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· 1862

PUBLIC BATHS AND WASH-HOUSES.

1844

given this city a charter, and the Saxon king Edgar was found in 1506 in the baths of Titus, erected was crowned here, 973.

about 80, and the Farnese Hercules in those of

Caracalla, erected, 211.
Bath plundered and burnt in the reign of William
Rufus, and again in

1137 In LONDON, St. Agnes Le Clere, in Old -street-road, The abbey church commenced in 1405 ;

finished

1609

was a spring of great antiquity ; baths said to Present assembly-rooms built

1771

have been forned in 1502. Puinp-room erected 1704; rebuilt

• 1797 St. Chad's-well, Gray's-in-road, derives its name Theatre, Beaufort-square, opened

1805 from St. Chad, the fifth bishop of Lichfield 667. Bath philosophical society formed

1817 A bath opened in Bagnio-court, now Bath-street, Viewria park opene'i by Princess Victoria

1830 Newgate-street, London, is said to have been the Theatre burnt 18 April, 1862 first bath in England for hot bathing

1679 British association met here 14 Sept. 1864 Old Bath-house, Coldbath-square, in use

1097 Museun destroyed by fire

20 Jan. 1867 Peerless (Perilous) Pool, Baldwin-street, City-road,

mentioned by Stow (died 1605); enclosed as a BATH AND WELLS BISHOPRIC OF. The bathing place

1743 see of Wells, whose cathedral church was built by Turkish sweating baths became popular

1860 Ina, king of the West Saxons, in 704, was estab

The Oriental baths in Victoria-street, Westminster,

completed lished in 205, Adelme first bishop. Jobn de Villula, bishop, transferred his seat from Wells to

The first established by Mr. Bowie in the neighbourBath in 1091. Tanner. Disputes between the hood of the London docks monks of Bath and the canons of Wells about the The public baths and wash-houses in Liverpool election of a bishop, were compromised in 1135. founded (through the instrumentality of Catherine Henceforward the bishop was to be styled from both

Wilkinson, who in 1832 began to lend her room and appliances to poor people for washing)

1844 places; the precedency to be given to Bath. The

Acts passed to encourage the establishinent of public see is valued in the king's books at 5311. 18. 3d. per

baths and wash-houses, "for the health, comfort, annum. Present income, 5000l.

and welfare of the inhabitants of populous towus Recent Bishops. and districts," in England and Ireland

1846 1802. Richard Beadon, died

21 April, 1824

537,345 bathers availed themselves of the baths in 1824. George Henry Law, died

22 Sept. 1845

London, and in this period there were 85,260 5 May, 1854

washers in the quarter ending. 1845. Richard Bayot, died

Sept. 1854 1854. Robert Johni, baron Auckland resigned 6 Sept. 1869

Public baths and wash-houses have since been estab1869 Lord Arthur Charles Hervey, elected 19 Nov. 1809

lished throughout the empire. BATH ADMINISTRATION. Mr. Pelham BATON, a truncheon borne by generals in the and his friends having tendered their resignation to

French army, and afterwards by the marshals of king George II., 10 Feb. 1746, the formation of a other nations. Henry III. of France, before he new ministry was undertaken by William Pulteney, ascended the throne, was made generalissimo of the earl of Bath. This expired on 12 Feb., while yet army of his brother Charles IX., and received the incomplete, and received the name of the “Short- bâton as the mark of the high command, 1569. lired” administration. The members of it were :

Henauit. the earl of Bath, first lord of the treasury ; lord

BATON ROUGE, Louisiana, United States, Carlisle, lord privy seal ; lord Winchelsea, first lord

was captured by the Federals, 5 Aug. 1862, after a of the admiralty; and lord Granville, one of the

fierce conflict; see United States, 1862. secretaries of state, with the seals of the other in his pocket, “to be given to whom he might BATTERIES along the coasts were constructed choose." Mr. Pelham and his colleagues returned | by Henry VIII. (who reigned 1509-47). The ten to power.

floating batteries with which Gibraltar was attacked, BATH, ORDER OF THE, said to be of early D'Arcon, a French engineer.' They resisted the

in the siege of that fortress, were invented by origin, but formally constituted 11 Oct., 1399, by heavy shells and 32-pound shot

, but ultimately Henry IV., two days previous to his coronation in yielded to red-hot shot, 13 Sept. 1782; the 'lower; when he conferred the order upon Gibraltar. Formidable floating batteries are now forty-six esquires, who had watched the night before, and bathed. After the coronation of Charles erected. See Navy. II. the order was neglected until 18 May, 1725, BATTERING-RAM, Testudo Arictaria, with when it was revived by George I., who fixed the other military implements, are said to have been number of knights at 37.

invented by Artemon, a Lacedæmonian, and emThe prince regent (afterwards George IV.) created ployed by Pericles, about 441 B. c. Sir Christopher

classes of knights grand crosses (72), knights com- Wren employed a battering-ram in demolishing the manders (180), with an unlimited number of com- walls of old St. Paul's cathedral, 1675.

2 Jan. 1815 By" an order, the existing statutes of this order BATTERSEA PARK; an act of parliament were annulleri ; and hy new statutes, the order, passed in 1846, empowered her majesty's comhitherto exclusively military, was opened to

missioners of woods to form a royal park'in Batterseacivilians

25 May, 1847 fields. Acts to enlarge their powers were passed Dr. Lyon Playfair and other promoters of the Great Exhibition received this honour

1851

in 1848, 1851, and 1853. The park and the new CONSTITUTION. Military. Civil.

bridge connecting it with Chelsea were opened in 1st Class. Knights grand cross,

April, 1858.

50 2nd Class. Knights commanders, 100 3rd Cuse. Companions,

BATTLE-ABBEY Sussex, founded by

William I., 1067, on the plain where the battle of BATHS were early used in Asia and Greece, Hastings was fought, 14 Oct. 1066. It was dedicaand introduced by Agrippa into Rome, where many ted to St. Martin, and given to Benedictine monks, were constructed by Augustus and his successors. who were to pray for the souls of the slain. The The thermæ of the Romans and gymnasia of the original name of the plain was Hetheland; see Greeks (of which baths formed merely an appendage) Hastings. After the battle of Hastings, a list was were sumptuous. The marble group of Laocoon taken of William's chiefs, amounting to 629, and

see

25 50 200

525

371

362 353 330

Oct.

333 331

326

283

281

279

204

250

241

A.D.

.

221 220

called the BATTEL-ROLL; and among these chiefs Volsci defeat the Romans

379 the lands and titles of the followers of the defeated Naxus (Chabrias defects Laceirmonians).

376 or 377 Harold were distributed.

Tegyra (Thebans de feot Spartans)

375

Leuctra (Thebans defeat Spartans). BATTLE, WAGER OF, a trial by combat

“ Tearless Victory" of Archidamus over Argives,

de.. formerly allowed by our laws, where the defendant

367

Camillus defeats the Gauls in an appeal of murder might fight with the Cynoscephalx (Thebans defeat Thessalians)

304 appellant, and make proof thereby of his guilt or Mantinea (Thebans victors: Epominomius slain). innocence; see Appeal.

Tamyna (Eschines there).

Crimisus (Timoleon defeats Carthaginions). BATTLE-AXE, a weapon of the Celts. The Churonea (Philip defents Atheniuns, dc.). Aug. 338 Irish were constantly armed with an axe. Burns. Thebes destroyed by Alexander

335 At the battle of Bannockburn king Robert Bruce

Granicus (Alexander defeats Durius) 22 May, 334 clove an English champion down to the chine at

Issus (ditto)
Arbela (Alerander defeots Darius)

1 Oct. one blow with a battle-axe, 1314. The battle-axe Pandosia (Alexander of Epirus defeated and killed) guards, or beaufetiers, vulgarly called beef-eaters, Cranon (Antipater defeats Greeks)

322 and whose arms are a sword and lance, were first

Caudine Forks (Roman army captured).

321 raised by Henry VII. in 1483. They were originally Gaza (Ptolemy defeats Demetrius) attendants upon the king's" butfet'; see Yeoman of Ecnomus or Himera (Carthuginians defeai Agathocles) 311 the Guard.

310 Vadimonian Lake (Etruscans defeatei).

309 BATTLEFIELD, BATTLE OF, see Shrew's

Ipsus (Scleucus defeats Antigonus, who is slain)

301 Sentinum (Romans defeat Samnites)

295 bury.

Gauls defeat Romans at Arretiun, 284; defeated by

Dolabella
BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos is said to Vadimonian Lake (Etruscans defeatel).

283 have been the first who ranged an army in a regular Corus (Lysimachus defented and killed). line of battle, placed sentinels round a camp, and Pandosia (Pyrrhus defeats Romans)

280 excited the soldier's vigilance by giving him a watch Asculum (litto). word. See Naral Battles, British. The following Beneventum (Ilomans defeat Pyrrhus) .

275 are the most memorable battles, arranged in chrono- Mylen. (Romans de fent Carthaginians)

260 logical order; further details of the greater part Xantippuis defeats Regulus

255 are given in separate articles; n. signifies naval. Panormus (A se rubal defeated by Metellus) The following are the battles described by Professor

Drepanum n. (Carthaginians defcat romans)

249 Lilybæum taken by Romans

241 Creasy in his “ Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World":

Agates n. (Romans defeat Carthaginians).
B.C.
Ladocea (Acharuns defeated).

226 Marathon 490 | Hastings 14 Oct. 1066 Clusium or Pisa (Gauls defeatedl)

225 Syracuse

413 Orleans.

29 April, 1429 Arbela

1 Oct.
331 | Spanish Armada July 1588

Caphyæ (Achwans defeat Etolians)
Metaurus

207
Blenheim 13 Aug. 1704
Saguntum (taken by Hannibal).

219 Pultowa

Second Punic War. Tieinus (Hannibal dejenis Teutoburg

9 Saratoga

17 Oct. 1777
Romans

218 Chalons.

451 Vaimy

20 Sept. 1792

Tieinus and Trebia (ditio) .
Tours
to Oct.
Waterloo
18 June 1815

Thrasymene (ditto)
Raphia (Antiochus defeated by Ptol. Philopater.

Cannæ (Victory of Hunnibal)
Abraham defeats kings of Canaan (Gen. xiv.)

2 Aug. 216

Munda (Scipio defeats Hasdrubal) Joshua subdues five kings of Canaan (Josh. x.)

Marcellus and Hannibal (former kille)

209 Gideon defeats the Midianites (Judges vii.) 1245 Metaurus (Vero defeats Hoselrubal, who is killed)

207 Trojan war commenced

1193 Zama (Scipio defeats Hannibal) Troy taken and destroyed

1184 Abydos (siege of) Jephthalı defeats Ammonites • 1143 Paneas (Antiochus defeats Egyptians, dc.)

198 Ethiopians defeated by Asa (2 Chron. xiv)

Cynoscephala (Romans defeats Macedonians)

197 Horatii vanquish Curiatii 069 Boii defeated at the Vadimonian lake

191 Halys (Medes and Lydians stopped by eclipse) 584 or 585 Thermopyla (Greeks defeated) Thymbra (Cyrus defeats Crusus)

548 Lake Regillus (Romans defeat Latins)

Magnesia (Scipio defeats Antiochus)
Pydna (Romans defeat Perseus).

22 June, 168 Marathon (Greeks defeat Persians) 28 or 29 Sept. 490 Eleasa (Julas Muccabuus killed).

IÓI Thermopyla (heroism of Leonidas) 7-9 Aug. 480 Third Punic War

149 Salamis n. (Greeks defeat Persians)

20 Oct.
Leucopetra (Mummius defeats Achaians)

147 Himera (Cielon defeats Carthaginians)

480 Carthage taken by Publius Scipio Mycale (Greeks defeat Persians)

22 Sept. 479 Mummius takes Corinth Plataa (ilitto: Pausanias)

22 Sept. Allobroges defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus. Eurymedon n. (ditto : Cimon)

Metellus defeats Jugurtha

109 Tanagra (Spartans defeat Athenians).

Arausio (Cimbri de jeot Romans)

105 Enophyta (Athenians defeat Baotians).

456

Aquæ Sextiæ (Aix ; Marius defeats the Teutones). Coronea (Bucotians defeat Athenians).

447

Cimbri and Romans (defeated by Marius). Romans totally defeat Veientes

Chæronea (Sylla defeats Mithridates' army). Tanagra (Athenians defcat Spartans).

Sacriportus (Marius defeated by Sylla)

82 Delium (Baotians defeat Athenians)

424 Cabeira (Lucullus defeats Mithridates). Amphipolis (Spartans repulse Athenians : Cleon and Petelia (Spartacus defeated by Crassus) Brasilas killed)

Tigrinocerta (Lucullus defeats Tigranes) Mantinea (Spurtans de fent Athenians) .

Pistoria (Cotiline defeated). Athenians defeated before Syracuse.

Cæsar defeats Cassivelaunus in Britain Cyzicus n. (Alcibiades defeats Spartans)

Carrhæ (Crassus defeated by Purthians)

9 June,

53 Arginusæ n. (Conon dc feals Spartan flert)

406

Pharsalia (Cresar defeats Pompey). Ægospotamos n. (Athenian floet destroyer)

405 Zela (Cosur defeats Pharnaces; writes, " Veni, vidi, Cunaxa (Cyrus dejected and killed by Artaxerxes) 401 vici") Corinthian War Haliartus (Lysander killed).

395-387 Thapsus (Cersar defeais Pompey's friends)

395 Cnidus n. (Conon defeats Spartans)

394 Mutina (Hirtius defeais Antony).

27 April, Coronea (Àrgesilaus defeats Athenians and allies)

Philippi (Brutus and ('assius defcated) Allia (Brennus and the Gauls defeat Romans) 16 July 390 Myla , n. (Agrippa defeats Pompey thé l'ouinger) Volsci defeated by Camillus 381 | Actium n. (Octavius defeats Antony). 2 Sept.

31

A.D.

8 July 1709

217

732

BEFORE CHRIST.

• 1913
• 1451

202

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A.D.

14 Oct.

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269

Aug. 1119

27 Oct.

366

29 Mar

428

496

623

633

Teutoburg (Parus defeated by Herman)
9 Assingdon, Ashdon (Canute defcats Edmund)

1016 Shropshire (Caructucus taken)

50 Sticklestadt (Olaf tejeated by Sveles) 29 July, 1030 Sunbury (Romans defeat Boadicea) 61 Civitella (Normans defeat Leo IX.)

1053 Jerusalen taken by Titus . 70 Dunsinane (Macbeth defeatel)

1054 Agricola conquers Mona or Anglesea

78 Fulford (Norwegians défeut English) 20 Sept. 1066 Arioch (he defeats Galucus and Caledonians). 84 Stanford Bridge (Harold defeats Tostig)

25 Sept. 1066 Dacians defeated and Decebalus slain.

106 Hastings (William I. defents Harold) Issus (Viger slain) 194 Fladenheim (emperor Henry dejenterl)

108a Lyons (Sererus defeats Albinus)

197 Alnwiek (Scots (lefeated, Malcolm sloin)

13 Nov. 1093 Naissus (Clauius riefents Goths, many slain)

Crusudes commence

1096 Verona (emperor Philip defeated and killed).

249 Dorylæum (Crusaders defeat Turks)

1 July, 1097 Decius defeated and slain by Goths

251 Ascalon (Crusaders victorious)

12 Aug. 1099 Valerian defeated and captured by Sapor 260 Tinchebray (Robert of Normandy defeated)

1106 Chalons (Aurelian rictor over rirals).

274 Brenneville (Henry I, defeated French) Alectus defeated in Britain

296 Fraga (Moors defeat Spaniards)

17 July, 1134 Constantine def. Maxentius (see Cross)

312

Northallerton, or Battle of the standard (David »
Adrianople (Constantine defeats Licinius)

3 July, 323
and Scots defeate).

22 Aug. 1138 Aquileia (Constantine II. sluin).

March, 340

Ourique (Portuguesé defcat Moors) . 25 July, 1139 Julian defeats Alemanni

· 356, 357
Lincoln (Stephen tle feutel)

2 Feb. 1141 Thyatira and Nacolea (Procopius defeated).

Jaen (Moors dejeutel by Spaniards)

. 1157 Argentaria (Gratian defeats Alemaniti) May, 378 Carcano (Frederic I. defeated by Italians) 9 Aug. 1160 Asirianople (Gauls ile fent Valens)

9 Aug 378 Alnwick (William the Lion defeatel) . 12 July, 1174 Aquileia (Maximus slain) 28 July, 388 Legnano (Italians de ferit emperor)

29 May, 1176 Aquileia (Eugenius slain).

6 Sept. 394

Tiberias (Salaulin defeats Crusalers) 3, 4 July, 1187 Pullentia (Stilicho vefeats Alaric).

403 Ascoli (Tancred defeats emperor Henry VI.'s army). 1190 Rome taken by Alaric 24 Aug. 410 Acre taken by Crusaders.

12 July, 1191 Ravenna taken by Aspar

425

Arsouf (Richard I. defeats Saracens) 6 Sept. Franks defeated by detius.

Fréteville (Richard 1. defeats Philip 11.). 15 July, 1194 Genseric takes Carthage

439 Arcadiopolis (Bulgarians defeat emperor Iscuac) Chalons-sur-Marne (Attila defeated by Aëtius).

451
Alarcos (Moors defeat Spaniards).

19 July, 1195 Aylesforl (Britons defelt Sirrons; Horso killol) 455 Gisors (Richard I. defauts French)

20 Sept. 1198 Crayford, Kent (llennist ricfeats Britons)

457
Tolosa (Moors defentel).

. 16 July, 1212 Soissons (Cloris utrjents Syagrius and Romans)

486
Muret (Albigenses defeated)

12 Sept. 1213 Verona (Theoloric defents (doccer) 27 Sept. 489 Bouvines (French defeat Germans)

. 27 July, 1214 Tolbiach or Zulpich (('loris defeats Alemanni)

Lincoln (French dejeotel);

20 May, 1217 Vouglė (Cloris defeats Visigoths).

Corte Nuova (Frederick Ti, defeats Milanese) 27 Nov. 1231

507 Bildesilown hill (Britons defeat Sarons) ? 493, 511 Taillebourg (French defeat Henry III.) 20 July, 1242 Veseronce (Gonemar defeats Clodomir) 524 Carizmians defeated twice

1 247 Victories of Belisarius in Africa, &c.

533-4
Fossalti (Ghibelines defeater)

26 May, 1249 Narses defeats Totila, 552 ; and Teias

553
Mansourah (Louis IX. and Crusaders defeated).

1250 Heraclius defeats the Persians (Chosroes)

622 Largs (Scots ile feat Northmen)

3 Oct. 1263 Beier (first rictory of Jahomet).

Lewes (English barons victorious)

14 May, 1264 Muta (Wahometans defeat Christians)

629 Evesham (Burons defeated; De llonijort killed Hatfield (Heathtield ; Penda defeats' Edwin)

4 Aug. 1265 Ajnaddin (Saracens defeat Heraclius) 13 July, 633 Benevento (Chas. of Anjou defeats Manfred) 26 Feb. 1266 Yermuk (Saracens victors) 23 Aug. 634 Tagliacozzo (Charles dejents Conradin)

· 23 Ang. 1268 Yerrauk (Saracens dejeat Heraclius)

Xov. 636

Marchfeld (Austrians dlejeat Bohemians). 26 Aug. 1278 Saracens subdue Syria

636-8 | Llandewyer (Lleuellyn of Wales lefeated) 1 Dec. 1282 hadseah (Arabs vlejeat Persians) 638 Zagrab (defeat of Charles Martel)

1292 Saracens take Alexandria .

640 Dunbar (king of Scots defeated and taken)

27 April, 1296 Near Oswestry (Penda defeats Osvald oj xorthum- Cambuskenneth (Walluce defeats English) 10 Sept. 1297 berland)

5 Aug. 642 Golheim (Adolphus of Nassau defeatel) 2 July, 1298 Leeds (Osiy defents Penia, who is slain).

655 Falkirk (Il'allace defeated)

22 July, Day of the Camel (Ali victor) 4 Nov. 056 Courtray (Flemings defeat couni of Artois)

11 July, 1302 Saracens defeated by Wamba, in Spain

675 Roslin, Scotland (Comyn defeats English) 24 Feb. 1303 Testri (Pepin defents Thierry)

687 Cephisus (Brienne, duke of Athens defeatel) March, 1311 Xeres (Saracens defeat Roderic)

19-26 July, 711

Bannockburn (Bruce defeats English) . 24 June, 1314 Amblef and Viney (Chas. Martel def. Neustrians) 716-17 Morgarten (Swiss defeat Austrians). 15 Nov. 1315 Tours (Charles Martel defeats the Saracens) 10 Oct.

732 Athenry (Irish defeated)

10 Aug. 1316 Victories of Charlemagne 775-800 Foughard or Dundalk (Ed. Bruce defeated)

5 Oct. 1318 Roncesvalles (death of Roland).

Boroughbridge (Edward III. clefts. Burons) 16 Mar. 1322 Clavijo (Moors defeatul).

844 Mühldorf (Bararians defeat Austrians) 28 Sept. Albaida (Musa and Moors defeated)

852 Duplin (Eduard Baliol defeats Mar) 11 Aug. 1332 Hafstiord (Harold Harjoger's si nol'victory)

872 Halidon Hill (Eduard III. defts. Scots) 19 July, 1333 Tarifa (Moors defental).

· 28 or 30 Oct. 1340 Hengestdown (Danes de feoted by Egbert).

835 Auberoche (earl of Derby defeats French). 19 Aug. 1344 Charinouth (Ethelwolf defeatel by the Danes)

840 Crecy (English dicfeat French)

26 Aug. 1346 Danes defeat King Edmund of East Anglia

870 Durham, Nevil's Cross (Scots defeatel) Assendon or Ashdown (Danes defeated)

La Roche Darien (Charles of Blois defeated)

1347 Basing and Merton (Danes victorious)

Poitiers (English defeat French)

19 Sept. 1356 Wilton (Danes victorious orer Alfreil)

872 Cocherel (Du Guesclin defects Navarre) 16 May, 1364 Andernach (Charles the Bald defeated)

Auray (Du Guesclin defeated).

29 Sept. Ethandun (Alfred defeats Danes).

878 Najara (Navarrete, Logrono) (Black Prince defeats Farnham (Danes dejented).

894 Henry of Trastamiere)

3 Apul, 1367 ora (Alfonso defeats Moors).

go1 Montiel (Peter of Castile defeated) 14 March, 1369 Bury (Eduard defeats Ethelwald and Danes)

905 Rosbecque (French defeat Flemings) 27 Nov. 1382 Tettenhall (Danes defeated)

6 Aug. 910

Aljubarrota (Portuguese defeat spaniards) . 14 Aug 1385
Sempach (Swiss defeat Austrians)

9 July, 1386 Soissons (king Robert, victor, killed)

). 923

. 10 Aug. 1388 Merseburg (Germans defeat Hungarians).

934 Nafels (Suiss dicfeat Austrians). Brunanburg (Northmen defeated).

937 Cossova (Turks defeat Albanians, and Amurath i. Simincas (Spaniards defeat Moors)

6 Aug. 938
killed)

Sept. 1389 Nicephorus Phocas defeats Saracens

962 Nicopolis (Turks defeat Christians) . 28 Sept. 1396 Basientello (Otho II. defeated by Greeks) 13 July, 982 Nesbit (Scots defeated)

7 May, 1402 Aneyra (T'i mour defeats Bajazet)

28 July, Clontarf (Danes defeated in Ireland) 23 April, 1014 Homeldon Hill (English defeot Scots)

14 Sept. Zetunium (Bulgarians defenteil) 29 July, 1014 Shrewsbury (Percies, &c. defeated)

23 July, 1403 Prentford (Edmund defeats Danes) .

May, 1016 Bramham moor (Henry IV. dejeats rebels) 19 Feb. 1408

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17 Oct.

871

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Tannenberg (Poles defeat Teuton knights). 15 July, 1410 Arques (llenry IV. defeats League)

21 Sept. 1589 Harlaw (Lord of the Isles (feated) . 24 July, 1411 Ivry or Yvres (ditto)

14 March, 1590 Agincourt (English defeat French)

25 Oct. 1415
Epernay taken by Henry IV. of France

26 July, 1592 Prague (Hussites under Ziska victors) . 14 July, 1420 Fontaine Française (Henry Il'. beats Spaniards) Anjou, Beauge (English defl. hy Scots) 22 March, 1421

5 June, 1595 Crevant (English dejt. French and Scots) 11 June, 1423 Blackwater (Tyrone and rebels def. Bagnal), 14 Aug. 1598 Aquila (Arragonese defeated by Italians)

2 June, 1424

Nieuport (Maurice defeats Austrians) Verneuil (English defeat French and Scots). 17 Aug. Kinsale (Tyrone reducal by Mountjoy)

1601 Herrings (English defeat French).

12 Feb. 1429
Kirchholm (Poles defeat Suettes)

1605 ans (siege relievel)

29 April,
Gibraltar (Dutch defent Spaniards)

1607 Patay (English defeated by Joan of Are) 18 June, Prague (king of Bohemin defeatel).

8 Nov. 1620 Lippau, or Bohmischbrod (Ilussites deftd.) 28 May, 1434 Dessau (Wallenstein defeats Mansfeld)

25 April, 1626 Kurobit za (ikunniades defeats the Turkis) 24 Dec. 1443

Rochelle (taken)

28 Oct. 1628 St. Jacob (French defeat Swiss)

26 Aug. 1444

Stuhm (Gustarus defents Poles). Varna (Turks defeat Hungarians)

10 Noy. Leipsic or Breitenteld ('iustarus def. Tilly), 7 Sept. 1631 Cossova (Turks ile feat Hunnicles)

17 Oct. 1448 Lech (Imperialists defaula ; Tilly killel) 5 April, 1632 Formigni (English defeated by French) · 15 April, 1450 Lippstuit, Lutzingen, or Lutzen (Suedes victorious ; Sevenoaks (Jack Cade defeats Stafford)

Gustavus slain)

(N.S.) 16 Nov Aibar (Agramonts defeat Beaumonts). 23 Oct. 1452

Nordlingen (Sueles defeated)

27 Aug. 1634 Brechin, Scotland (Iluntley defts. Crauford) 18 May, Arras (taken by the French)

10 Aug. 1640 Castillon, Chatillon (French defeat Talbot)

Leipsic (Sueles defeat Austrians)

23 Oct. 1642 17 or 23 July, 1453 Rocroy (French defeat Spaniards)

19 May, 1643 WAR OF THE ROSES-YORKISTS AND LANCASTRIANS. Fried burg (Conde victor)

3-5 Aug. 1644 St. Alban's (Yorkists victorious). . 22 or 23 May, 1455 Nordlingen (Turenne defeats Austrians) Belgrade (Mahomet II. repulsed)

4 Sept. 1456 Bloreheath (Yorkists rictors)

23 Sept. 1459

CIVIL WAR IN ENGLAND. Northampton (ditto, llenry'vi. iaken) 10 July, 1460 Worcester (prince Rupert victor).

23 Sept. 1642 Waketield (Iancustrians victors).

Edgehill fight (issue doubtful) Mortimer's Cross (Yorkists victorious) Feb. 1461

Brulock-down (Parliamenturions ciefcated) Jan. 1643 St. Alban's (Lancastrians victors)

Bramham Moor (Fairfax slefunted)
Towton (Yorkists victorious)

29 March,
Stratton (Royalists victorious)

16 May,
Hexham (Yorkists rictors)
15 May, 1464 Chalgrove (Humpolen killal)

18 June, Montlhery (Louis X1, and nobles ; indec.) 16 July, 1465 Atherton Moor (Royalists rictorious)

30 June, Edgecote or Banbury (Eduard IV. victor) 26 July, 1469 Landsdown (Royalists victorious) Stamford (Lancastrians dejatel)

13 Marchi, 1470 Devizes or Roundaway-down (elitto) Barnet (ditto) 14 April, 1471 Gainsborough (Cromuell victor).

27 July, Tewkesbury (ditto).

Newbury (fav. to Royalists)

20 Sept. Cheriton or Alresford (ditto)

29 March, 1644 Granson (Swiss defeat Charles the Bold) 3 March, 1476 Cropredy Bridge (Charles I.' victor) Morat (elitto)

22 June,

Marston Moor (prince Rupert defeated) 2 July, Naney (Charles the Bold killed)

5 Jan. 1477 Newbury (inulecisire) Bosworth (Richard III. defeated) 22 Aug. 1485 Tippermuir (Montrose ale feats Covenanters)

1 Sept. Stoke (Lambert Simne taken)

16 June, 1487 Nasehy (Charles I. totally defeatel) 14 June, 1645 St. Aubin (Orleans defeatel)

28 July, 1488 Alford ( Montrose defents Core manters). 2 July, Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn (James III. defid. Kilsyth (iitto)

15 Aug. » by rebels)

Philiphaugh (Covenuinters defeat Montrose) 13 Sept. Fornovo (French defcat Ilalians)

Benburb (U'Neill defoats English)

5 June, 1646 Seminara (French defeat Spaniards)

Dungan-hill (Irish ile jeated)

8 Aug. 1647 Blackheath (Cornish rebels defeated).

Preston (Cromwell victor")

17 Aug. 1648 Seminara (Gonsalvo defeats French) 21 April, 1503

Rathmines (Irish Royalists defeatei) 2 Aug. 1649 Cerignola (Gonsalvo defeats French) 28 April, Drogheda (taken by storm)

12 Sept. Garigliano (Gonsalvo defeats French)

Corbiesdale (Montrose defeated).

27 April, 1650 Agnadello (French defaut Venetians). 14 May, 1509 Dunbar (Cromwell du feats Scots)

3 Sept. Ravenna (Gaston de Foir, victor, killed) 11 April, 1512

Worcester (Cromwell defeats Charles 11.)

3 Sept. 1651 Novara (Pajul Swiss defeat French) . 6 June, 1513 Galway (surrendered)

1652 Guinegate (Spurs) (French defeated). 16 Aug. Daventry (Lambert

defeated by Monk)

21 April, 1660 Flodden (English defeot Scots)

· 9 Sept. Marignano (French de feat Sviss) 13-15 Sept. 1515 Arras, France (Turenne defeats Conulé).

1654 Bicocca, near Milan (Lautrec uefeatei). 29 April, 1522 Dunkirk (ditto):

14 June, 1658 Pavia (Francis I. defeated).

24 Feb. 1525 Estremoz (Don John def. by Schomberg) 8 June, 1663 Frankenhausen (Anabaptists defentai).

St. Gotthard (Montecuculi defeats Turks) 1 Aug. 1664 Mohacz (Turks defeat Hungarians) 29 Aug. 1526 Villa Viciosa (Portuguese defaut Spaniards)

1655 Cappel (Zwinglius slain)

. 11 Oct. 1531

Pentland hills (Corcianters defental) 28 Nov. 1666 Assens (Christian III. defeats Danish rebels)

• 1535
Candia (taken by Turks)

6 Sept. 1669 Lauffen (Ilessians defeat Austrians) 13 May, 1534 Choczim (Sobreski defeats Turks)

u Nov. 1673 Abancay (Almagro dejeuted Alvarulo)

12 July, 1537

Senetfe (French and Dutch, indécisive) 11 Aug. 1674 Solway Moss (English defeat Scots)

25 Nov. 1542

Ensisheim (Turenne defects Imperialists)
Ceresuola (French defcat Imperiulists) 14 April, 1544 Mulhausen (ditto)
Mühlberg (Chas. V. defeats Protestants) 24 April, 1547 Turckheim (ilitto)

5 Jan. 1675 Pinkey (English defeat Scots).

10 Sept. Sulzbach (Turenne killei). Ket's rebellion suppressed by Warwick

Aug. 1549

Drumclog (Covenanters defeat Claverhouse) i June, 1679 Marciano (Florentines defeat French)

3 Aug. 1554 Bothwell Brigg (Monmouth defeats Corenanters) St. Quentin (Span. & Eng. (left. French) 10 Aug. 1557

22 June, Calais (taken); 7 Jan. 1558 Vienna (Turks defeated by Sobieski)

12 Sept. 1683 Gravelines n. (Span. & Eng. deft. French). 13 July, Serigemoor (Monmouth defeated).

6 July, 1685 Dreux, in France (Huguenots defeated). 19 Dec. 1562 Mohacz (Turks defeater)

12 Aug. 1687 St. Denis (ditto).

10 Nov. 1567
Killiecrankie (Highlanders def

. Mackay) 27 July, 1689 Carberry Hill (Mary of Scotland defeated)

Newtown-butler (Jacobites le featel) 30 July, Langside (flitto)

13 May, 1568 Boyne (William III. defeats James II.) 1 July, 1690 Jarnac (Huguenots defeatell)

13 March, 1569 Fleurus (Charleroi, Lurembourg victor) 1 July, Moncontour (Coligny defeatel)

Athlone taken by Ginckel.

30 June, 1691 Lepanto, n. (Don John defauts Turks)

7 Oct. 1571

Aughrim (James II.'s cause ruined) 12 July, Dormans (Guise defeats Huguenots)

10 Oct. 1575
Salenekemen (Louis of Baden vef

. Turks) 19 Aug. Alcazar-quiver (Moors defeat Portuguese) 4 Aug. 1578 Enghein or Steenkirk (William II1. defeated) Alcantara (Spaniarris defeat Portuguese) 24 June, 1580

24 July, 1692 Zutphen (Dutch & English def. Spaniards), 22 Sept. 1586 Landen (William III. defcated)

19 July, 1093 Coutras (Henry IV. defauts League)

20 Oct. 1587 Marsaglia (Pignerol) (French victors) Spanish Armada defeated, n.

July, Aug. 1588 Zenta (prince Eugène ile feats Turks) 11 Sept. 1697

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Narva (Charles XII. defeats Russians) 30 Nov. 1700 Buxar (Munro defeats army of Oude). • 23 Oct. 1764
Carpi, Modena (Allies defeat French) 9 July, 1701 Choczim (Russians defeat Turks) 30 April & 13 July, 1969
Chiari (Austrians defent French)
1 Sept. Galatz (Russians defeat Turks)

Nov.
Clissau (Charles XII. defeois Poles)
20 July, 1702 Bender taken by Russians

28 Sept. 1770 Santa Vittoria (French victors)

26 July, Brailow (Russians defeat Turks) . 19 June, 1773 Friedlingen (French (lefeat Germans)

Silistria (tuken). Pultusk (svedes defeat Poles)

1 May, 1703 Hochstadt (French defeat Austrians) 20 Sept.

AMERICAN WAR. Donauwerth (Marlborough victor)

2 July, 1704 Lexington (Goge victor, with great loss) 19 April, 1775 Gibraltar (taken by Rooke)

Bunker's Hill (Americans repulsel)

17 June, Blenheim or Hochstadt (Marlborough victor), (0. s.) Long Island (Americans defeated)

27 Aug. 1776 2 Aug. White Plains (Howe defeats Americans) 28 Oct. Mittau (taken by Russians) 14 Sept. 1705 Rhode Island (taken by Royalists)

8 Dec. 16 Aug Princeton (Washington defeats British) 3 Jan. 1777 Tirlemont (Marlborough successful). 18 July, Brandywine (Howe defeots Washington). 11 Sept. Ramillies (Marlborough defeats French) . 23 May, 1706 Germanstown (Burgoyne's victory) Turin (French defeated by Eugene)

7 Sept.

Saratoga (he is compelled to surrendler) Kalitsch (Russians defeat Svates)

Briar's Creek (Americans defeatel) 3 March, 1779 Almanza (French defeat Allies) 14 (o. s.) or 25 April, 1707 Camden (Cornwallis defeats Gates)

16 Aug. 1780 Oudenarde (Marlborough victor)

. 11 July, 1708 Arcot (Hyder defeats British) Liesna, Lenzo (Russians defeat Swedes) autumn, Guildford (Cornwallis defeats Gates) 15 March, 1781 Lisle (taken by the Allies) Dec. Camden (Americans ile feated)

25 April, Pultowa (Peter defeats Charles Xll.)

8 July, 1709
Porto Novo (Coote defeats Hyder)

1 July, Dobro (Russians de feat Suales)

20 Sept. Eutaw Springs (Arnou defents Americans). 8 Sept. Malplaquet (Marlborough victor)

11 Sept. York Town (Cornwallis surrenders) Almenara (Àustrians defeat French) 28 July, 1710 (Many inferior actions with various success.) Saragossa (ditto)

20 Aug. Rodney's victory over De Grasse, n. 12 April, 1782 Villa Viciosa (Austrians defenied)

10 Dec.
Arnee (Coote defents Hyder)

2 June, Arleux (Marlborough forces French lines) 5 Aug. 1711 Attack on Gibraltar fails

13 Sept. » Bouchain (taken by Marlborough)

13 Sept.
Bednore (taken by Tippon Sahih).

30 April, 1783 Denain (Villars defeats Allies)

24 July, 1712 Martinesti (Austrians (lefeat Turks) .22 Sept. 1789 Friburg (laken by French) 9 Nov. 1713 Ismail (taken by storm by Suvarrow)

22 Dec. 1790 Preston (rebels defental). 12, 13 Nov. 1715 Bangalore (taken by storm)

21 March, 1791 Dumblane or Sherif - Muir (indecisive)

Arikera (Tippoo defrated). Peterwardein (Eugene defeats Turks) · 5 Aug. 1716 Seringapatam (ditto) Belgrade (ditto).

16 Aug. 1717 Bitonto (Spaniards defeat Germans)

27 May, 1734

FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WAR BEGINS. Parma (Austrians and French, indecisive). 29 June, , Quiévrain (French repulsed)

28 April, 1792 Guastalla (Austrians defeated)

19 Sept.
Valmy (French ile feat Prussians)

20 Sept. Erivan (Nadir Shah defeats Turks)

June, 1735
Jemappes (French victorious)

6 Nov. Krotzka (Turks defeat Austrians).

22 July, 1739

Neerwinden (French beaten by Austrians) 18 March, 1793 Molwitz (Prussians defeat Austrians) 10 April, 1741 St. Amand (French defeated by English). .8 May, Dettingen (George II. defeats French) 16 June, 1743 Valenciennes (ditto)

· 23 May, 26 July, Fontenoy (Save the feats Cumberland). 30 April, 1745 Lincelles (Lake defeats French).

18 Aug. Hohenfreiburg (Prussians de feul Austrians) 4 June, Dunkirk (duke of York defeated)

7, 8 Sept. Quesnoy (reduced by Austrians)

u Sept. SCOTS' REBELLION.

Pirmasens (Prussians defeat French) 14 Sept. Preston Pans (rebels defeat Cope) 21 Sept. 1745 Wattignies (French defeat Coburg)

14, 15, 16 Oct. Clifwn Moor (rebels defeated)

18 Dec. Toulon (retaken by British) Falkirk (rells defeats Hawley) 17 Jan. 1746 Cambray (French defeated)

24 April, 1794 Culloden (Cumberland defeats rebels)

16 April,
Troisville, Landrecy (taken by Allies)

30 April,

Tourcoing (Moreau defeats Allies) 18-22 May, St. Lazaro (Sardinians defeat French)

4 June,
Espierres (taken by Allies)

22 May, Placentia (Austrians de feat French)

16 June, ,
Howe's naval victory

1 June, Raucoux (Saxe defeats Allies)

II Oct.

Charleroi or Fleurus (French dejeot Auies) 26 June, Bergen-op-Zoom (taken) 15 Sept. 1747 Misdon (Vendeans de feated)

28 July, Latleidt (Suse defeats Cumberland) 2 July, Bois-le-Duc (duke of York defeated)

14 Sept. Exilles (Sardinians defeat French)

Boxtel (ditto)

17 Sept. Fort du Quesne (Braucock killed)

9 July, 1755
Maciejowice (Poles defentei).

Io Oct. Calcutta (taken by Surajah Dovlah) . 20 June, 1756 Nimeguen (French victorious) 28 Oct.; (def.) 4 May,

Praga (Warsaw taken by Suvarrow)
SEVEN YEARS' War, 1756-63.

Bridport's victory off l'Orient, n.

22 June, 1795 Prague (Frederick defeats Allies)

6 May, 1757
Quiberon (Emigrants defeated)

21 July, kollin (Frulerick defeated)

Mannheim (taken by Pichegru)

20 Sept. Plassey (Clive's victory)

23 June,
Loano (French defeat Austrians)

23, 24 Nov. Norkitten (Russians defeated)

13 Aug. »

Montenotte (Bonaparte victorious) . 12 April, 1796 Rosbach (Frederick defeats French).

Mondovi (ditto)

. 22 April, Breslau (Austrians victors).

22 Nov.
Lodi (ditto)

10 May, Lissa (Frederick defeats Austrians).

Altenkirchen (Austrians defeoiel)

4 June, Creveldt (Ferdinami defcats French) 23 June, 1758 Radstadt (Moreau defeats Austrians) 5 July, Zorndorff (Frederick defents Russians) 25, 26 Aug. Altenkirchen (Austrians victors)

16 Sept. Hochkirchen (Austrians aleseat Prussians)

Roveredo (French defeat Austrians)

4 Sept. Bergen (French defeat Allies) 13 April, 1759 Bassano (ditto)

8 Sept. Zullichau (Russians defeat Prussians)

Biberach (ditto)
Niagara (English take Fort)

24 July,
Lonato and Castiglione (ditto)

• 3-5 Aug. Minden (Feriinanui (lefeats French)

1 Aug Neresheim (Morenu def. archuluke Charles) to Aug Cunnersdorf (Russians defeat Prussians) 12 Aug Arcola (Bonaparte victorious) Quebec (Wolfe, victor, killa)

13 Sept. Castelnuovo (ditto). Wandewash (Coote defeats Lally) 22 Jan. 1760 Rivoli (dltto)

14, 15 Jan. 1797 Landshut, Silesia (Prussians defeated)

23 June,

Cape St. Vincent, 11. (Spaniards defeated) Warburg (Ferdinand defeats French) 31 July,

Tagliamento (Bona parte def. Austrians)

16 March, , Pfaffendorf (Fralerick defents Austrians) 15 Aug. ,, Camperdown, n. (Duncan defeats Dutch)

11 Oct. Campen (French (feat Russians). Toryan (Freilerick defeats Austrians).

3 Nov.
IRISH REBELLION BEGINS

May, 1798 Kirchienkern (Allics defeat French) 15 July, 1761 Kilcullen (rebels successful)

23 May, Schweidnitz (Frederick II. def. Austrians) 16 May, 1962 Naas (rebeis defentel)

24 May, ,, Johannisberg (French defeat Prussians)

Tara (rebels defeatel).

26 May, Freiberg (Prussians defeat Austrians)

Oulurt (rebels successful)

27 May,

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