambrian Archæological Association founded..


ited the continent, Syria, and Egypt, March-June; Subscriptions begun for a university in Wales.. Dec. 1863

Germany and Italy, Aug. -Dec. 1862. A national unsectarian university college at Aberystwyth

Admitted to the house of peers, 5 Feb.; a privy-counopened..

.9 Oct. 1872

cillor, 8 Dec. 1863. Great strike of colliers in South Wales, 1 Jan. ; ends

Married to princess Alexandra of Denmark, 10 March, about....

. 27 March, 1873

1863. Cymmrodorion Society, to promote literature and art,

Visited Denmark and Sweden, Sept.-Oct. 1864; Russia, re-established.


Nov.-Dec. 1866. Great distress in South Wales through decay of coal trade

Visited International exhibition, Paris, May, 1867. by strikes and commercial depression...

1877-8 Visited Ireland; arrived at Dublin, 15 April, 1868. “Rebecca" riots; people of Rhayader on the Wye capt

Installed knight of St. Patrick, 18 April, 1868. ure fish out of season illegally; and resist the water

Opened Leeds Fine Arts exhibition, 19 May, 1868. bailiffs.... .... .Dec. 1878-Jan. 1879 With the princess at Glasgow, laid foundation of now

university, 8 Oct. 1868. SOVEREIGNS OF WALES.

Sailed for the continent, 17 Nov.; called at Paris; ar630. Cadwallawn, king of Gwynedd.

rived at Copenhagen, 29 Nov.; visited Berlin, Vienna, 634. Cadwaladyr, his son.

and arrived at Cairo, 3 Feb. 1869. 661. Idwal, son.

Examined the Suez canal, Feb.; arrived at Constanti. 728. Rhodri, or Roderic; heroic defender.

nople, 1 April; at Sebastopol, 13–17 April; at Athens, 755. Cynan and Howel, sons; incessant war.

19-24 April; landed at Dover, 13 May, 1869. 818. Mervyn; son-in-law, and Essylt (wife).

Inaugurated Victoria embankment (Thames), 13 July, 844. Roderic the Great, son.


Opened Workmen's International exhibition, Islington, PRINCES OF GWYNEDD, OR NORTH WALES, AND FREQUENTLY OF

16 July, 1870. ALL WALES.

Attacked with typhoid fever, about 19 Nov. ; greatest 877. Anarawd, son of Roderic.

danger, 6–13 Dec.; amendment began 14 Dec. 1871. 915. Idwal Voel.

Went to St. Paul's with the queen for thanksgiving, 27 943. Howel Dha the Good, prince of all Wales.

Feb.; sailed for the continent, 11 March; visited the 948. Iefan and lago; sons of Idwal.

pope, 27 March; opened new grammar-school at Yar972. Howel ap lefan, the Bad.

mouth, 6 June; the East London Museum, 24 June, 984. Cadwallon, brother.

1872. 985. Meredith ap Owen ap Howel Dha.

At the opening of the great exhibition at Vienna, 1 May, 992. Idwal ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel; able, brave.

1873. 998. Aedan, a usurper.

At the duke of Edinburgh's wedding at St. Petersburg, 1015. Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt; good sovereign.

23 Jan. ; visit to France, entertained by the duc de la 1023. Iago ap Idwal ap Meyric.

Rochefoucauld-Bisaccia, duc d'Aumale, and others, 1039. Griffith ap Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt; killed.

about 17 Oct.; at Birmingham, 3 Nov. 1874. 1067. Bleddyn.

Installed grand-master of the Freemasons of England, 28 1073. Trahaern ap Caradoc.

April, 1875. 1079. Griffith ap Cynan; able, warlike, generous.

112,000l. voted for his visit to India (more than suf1137. Owain Gwynedd; energetic, successful warrior.

ficient), July, 1875. 1169. Howell, son.

Sailed from Dover, 11 Oct. ; warmly received at Athens, David ap Owain Gwynedd, brother; married sister of

18 Oct.; at Cairo, invested Mohammed Tewök, the Henry II.

son of the khedive, with the Star of India, 25 Oct. 1194. Llewelyn, the Great.

1875. 1240. David ap Llewelyn.

Arrived at Bombay, 8 Nov.; Poonah, 13 Nov.; Goa, 27 1246. Llewelyn ap Griffith, last prince of the blood; slain after Nov.; Colombo, Ceylon, '1 Dec.; Madras, 13 Dec.; battle, 11 Dec., 1282.

Calcutta, 23 Dec. 1875.

At Benares, 5 Jan. ; Lucknow, 6 Jan.; Delhi, 11 Jan.; ENGLISH PRINCES OF WALES. *

Lahore, 18 Jan.; Jummoo, Cashmere, 20 Jan. ; Agri, 1284. Edward Plantagenet (afterwards king Edward II.) son

25 Jan. ; Gwalior, 31 Jan.; in Nepaul, 12 Feb; at of Edward I., born in Caernarvon castle on 25 April,

Allahabad, 7 March; sailed from Bombay, 13 March; 1284. It is asserted that immediately after his birth

arrived in Malta, 6 April; Gibraltar, 15 April; Seville, he was presented by his father to the Welsh chief:

21 April; Madrid, 25 April; Lisbon, 1 May; London, tains as their future sovereign, the king holding up

with about 500 animals for the zoological gardens, 11 the royal infant in his arms, and saying, in the Welsh

May ; banquet at Mansion-house, 19 May; reviewed language, "Eich Dyn," literally in English, “This is 30,000 volunteers in Hyde park, 1 July, 1876. your man," but signifying, “This is your country.

President of the British commissioners at the Paris exman and king." See, however, “Ich Dien."

hibition, 1878. 1301. Edward of Caernarvon, made prince of Wales and earl

Presided at National Water Supply conference, 21 May; of Chester.

laid foundation of St. Mary's, Wilberforce memorial 1343. Edward the Black Prince.

church, Southampton, 12 Aug. 1878. 1376. Richard, his son (afterwards Richard II.).

Laid foundation of new hospital, Norwich, 27 June; 1399. Henry (afterwards Henry V.), son of Henry IV.

opened new dock at Great Grimsby, 22 July, 1879. 1454. Edward, son of Henry VI.; slain at Tewkesbury, 4 May,

Laid foundation of new cathedral at Truro, 20 April; 1471.

opened new dock at Holyhead, 17 June, 1880. 1471. Edward (afterwards Edward V.), son of Edward IV.

Laid foundation of central Institution of City and Guilds 1483. Edward, son of Richard III. ; died in 1484.

of London Institute, South Kensington, 18 July, 1881. 1489. Arthur, son of Henry VII. ; died in 1502.

Issue : Albert-Victor; born 8 Jan. 1864. 1503. Henry his brother (afterwards Henry VIII.).

George Frederick; born 3 June, 1865. Edward, his son (afterwards Edward VI.) was duke of Louise Victoria; born 20 Feb. 1867. Cornwall, and not prince of Wales.

Alexandra; born 6 July, 1868. 1610. Henry Frederic, son of James I.; died 6 Nov. 1612.

Maud; born 26 Nov. 1869. 1616. Charles, his brother (afterwards Charles I.).

Alexander John; born 7 April, died 8 April, 1871 Charles, his son (afterwards Charles II.), never created

Walhalla, or VALHALLA (the Hall of Glory), a temprince of Wales. 1714. George Augustus (afterwards George II.).

|ple near Ratisbon, erected by Louis, king of Bavaria, to 1729. Frederic Lewis, his son; died 20 March, 1751.

receive the statues and memorials of the great inen of 1751. George, his son (afterwards George III.). 1762. George, his son (afterwards George IV.): born 12 Aug. Oct. 1842. The name is derived from the fabled meet

Germany, commenced 18 Oct. 1830, and inaugurated 18

ing-place of Scandinavian heroes after death. * WALES, PRINCESS OF. This title was held, some authors say, during the early period of her life, by the princess Mary

Walking, see Pedestrianism. of England, eldest daughter of Henry VIII., and afterwards

Walking-sticks, a term satirically applied to canqueen Mary I. She was created, they state, by her father princess of Wales, in order to conciliate the Welsh people and didates for the house of commons nominated by political keep alive the name, and was the only princess of Wales in associations, and subject to them in their parliamentary her own right; a rank she enjoyed until the birth of a son to votes, 1878. Henry, who was afterwards Edward VI., born in 1537. This is donied by Banks.

Wallace Monument, at Abbey Craig, near Stir

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ling, was inaugurated 27 Aug. 1869, and soon after given Waltz, the popular German national dance, was ininto the charge of the magistrates of Stirling. It cost troduced into England by baron Neuman and others in about 13,0001. The telescope there was presented by 1813.-Raikes. the Scotch inhabitants of Ipswich, 24 June, 1865.

Wandewash (S. India). Here the French, under Wallachia, see Danubian Principalities. On 23 Lally, were severely defeated by col. Eyre Coote, 22 Jan. Dec. 1861, the union of Wallachia and Moldavia, under 1760. the name of Roumania, was proclaimed at Jassy and Bucharest,

Wandsworth, near London. Here was organized

a " presbytery,” 20 Nov. 1572. In Garratt lane, near Waller's Plot. Edmund Waller, the poet, and this place, a mock election of a mayor of Garratt was others, conspired to disarm the London militia and let in formerly held, after every general election of parliament, the royalists, May, 1643. The plan was detected and to which Foote's dramatic piece, “The Mayor of Garratt" punished, June-July, 1643. Waller betrayed his con- (1763), gave no small celebrity. The iron bridge here federates, and was suffered to emigrate.

was opened 26 Sept. 1873. Wallis's Voyage. Capt. Wallis sailed from Eng

War, called by Erasmus “the malady of princes." land on his voyage round the world, 26 July, 1766; and Osymandyas of Egypt, the first warlike king, passed returned to England, 19 May, 1768.

into Asia, and conquered Bactria, 2100 B.C.Usher. He Walloons, descendants of the ancient inhabitants is supposed by some to be the Osiris of the priests. It of the Low Countries. Some of them fled to England is computed that, up to the present time, no less than from the persecution of the duke of Alva, the governor 6,860,000,000 men have perished on the field of battle; of the Low Countries for Philip II. of Spain, 1566. A see Battles, Secretaries, Neutral Powers. An internachurch was given to them by queen Elizabeth at Sand- tional conference on "usages of war” began at Brussels, wich, and they still have one at Canterbury. Their 27 July, 1874, and closed without important results; see language is considered to be based on that of the ancient Brussels Conference. In 1880, about 4,000,000 men in Gauls.

arms; annual cost, 500,000,000L.

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1604 1118 Scotland.

1486 Spain

1624 1629 1139 France

1492 France..

1627 1629
1186 France
1512 1514 Holland..

1651 1654 1195 France.. 1522 1527 Spain..

1655 1660 1216 Scotland, 1522 1542 France..

1666 1668 1234 | Scotland. 1542 1546 Denmark

1666 1668 1299 Scotland. 1547 1550 Holland

1666 1668 1323 France..

1550 Algiers..

1669 1671
1328 France.
1557 1559 Holland

1672 1674 1360 Scotland 1557 1560 ) France.


1697 1420 | France

1562 1564

Peace of Ryswick, 20 Sept. 1697

Walls, see Roman Walls and China.

War of the Succession, commenced 4 May, 1702 Peace of

Utrecht, 13 March, 1713. Walnut-tree has long existed in England.* The War with Spain, 16 Dec. 1718. Peace concluded, 1721. black walnut-tree (Juglans nigra) was brought to this Spanish War, 23 Oct. 1739. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 30 April,

1748. country from North America before 1629.

War with France, 31 March, 1744. Closed also on 30 April, Walpole's Administrations. Mr. Walpole


Peace of Paris, 10 Feb. (afterwards sir Robert, and earl of Oxford) was born in Seven Years' War, 9 June, 1756.

1763. 1676; became secretary at war in 1708; was expelled War with Spain, 4 Jan. 1762. General peace, 10 Feb. 1763. the house of commons on a charge of misappropriating War with the United States of North America, 14 July, 1774. the public money, 1711; committed to the Tower, 17 War with France, 6 Feb. 1778.

v. 1782.

Peace of Paris, 20 Jan. 1783. Jan. 1712; became first lord of the treasury and chan- War with Spain,'17 April, 1780. Closed same time, 20 Jan. cellor of the exchequer in Oct. 1715. He resigned, on a 1783. disunion of the cabinet, in 1717, bringing in the sink- War with Holland, 21 Dec. 1780. Peace signed, 2 Sept. 1783.

War of the French Revolution, 1 Feb. 1793. Peace of Amiens, ing-fund bill on the day of his resignation. On the

27 March, 1802. earl of Sunderland retiring in 1721, he resumed his War against Bonaparte, 29 April, 1803. Finally closed, 18 office, and held it till Feb. 1742. He died 18 March, June, 1815. 1745.

War with America, 18 June, 1812. Peace of Ghent, 24 Dec.

1814. SECOND WALPOLE ADMINISTRATION (APRIL, 1721). War with Russia, 27 March, 1854. Peace of Paris, 31 March, Sir Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury.

1856. Thomas, lord Parker, created earl of Macclesfield, lord-chan

For the wars with India, China, Persia, Abyssinia, Afghanis. cellor.

tan, and Zululand, see those countries respectively. Henry, lord Carleton (succeeded by William, duke of Devon- War Affairs. On account of the war with Russia,

shire, lord-president. Evelyn, duke of Kingston (succeeded by lord Trevor), privy the duke of Newcastle, previously colonial secretary, was seal.

appointed a secretary for war affairs, and a cabinet minJames, earl of Berkeley, first lord of the admiralty.

ister, 9 June, 1854; see Secretaries. War-office act, Charles (viscount Townshend), and John, lord Carteret (the passed 20 June, 1870, appoints a financial secretary (who

latter succeeded by the duke of Newcastle), secretaries of state.

may sit in parliament) and other officers. An act for Duke of Marlborough (succeeded by the earl of Cadogan), ord. the protection of war-department stores was passed in

1867. By the warrant abolishing purchase in the army, George Treby (succeeded by Henry Pelham), secretary at war. in 1871, Nr. Cardwell became virtually uncontrolled minViscount Torrington, etc.

ister of war. For WAR-OFFICE CHARGE, see under Army Walrus. One placed in the Zoological Gardens in and Admiralty. 1853 lived a few days only; another was placed there in

War, GAME OF (German, Kriegspiel), invented by a the autumn of 1867, and died 25 Dec.

civilian in Germany (after the war which ended 1815), and com

a Prussian officer about 1824. * Near Welwyn, in Hertfordshire, there was the largest wali society (including Von Moltke) was formed at Magdenineteen loads of planks; and as much was sold to a gunsmith burg to study it. Prince Arthur lectured on this game in London as cost 101. carriage; besides which there were at Dover, 13 Marchi, 1872. thirty loads of roots and branches. When standing it covered 76 poles of ground; a space equal to 2299 square yards, stat.

Warbeck's Insurrection. Perkin Warbeck, ute measure.

the son of a Florentine Jew, to whom Edward IV. bad


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