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stood godfather, was persuaded by Margaret, duchess of April, 1521, and where he translated the Bible into GerBurgundy, sister to Richard III., to personate her nephew man. Richard, Edward V.'s brother, which he did first in Ire

Warwick Castle (Warwickshire), the seat of the land, where he landed, 1492. The imposture was dis- Beauchamps, Nevilles, Plantagenets, Dudley's, Riches, covered by Henry VII., 1493. Some writers consider and Grevilles, successively, and frequently besieged; that Warbeck was not an impostor.

suffered much by fire, 3 Dec. 1871, some of the more Warbeck attempted to land in Kent, with 600 men; 169 were ancient parts being destroyed.

taken prisoners, and executed, July, 1495. Recommended by the king of France to James IV. of Scotland,

Wash-houses, see Baths. who gave him his kinswoman, lord Huntley's daughter, in marriage, when he assumed the title of Richard IV. James ed by Americans. At a hotel in New York, hundreds

Washing-machines. Sereral have been invent. IV. invaded England in his favor, 1496. Left Scotland, and went to Bodmin, in Cornwall, where 3000 of garments are washed in a few minutes by steam, and

joined him, Sept. 1497. On the approach of Henry took sanctuary at Beaulieu; sur machines of Messrs. Hornsby, of Norwich, appeared in

dried by a centrifugal machine (1862). The ingenious rendered; taken to London, Oct. 1497. Said to have been set in the stocks at Westminster and Cheap- the great exhibition of London, 1862. side, and sent to the Tower, June, 1499.

Washington (in the District of Columbia), the Accused of plotting with the earl of Warwick to escape out

of the Tower, by murdering the lieutenant, Aug. ; the plot capital of the United States, founded in 1791, and made failed, and he was hanged at Tyburn, 23 Nov.; the earl be the seat of government in 1800. headed, 28 Nov. 1499.

The bouse of representatives opened ....... .30 May, 1808 Warburg (N. Germany). Here the French were Washington was taken by the British forces under gen.

Ross, after his victory at Bladensburg; its superb defeated by the duke of Brunswick and the allies, 31

structures and national library burned. 24 Aug. 1814 July, 1760.

Gen. Ross killed by some American riflemen, in a desWardian Cases. In 1829, Mr. N. B. Ward, from Naval observatory founded...

perate engagement at Baltimore...

.12 Sept.

1842 observing a small fern and grass growing in a closed Smithsonian Institute (which see) founded.

1846 glass bottle, in which he had placed a chrysalis covered Part of the capitol and the whole of the library of the with moist earth, was led to construct his well-known The prince of Wales entertained by the president here,

United States congress destroyed by fire...... 24 Dec. 1851 closely glazed cases, which afford to plants light, heat,

Oct. 1660 and moisture, and exclude deleterious gases, smoke, etc. Washington fortified in..

. April, 1861 They are particularly adapted for ferns. In 1833 they President Lincoln shot by Booth in Ford's theatre, 14 were first employed for the transmission of plants to Syd

April; died.

15 April, 1865

(See United States.) ney, etc., with great success, and prof. Faraday lectured on the subject in 1838.


Fixing northwest boundary of British America and Wardmotes, meetings of the citizens of London in United States, etc...

12 June, 1846 their wards, where they elect annually their common- “Reciprocity” treaty regulating trade with Canada, councilmen. The practice is said to have begun in 1386. Referring the Alabama claims and the San Juan boun

7 June, 1854 They had previously assembled in Guildhall.

dary question to arbitration; settling disputes respect

ing fisheries (see Alabama and Juan), and laying down Warrants, General, do not specify the name of three rules; asserting that it is the duty of a peutral the accused. They were declared to be illegal by lord state, which desires to remain at peace with belligerchief-justice Pratt, 6 Dec. 1763, in relation to the seizure

ents, and to enjoy the rights of neutrality, to abstain

from taking any part in the war by affording military and committal of Mr. Wilkes for a libel on the king; see

aid to one or both of the belligerents; and to take care North Britain.

that no acts which would constitute such co-operation

in the war be committed by any one within its terriWarrior, see under Navy of England, 1860.


....8 May, 1871 Warsaw, the metropolis of Poland. The diet was transferred to this city from Cracow in 1566, and it be highest point of Manhattan Island, was built in 1776;

Washington, Fort, CAPTURE OF. This fort, on the came the seat of government in 1689. Population in taken by British and Hessians, 16 Nov. 1776. 1859, 162,777.

Wasium (named from the royal house of Wasa or The Poles defeated in three days' battle by the Swedes,

Vasa), a supposed new metal, discovered by F. Bahr, of

28-30 July, 1656 Alliance of Warsaw, between Austria and Poland, against

Stockholm, in 1862. In Nov. 1863, Nicklès declared it Turkey, in pursuance of which John Sobieski assisted to be a compound of didymium, yttrium, and terbium. in raising the siege of Vienna (September following); signed...

.31 March, 1683

Waste Lands. The enclosure of waste lands and Warsaw surrenders to Charles XII...

1703 commons, in order to promote agriculture, first began in Treaty of Warsaw between Russia and Poland... 24 Feb. 1768 England about the year 1547, and gave rise to Ket's reThe Russian garrison here expelled with the loss of 2000 killed and 500 wounded, and 36 pieces of cannon,

bellion, 1549. Enclosures were again promoted by the

17 April, 1794 authority of parliament, 1785. The waste lands in EngThe Poles defeated by the Russians at Maciejovice, 4 Oct. land were estimated in 1794 to amount to 14,000,000 The king of Prussia besieges Warsaw, July; compelled to raise the siege, Sept. ; it is taken by the Russians,

acres, of which there were taken into cultivation 2,837,

Nov. 476 acres before June, 1801. In 1841 there were about Suwarrow, the Russian general, after the siege and de- 6,700,000 acres of waste land, of which more than half struction of Warsaw, cruelly butchered 30,000 Poles,

was thought to be capable of improvement; see Agriof all ages and conditions, in cold blood... 4 Nor. Warsaw constituted a duchy, and annexed to the house

culture, of Saxony

Aug. 1807

Wat Tyler's Insurrection, see Tyler. The duchy orerrun by the Russians; Warsaw made the residence of a Russian viceroy


Watch of London, at night, appointed 1253, proThe last Polish revolution commences at Warsaw,

claimed the hour with a bell before the introduction of

29 Nov. 1830 Battle of Grochow, near Warsaw, in which the Russians

public clocks.—Hardie. The old watch was discon. were defeated, and forced to retreat with the loss of tinued, and a new police (on duty day and night) com7000 men..

...... 25 Feb. 1831 menced, 29 Sept. 1829; see Police. Battle of Warsaw, when, after two days' hard fighting, the city capitulated, and was taken possession of by

Watches are said to have been first invented at the Russians; and great part of the Polish army re- Nuremberg, 1447; although it is affirmed that Robert, tired towards Plock and Modlin.

..6-8 Sept.

king of Scotland, had a watch about 1310. The czar meets the emperor of Austria and the regent of Prussia; no result..

20-25 Oct. 1860

Watches first used in astronomical observations by Pur. (See Poland, 1861-5.)

1500 Wartburg, a castle in Saxony (N. Germany), where Authors assert that the emperor Charles V. was the firsi

who had anything that might be called a wnuh, Luther was conveyed for safety after the diet of Worms, though some call it a small table-clock..


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Watches first brought to England from Germany in.... 1577 | Prout, etc., within the present century. The WaterA watch which belonged to queen Elizabeth is preserved in the library of the Royal Institution, London.

color Society's exhibition was begun in 1805. Spring pocket-watches (watches properly so called) haro Waterford (S. Ireland), built about 879, was totally

had their invention ascribed to Dr. Hooke by the EngJish, and to M. Huyghens by the Dutch. Dr. Derham,

destroyed by fire in 981. Rebuilt and considerably enin his “ Artificial Clockmaker,” says that Dr. Hooko

larged by Strongbow in 1171, and still further in the was the inventor; and he appears certainly to have reign of Henry VII., who granted considerable privileges produced what is called the pendulum watch about to the citizens. Richard II. landed and was crowned 1658; manifest, among other evidences, from an inscription on one of the double-balance watches pre

here in 1399; in 1690, James II. embarked from hence sented to Charles II. : “Rob. Hooke, inven. 1658; T. for France, after the battle of the Boyne; and William Tompion, fecit, 1675."

III. resided here twice, and confirmed its privileges. Pepeating watches invented by Barlowe..

1676 Harrison's first timepiece produced (see Harrison).

Memorable storm here, 18 April, 1792. The cathedral

1735 Watches and clocks were taxed in...

1797 of Waterford, dedicated to the blessed Trinity, was first The tax was repealed in...

1798 built by the Ostmen, and by Malchus, the first bishop (See Clocks.)

of Waterford, after his return from England from his Water. Thales of Miletus, founder of the Ionic sect, consecration, 1096. This see was united with that of considered water to be the original principle of every- Lismore in 1363. It was valued in the king's books, by thing, about 594 B.C.Stanley. In the Roman Church an extent returned 29 Henry VIII., at 721. 8s. 1d. Irish water was first mixed with the sacramental wine, A.D.

per annum. By stat. 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 37 (the Irish 122.-Lenglet.

Church Temporalities act), the see of Waterford and Cavendish and Watt demonstrated that water is com. posed of 8 parts of oxygen and 1 part of bydrogenase1781-4 14 Aug. 1833. The interior of the cathedral, organ, etc.,

Lismore was united with the see of Cashel and Emly, Water was decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen gases

by Lavoisier, 1783; by the voltaic battery by Nichol- were destroyed by fire, 25 Oct. 1815.
son and Carlisle, 1800; by the heat of the oxy-hydro.
gen flame by W. R. Grove...

1846 Water-glass, a name given to a liquid mixture In freezing, water contracts till it is reduced to 420 of sand (silex) and one of the alkalies (potash or soda).

or 40° Fahr.; it then begins to expand till it becomes Glauber (De Lithiuse) mentions a similar mixture in

ice at 320. Water was first conveyed to London by leaden pipes, 21

1644. Dr. Von Fuchs, the modern inventor, gave an Hen. III., 1237 - Stow. It took nearly fifty years to account of his process in 1825; and Mr. Frederick Rancomplete it; the whole being finished, and Cheapside some, of Ipswich, ignorant of Von Fuchs's discovery, conduit erected, only in..

1285 The New River water brought to London from Chadwell

patented a mode of preparing water-glass in 1845, which and Amwell in Hertfordshire, at an immense expense,

he has since greatly improved upon. In 1857, M. Kubl. by sir Hugh Myddleton, in....


mann, of Lille, published a pamphlet setting forth the The city was supplied with its water by conveyances of

advantageous employment of water-glass in hardening wooden pipes in the streets and small leaden ones to the houses, and the New River Company was incor. porous stone and in stereochromy (which see). It has porated, 1620. So late as queen Anne's time there been applied to the exterior of many buildings in France were water-carriers at Aldgate pump.

and England. The memoirs of Von Fuchs and KuhlThe water-works at Chelsea completed, and the company incorporated

1722 mann were translated and printed in England, in 1859, London-bridge ancient water-works destroyed by fire, by direction of the prince-consort.

29 Oct. 1779 An act to supply the metropolis with water, 15 & 16 Vict. Watering Streets. Mr. Cooper's plan for using

c. 84, was passed 1 July, 1852. This act was amended solutions of chloride of lime or of sodium (which dry by an act passed 21 Aug. 1871. The companies were

slowly and attract moisture and ammonia and other bound to provide a constant supply when required; the owner or occupier of the house to provide the pre

gases, and combine them with the material of the road) scribed fittings

was partially used in the parish of St. Mary-le-Bone in [The supply is now considered to be much improved

1868, and also in Liverpool, Boston, and other towns. in quality and quantity.) A company was formed to carry out Dr. Normandy's

The plan was ordered to be tried in Westminster in July, patent for converting salt water into fresh, in....Jan. 1857 1870. Commissioners for metropolitan water supply appointe'l, 27 April, 1867; report signed..

..9 June, 1869

Waterloo, in Belgium, the site of the great battle, London supplied by nine companies: the New River on Sunday, 18 June, 1815, between the French army of

(the best), East London, Chelsea, Grand Junction, 71,947 men and 246 guns, under Napoleon, and the allies Southwark and Vauxhall, Kent, West Middlesex, Lain: beth, and South Essex; who deliver about 108,000,000

commanded by the duke of Wellington; the latter, with gallons daily, 1867; about 116,250,000 gallons.. 1877 67,661 men and 156 guns, resisted the various attacks New schemes for supplying London with water, 1867: of the enemy from about ten in the morning until fire 1. Mr. Bateman; from the sources of the Severn.

in the afternoon. About that time 16,000 Prussians 2. Messrs. Hemans and Hassard, from the Cumberland lakes.

reached the field of battle; and by seven, the force un3. Mr. Telford Macneill; Thames water Ältered through der Blucher amounted to above 50,000 men, with 104 Bagshot sand.

guns. Wellington then moved forward his whole army. 4. Mr. Bailey Denton; storage reservoirs near the

A total rout ensued, and the carnage was immense. Of sources of the Thames. 5. Mr. Remington; from the Derbyshire and Stafford- the British (23,991), 93 officers and 1916 men were killed shire bills.

and missing, and 363 officers and 4560 men woundedThe water from the first two sources analyzed and highly approved by profs. Frankland and odling.... April

, 1868 total, 6932; and the total loss of the allied army amountWater from the chalk districts softened by Homersham's

ed to 4206 killed, 14,539 wounded, and 4231 missing, process strongly recommended, Jan. 1871.. ... ... Aug 1878 making 22,976 hors de combat. Napoleon, quitting the Conference on the national water supply at Society of wreck of his army, returned to Paris; and, finding it imArts (suggested by the prince of Wales, president),

21, 22 May,

possible to raise another, abdicated.-P. Nicolas. Letter from the prince of Wales to the earl of Beacons

By the side of the chapel of Waterloo, which was uninjured field suggesting the appointment of a commission on by shot or shell on 18 June, 1815, Marlborough cut of a large water supply, dated

.24 March, 1879 division of the French forces, 17 Aug. 1705. The conqueror's National Water Supply Exhibition, Alexandra Palace; on the same field are the only British commanders whose caopened.

.....14 Aug reers brought them to dukedoms. Government proposal to buy companies' works for 34,

398,7001. (New River Company, 9, 146,0001.), spring; Waterloo Bridge (London). A bridge over this dropped..

... April, 1880 (See Artesian Wells and London Water.)

part of the Thames was repeatedly suggested during the

last century, but no actual preparations to carry it into Water Tofana, see Poisoning.

effect were made till 1806, when Mr. G. Dodd procured Water-bed, Clocks, see Beds, Clocks.

an act of parliament, and gave the present site, plan, Water-color Painting was gradually raised from and dimensions of the bridge; but, in consequence of the hard dry style of the last century to its present brill- some disagreement with the committee, he was superseded iancy, by the efforts of Nicholson, Copley Fielding, by Mr. John Rennie, who completed this noble structure. Sandby, Varley, the great Turner, Pyne, Cattermole, It was commenced 11 Oct. 1811, and opened 18 June,

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1817, on the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo, when Weald of Kent and Sussex, the site of very large, the prince - regent, the duke of Wellington, and other ancient forests; St. Leonard's still remaining; near which, distinguished personages were present. Its length in the Wealden formation, Dr. G. A. Mantell discorered within the abutments is 1242 feet; its width within the the remains of huge extinct animals, 1825 et seq. Mr. balustrades is 42 feet; and the span of each arch, of R. Furley published an exhaustive “History of the Weald which there are nine, is 120 feet. Bought for 475,0001. of Kent,” 1871-4. by Metropolitan Board of Works; opened toll-free, 5

Weather, see Meteorology. Oct. 1878; lit by electric light from 10 Oct. 1879.

Weaving appears to have been practised in China On 9 Oct. 1857, two youths named Kilsby found on one of

more than a thousand years before it was known in Euthe abutments of the bridge a carpet-bag containing human bones and flesh, which had been cut up, salted, and boiled, and rope or Asia. The Egyptians ascribed the art to Isis, some foreign clothes. No clew could be found respecting these the Greeks to Minerva, and the Peruvians to the wife remains, which were interred in Woking cemetery.

of Manco Capac. Our Saviour's vest, or coat, had not Waterloo Cup, see Dogs. any seam, being woven from the top throughout, in one

a Water-mills, used for grinding corn, are said to whole piece. The print of a frame for weaving such a have been invented by Belisarius, the general of Justin- vest may be seen in Calinet's “ Dictionary” under the ian, while besieged in Rome by the Goths, 555. The word Vestments. Two weavers from Brabant settled at

York, where they manufactured woollens, which, says ancients parched their corn, and pounded it in mortars. Afterwards mills were invented, which were turned by king Edward,“ may prove of great benefit to us and our men and beasts with great labor; yet Pliny mentions subjects” (1331). Flemish dyers, cloth-drapers, linen

makers, silk-throwsters, etc., settled at Canterbury, Norwheels turned by water; see Telo-dynamic transmitter.

wich, Colchester, Southampton, and other places, on acWater-spout. Two water-spouts fell on the Glatz count of the duke of Alva's persecution, 1567; see Loom mountains in Germany, and caused dreadful devastation and Electric Loom. to Hautenbach and many other villages; many persons Wedding-rings were used by the ancients, and perished, 13 July, 1827. A water-spout at Glanflesk,

put upon the wedding-finger, from a supposed connection near Killarney, in Ireland, passed over a farm of Mr. with a vein there with the heart. According to Pliny, John Macarthy, destroying farm-houses and other build- they were made of iron; in the time of Tertullian of ings; seventeen persons perished, 4 Aug. 1831. The es- gold. Wedding-rings are to be of standard gold by stattimated length of one seen near Calcutta, 27 Sept. 1855, ute, 1855; see Adriatic. was 1000 feet. It lasted ten minutes, and was absorbed upwards. One seen on 24 Sept. 1856, burst into heavy

Weddings. Silver weddings are celebrated after rain. The town of Miskolcz, Hungary, destroyed by a

a union of 25 years, golden weddings after a union of 50 water-spout; great loss of life and property, 30 Aug. 1878. years, and diamond weddings after a union of 60 years.

John, king of Saxony, celebrated his golden wedding 10 Watling Street, see Roman Rouds.

Nov. 1872. Wattignies (N. France). Here Jourdan and the

Wedge-like Characters, see Cuneiform. French republicans defeated the Austrians under the prince of Coburg, and raised the siege of Maubeuge: duced by Mr. Josiah Wedgwood of Staffordshire in 1762.

Wedgwood Ware, pottery and porcelain pro 14-16 Oct. 1793.

His potteries, termed Etruria, were founded in 1771. Wave Principle (in accordance with which the Previous to 1763 much earthenware was imported from curves of the hull of a ship should be adapted to the France and Holland. curves of a wave of the sea) formed the subject of ex

Wednesday, the fourth day of the week, so called periments begun by Mr. John Scott Russell in 1832, with the view of increasing the speed of ships. Col. from the Saxon idol Woden, or Odin, worshipped on this Beaufoy is said to have spent 30,0001. in researches upon inventor of all the arts, and was thought to answer to

day. Woden was the reputed author of magic and the this matter. It was also taken up by the British Asso

the Mercury of the Greeks and Romans. ciation, who have blished reports of the investigations. The principle has been adopted by naval architects; see

Weedon Inquiry (Northamptonshire). CommisL’ndulatory Theory and Yacht.

sioners were appointed to inquire into the accounts of

Mr. Elliot, superintendent of the great military clothing Waverley Novels. The publication of the series establishment at this place, in July, 1858, and combegan with “Waverley; or, 'Tis Sixty Years Since," in menced sitting in September. Many of the statements 1814, and closed with “Tales of my Landlord,” fourth were afterwards disputed, and caused much dissatisfacseries, in 1831. The authorship was acknowledged by tion. sir Walter Scott, at a dinner, 23 Feb. 1827. The original MSS. of several of Scott's poems and novels were sold

Week, the space of seven days, supposed to hare by auction by Christie and Manson for 1255 guineas, 6 been first used among the Jews, who observed the sabbath

every seventh day. They had three sorts of weeks--the July, 1867.

common one of seven days; the second of years, seren Wawz, or WAWER (Poland). The Poles under years; the third of seven times seven years, at the end of Skrzynecki attacked the Russians at Wawz, and after which was the jubilee. All the present English names two days' hard fighting all the Russian positions were are derived from the Saxon : carried by storm, and they retreated, with the loss of


French 12,000 men and 2000 prisoners, 31 March, 1831. The

Dies Solis,

Day of the Sun, Dimanche. loss of the Poles was small, but their triumph was soon Dies Lunæ, Day of the Moon, followed by defeat and ruin.

Day of Mars, Mardi,

Dies Mercurii, Day of Mercury, Mercredi. Wax came into use for candles in the twelfth cen- Dies Jovis, Day of Jupiter, Jeudi. tury; and wax candles were esteemed a luxury in 1300, Dies Veneris, Day of Venus,

Day of Saturn, being but little used. In China, candles of vegetable Dies Saturni, wax have been in use for centuries; see Candleberry. English.

Saron. The wax - tree, Ligustrum lucidum, was brought from Sunday,

Sun's day,

Moon's day,

China before 1794. - SEALING-WAX was not brought Monday,


Tiw's day, into use in England until about 1556.

Its use has been Wednesday, Woden's day, much superseded by the introduction of adhesive enve- Thursday, Thor's day, Donnerstag


Friga's day, Freitag lopes, about 1844.

Saterne's day,

Samstag, or SondaWe. Sovereigns generally use we for I, which style began with king John, 1199.—Coke. The German em- Weekly Dispatch, liberal weekly Sunday paper, perors and French kings used the plural about 1200. established 1801.


Dies Martis,





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Weights and Measures. These and the stamp- subscription in memory of the great duke of Wellington ing of gold and silver money are attributed to Pheidon, for the support and education of orphan sons of commistyrant of Argos, 895 B.C.; see Arundelian Marbles. sioned officers. The first stone was laid by the queen Weights were originally taken from grains of wheat, on 2 June, 1856; and the building was opened by her the lowest being still called a grain.--Chalmers. See majesty on 29 Jan. 1859. Out of the 159,0001. subCrith.

scribed, 55,0001. were expended on the building, and the Much information is given by Mr. H.W.Chisholm in his

rest invested for the maintenance of the institution. work ** On the Science of Weighing and Measuring.” A controversy respecting its management; certain 1877.

charges explained or rebutted..

..Aug.-Oct. 1878 The Jews ascribed weights and measures to Cain; the Proposal for royal commission of inquiry negatived in Egyptians to Theuth, or Thoth; the Greeks to Hermes

the cominons.

..1 April, 1879 (the Roman Mercury).

Commission appointed: lord Penzance, bishop of Exeter, The basis of ancient measures was the natural propor

Mr. R. Lowe (since lord Sherbrooke), col. Chesney, etc., tions of the human body; the digit, or breadth of the June, 1879; report recommending greater economy middle part of the first joint of the forefinger, being and improvement of income......

...... Aug. 1880 the lowest unit of the scale. The Egyptian cubit (six palins), under the Pharaohs, was Wellingtonia Gigantea, the largest tree in the

about 18. 24 English inches; the cubit of Ptolemy about world, a native of California, was discovered by W. 21.87 inches; he determined the length of a stadium

Whitehead, June, 1850; a specimen first gathered by and of a degree. The sacred cubit of the Jews (Newton), 24.7 inches.

Mr. W. Lobb in 1853, and described by Dr. John LindAssyrian weights are described by Mr. Layard in his ley. When grown it is about 450 feet high, and 116 * Nineveh.''

feet in circumference. The prince consort (5 June, The standard measure was originally kept at Winchester by the law of king Edgar...

972 1861) and the queen (24 July, 1861) planted WellingStandards of weights and measures were provided for tonias at the new gardens of the Royal Horticultural

the whole kingdom of England by the sheriff's of Lon- Society. don, 9 Rich. I. .......

1197 A public weighing machine was set up in London, and all Wellington's Victories, etc. For details, see commodities ordered to be weighed by the city officer,

separate articles. called the weigh-master, who was to do justice between buyer and seller, stat. 3 Edw. II.-Slow..

1309 Arthur Wellesley was born, according to some authori. Edward III, ordered that there should be "one weight,

ties, in March or April (baptized 30 April); incorrectly measure, and yard" throughout the kingdom.... 1353 said by others. .

....1 May, 1769 First statute, directing the use of avoirdupois weight, of

Appointed to command in the Mahratta war in India, 24 Hen. VIII...


takes Poonah and Ahmednuggur, 12 Aug. ; gains his Weights and measures ordered to be examined by the first victory at Assaye, 23 Sept. ; defeats Scindiah at justices at quarter-sessions, 35 Geo. III.. 1795 Argaum, Nov.; and at Gawalghur.

.13 Dec. 1803 Again regulated 1800 Becomes secretary for Ireland..

1807 Statute for establishing a uniformity of weights and Takes the command in Portugal; defeats Junot at Vi.

meira... measures, 1824, took effect throughout the United

..21 Aug. 1808 Kingdom..

.1 Jan. 1826 Defeats Victor at Talavera, 28 July; created viscount New acts relating thereto passed in 1834, 1835, 1855, and


..4 Sept. 1809 in

1859 Repulses Massena at Busaco, 27 Sept.; and occupies the 16 & 17 Vict. c. 29, regulates the weights to be used in

lines at Torres Vedras.

..10 Oct. 1810 the sale of bullion, and adopts the use of the Troy

Defeats Massena at Fuentes de Onoro, 5 May; takes Al. Ounce..


.10 May, 1811 A commission (consisting of Mr. G. B. Airy, gen. E. Sa

Passes the Douro and defeats Soult..

..12 May, 1812 bine, lord Rosse, Mr. T. Graham, and others) appointed

Storms Ciudad Rodrigo, 19 Jan.; and Badajos, 6 April; to examine the standards

.9 May, 1867 defeats Marinont at Salamanca, 22 July; enters Madrid, Third report of the Standards commission states that er

12 Aug. rors exist in official standards, dated: 24 July, 1868 Defeats Joseph Bonaparte and Jourdan at Vittoria, 21 A new Weights and Measures act passed, to enforce uni. June; storms St. Sebastian, 31 Aug.; enters France, formity in all markets in the United Kingdom and abol.

8 Oct. 1813 ish local measures, 8 Aug. 1878; came into operation,

Defeats Soult at Orthez, 27 Feb.; and at Toulouse, 1 Jan. 1879

10 April, 1814 Specific gravities (unit, pure water): iridium, 22. 38; pla

Created duke of Wellington, with an annuity of 13,0001. tinum, 21.45; osmium, 21.4; gold, 19.32; lead, 11.35;

and a grant of 300,0001.. silver, 10.51; copper, 8.94; iron, 7.87; tin, 7.29; zinc, First appeared in the house of lords; his patents of crea7.19; iodine, 4.95; carbon, 3.52; aluminium, 2.56; sul

tion as baron, earl, marquess, and duke being read at phur, 2; sodium, 0.97; lithium, 0.59; oxygen, 0.001431;

the same time....

28 June, nitrogen, 0.001257; hydrogen, 0.0000896. - Dr. O. J. Commands the army in the Netherlands; repulses an atBroch...


tack of Ney at Quatre Bras, 16 June; defeats Napoleon (See Standard and Metrical System.)

at Waterloo, 18 June; invests Paris.'.

.3 July, 1815

Commands the army of occupation in France, Weimar, capital of the grand-duchy of Saxe-Wei

July, 1815, till Nov. 1818 mar (which see).

His assassination attempted by Cantillon, who escapes,

10 Feb. Weinsberg, see Guelphs.

Appointed master-general of the ordnance..


The Wellington shield and supporting columns designed Weissenburg, see Wissembourg.

by Stothard, commemorating all the above-mentioned Wellington Administration succeeded that of victories, presented to the duke by the merchants and

bankers of London. (It was manufactured by Green viscount Goderich, Jan. 1828. The duke resigned 16 and Ward, and cost 11,0001.)..

..16 Feb. 1822 Nov. 1830.

The duke appointed commander-in chief, 22 Jan.; re

signs.. Duke of Wellington, first lord of the treasury.

..30 April, 1827 Becomes first minister.

..8 Jan. 1828 Lord Lyndhurst, lord-chancellor. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the exchequer.

Aids in carrying the Catholic Emancipation bill... April, 1829 Earl Bathurst, president of the council.

Asserts that no reform in parliament is needed, 2 Nov. ; resigns...

......16 Nov. 1830 Lord Ellenborough, privy seal. Mr. (afterwards sir) Robert Peel, earl Dudley, and Mr. William Transacts all the business of the country, after the res.

ignation of lord Melbourne, till the arrival of sir R. Huskisson, home, foreign, and colonial secretaries.

Peel from Italy, Nov.; and becomes foreign secretary Viscount Melville, board of control.

under sir R. Peel, Dec. 1834; resigns .. Mr. Charles Grant, board of trade.

.. April, 1835 Lord Palmerston, secretary at war.

Again commander-in-chief..

...15 Aug. 1842

Dies at Walıner castle J. C. Herries, master of the mint.

...14 Sept. 1852 Earl of Aberdeen, duchy of Lancaster.

Removed to Chelsea hospital, where he lay in state,

10 Nov. Mr. Huskisson, earl Dudley, viscount Palmerston, and Mr.

Remored to the Horse Guards.. Grant quitted the ministry, and various changes followed in

17 Nov. Public funeral at St. Paul's Cathedral

.18 Nov. May and June same year. The earl of Aberdeen and sir George Murray became, respec.

A multitude of all ranks, estimated at a million and a half of

persons, were congregated in the line of route, a distance of tively. foreign and colonial secretaries. Sir Henry Hardinge, secretary at war.

three miles, to witness and share in the imposing spectacle. Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald (afterwards lord Fitzgerald), India board.

The military consisted of the household regiments of horse Lord Lowther, first commissioner of land revenues, etc., May

and foot guards, the 2d battalion of the rifles, a battalion of

the Royal Marines, the 33d regiment, the 17th Lancers, and June, 1828.

the 18th Light Dragoons, the regiment of Scots Greys, a Mr. Arbuthnot, Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald, etc.

body of Chelsea pensioners, and men of different arms of Wellington College (Sandhurst) was erected by

the Indian army.


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The body was placed upon a sumptuous funeral-car, drawn by An æcumenical conference to be held in the autumn of twelve horses richly caparisoned, and the coffin was thus 1881, settled

.31 July. 1880 seen by the whole of the crowd.

138th annual conference opened..

.19 July, 1881 The procession moved about seven o'clock, and it was three Out of the original connection have seceded: o'clock before the body was lowered into the vault beside

Chapels in 1851 the remains of Nelson, under the dome of St. Paul's cathe- New Connection in 1796.

301 dra).

Primitive Methodists (1810)...

2871 Memorial by Marochetti erected by the present duke, his son, Bible Christians, or Bryanites (1815)..

493 and tenants at Strathfieldsaye, July, 1866.

Wesleyan Methodist Association (1834).


Wesleyan Methodist Reformers (1849).

2000 A number of models exhibited in Westminster hall; none The last arose out of the publication of "Fly Sheets, "" chosen, 1857.

advocating reform in the body (1844–8). The suspect. The execution of the monument intrusted to Mr. A. Stevens,

ed authors and their friends were expelled. By these sculptor, and Mr. Penrose, architect. The stone sarcopha

disruptions the main body is thought to have lost

100,000 members. — This sect in America numbered gus was completed in 1858. In Aug. 1870, above 17,0001. had been expended, and it was

about a million in 1844, when a division took place on stated that 15,0001. more were required. Parliament had

the slavery question. granted 20,0001. Fresh arrangements were made with Mr.

Wesleyan Methodist church members in Great Britain Stevens. He died 1 May, 1875. Monument reported com

in 1868, 342,380; in 1872, 316,580; in 1874, 357,645; in plete, 1 Feb.; uncovered 20 April, 1878.

1876, 372,538; in 1878, 380,867 (1412 ministers); in 1880,

376,678. Wells were dug by Abraham, 1892 B.C., and Isaac, Letter from Dr. Pusey, requesting aid in opposing Cole1804 (Gen. xxi. 30, and xxvi. 19). Danaus is said to ridge's bill for admitting dissenters to the universities, have introduced well-digging into Greece from Egypt. The establishment of a high-school for Wesleyans at

read at the conference, but not received......13 Aug 1868 Norton's “tube-well,” patented Oct. 1867, is said to be Cambridge (to prepare for the university) proposed, the invention of Hiram J. Messenger, Stephen Brewer,

May, 1872 and Byron Mudge, Americans, of the state of New York. The chapel in the City road, London, founded by John

Wesley, 1 April, 1777, was nearly destroyed by fire, The apparatus consists of an iron tube perforated with

7 Dec. 1879 holes at the lower end, and shod with a steel point, Wessex, see Britain. which readily enters the hardest soil when forcibly driren.

West African Settlements - Sierra Leone, It was used with great advantage during the civil Gambia, etc. Governor, sir Arthur E. Kennedy, 1867; war, 1861-4; by the British in their campaign in Abys- sir Garnet Wolseley, Aug. 1873; Cornelius H. Kortright, sinia in 1867-8; and by the Russians in Khiva, 1873.

1875; Dr. Samuel Rowe, 1876; see Ashantees. Messrs. Meux, brewers, New Oxford street, London, boring,

found water beneath the green-sand, about 1000 feet deep, West Indies, islands discovered by Columbus, St. April, 1877.

Salvador being the first land he made in the New Wells (Somerset). The cathedral church was built World, and first seen by him in the night between the by Ina, king of the West Saxons, 704, and by him dedi- 11th and 12th Oct. 1492. The largest are Cuba, Hayti cated to St. Andrew. Other West Saxon kings en- (or St. Domingo), Jamaica, Porto Rico, Trinidad, and dowed it, and it was erected into a bishopric in 909, dur- Guadaloupe ; see the Islands respectively. ing the reign of Edward the Elder. The present church

West Saxons, see Wessex, in Britain. was begun by Robert, 18th bishop of this see, and completed by his immediate successor. The first bishop was formed by separation from Virginia in consequence of

West Virginia, a state of the United States, Æthelm, or Adelmus (afterwards bishop of Canterbury). the secession of the latter. Convention of West VirThe see was united with Bath (which see) in 1088.

ginia repudiated the act of secession, 11 June, 1861; Welsh Charity Schools; established in Gray's elected governor, 20 June. At an election held for that Inn road, London, 1715 ; removed to Ashford, near purpose, the people voted to set up the new state of Staines, Middlesex, 1852.

Kanawha, 24 Oct. 1861. Constitution adopted in conWends, a branch of the Slavonic family which vention, Nov. 1861; ratified by the people, 3 May, 1862, spread over Germany in the sixth century, and settled the name having been changed to West Virginia 3 Dec. especially in the northeastern parts.

1861. State admitted to the Union, 20 April, 1863. Wesleyan Methodists, a sect founded by John Western Australia, formerly Swan RIVER SETWesley (born 1703, died 1791) and his brother Charles, TLEMENT, which was projected by col. Peel in 1828. who in 1727, with a few other students, formed them- Regulations issued from the colonial office, and capt. selves into a small society for the purpose of mutual edi- Stirling, appointed lieutenant - governor Jan, 17, 1829, fication by religious exercises. From their strictness arrived at the appointed site in August following. The of life they were called Methodists, in 1729. John Wes- three towns of Perth, Freemantle, and Guildford were ley went to Georgia, in America, in 1735, with a view founded the same year. In March, 1830, fifty ships, of converting the Indians. On his return to England, with 2000 emigrants, with property amounting to 1,000,in 1738, he commenced itinerant preaching, and gath-000l., had arrived before hardly any dwellings had been ered many followers. On finding many churches shut erected or land surveyed. The more energetic settlers against him, he built spacious meeting-houses in Lon- left for home or the neighboring colonies, and the colony don, Bristol, and other places. For some time he was languished for twenty years for want of suitable inhabunited with George Whitefield; but, differing with him itants—the first settlers, from their previous habits and respecting the doctrine of election, they separated in rank in life, proving unfit for the rough work of coloni. 1741; see White field. Wesley was almost continually zation. In 1818 the colonists requested that convicts engaged in travelling through the United Kingdom. might be sent out to them, and in 1849 a band arrived, His two leading doctrines were the instantaneousness of who were kindly received and well treated. The best reconversion and Christian perfection, or deliverance from sults ensued. By 1853 2000 had arrived, and the inhaball sin. His society was well organized, and he pre- itants of Perth had requested that 1000 should be sent served his influence over it to the last. "His genius for out annually. The reception of convicts is to cease in government was not inferior to that of Richelieu.”- after-years, in consequence of the energetic opposition Mucauluy. The deed of declaration establishing the of the other Australian colonies (1865).- The settlement conference is dated 28 Feb. 1784. In 1851 there were of King George's Sound was founded in 1826 by the 428 circuits in Great Britain, with between 13,000 and government of New South Wales. It was used as a 14,000 local or lay preachers, and about 920 itinerant military station for four years. In 1830 the home govpreachers, and 6579 chapels.

ernment ordered the settlement to be transferred to Swan The Conference, the highest Wesleyan court, till lately

River. Since the establishment of steam communicacomposed of 100 ministers, who meet annually. It was tion, the little town of Albany here, employed as a coal. instituted by John Wesley in....


ing-station, has become a thriving seaport. It possesses At the centenary of the existence of Methodism 216,0001.

an excellent harbor, used by whalers. A journal called were collected, to be expended on the objects of the society...

1839 | the Freemantle Guzetle was published here in March,

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