« PreviousContinue »
As the presence of refugees in any of the four countries is a disturbing factor, the Security Council recommend to the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia that they:
(1) Remove such refugees as far from the country from which they came as is practically possible;
(2) Segregate them in camps or otherwise;
(3) Take effective measures to prevent their participation in any political or military activity.
The Security Council recommend that such camps be placed under the supervision of some international body authorized by the United Nations to undertake the task.
In order to ensure that only genuine refugees return to their country of origin, repatriation shall not take place except after arrangements with the Government of the country of origin and after notification to the Commission, established under this resolution, or to the international body authorized for this task by the United Nations.
The Security Council recommend to the Governments of Greece on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, that they study the practicability of concluding agreements for the voluntary transfer of minorities. Until such agreements come into force, individuals belonging to a given minority in any of the countries concerned desiring to emigrate, should be given all facilities to do so by the government of the State in which they reside. The arrangements for any transfers under this paragraph should be supervised by the commission established under this resolution, which would act as a registration authority for any person desiring to emigrate.
The Security Council, for the purpose of restoring normal conditions along the frontiers between Greece, on the one hand, and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, and thereby assisting these countries in carrying out the recommendations of this resolution, establish a Commission as a subsidiary organ.
(a) The Commission shall be composed of a representative of each of the Nations members of the Security Council as they may be from. time to time.
(b) The functions of the Commission shall be those of conciliation and investigation:
(1) To use its good offices to assist the governments concerned in the negotiation and conclusion of the frontier conventions recommended under this resolution.
(2) To study and make recommendations to the governments concerned with respect to such additional bilateral agreements between them for the pacific settlements of disputes relating to frontier incidents or conditions on the frontier as the Commission considers desirable.
(3) To assist in the implementation of the recommendations made. to the four governments under this resolution with respect to refugees;
to receive reports from the four governments with respect to persons who may cross or have crossed from the territory of any one of such countries to any of the others; to maintain a register for its confidential use of all such persons and to assist in the repatriation of those who wish to return to their homes, and in connection with these functions to act in concert with the appropriate agency of the United Nations. (4) To assist the governments concerned in the negotiation and conclusion of arrangements for the transfer of minorities recommended to such governments under this resolution and in this connection to supervise such transfers and to act as a registration authority for any persons desiring to emigrate.
(5) To use its good offices for the settlement, by the means mentioned in Article 33 of the Charter, of:
(a) Controversies arising from frontier violations;
(b) Controversies directly connected with the application of the frontier conventions recommended to the four governments under this resolution;
(c) Complaints regarding conditions on the border which may be brought to the attention of the Commission by one government against another.
(6) In order to keep the Security Council informed, the Commission shall:
(a) Whenever it may deem it useful, investigate any alleged frontier violations;
(b) Investigate complaints by any of the governments concerned with respect to conditions on the border whenever, in its opinion, these conditions are likely to lead to a deterioration of the situation.
Its authority with respect to investigation shall be identical to that vested in the Commission established under the resolution of the Security Council of 19 December 1946.
(c) The Commission shall have its headquarters in Salonika.
(d) The Commission shall be accredited as an Organ of the Security Council, to the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia, and shall have the right of direct access to them. The Commission shall perform its tasks on either side of the border with the co-operation of the officials and nationals of the four Governments. concerned.
(e) The Commission shall establish its own rules of procedure and methods of conducting its business.
(f) The Commission shall render regularly quarterly reports to the Security Council, or more frequently if it thinks fit.
(g) The Commission shall have the staff necessary to perform its functions and shall have authority to appoint suitable persons able to act as border observers and to report on the observance of the frontier conventions recommended under this resolution, the state of the frontier area, and cognate matters.
(h) The Commission shall commence its work as soon as practicable after 1 September 1947. It shall remain in existence until 31 August 1949. The establishment of the Commission in Salonika will put an end to the Commission of Investigation established by the resolution of the Council of 19 December 1946 and to the Subsidiary Group thereof, established by the resolution of 30 April 1947.
The Security Council, conscious of the gravity of the situation, appeals to the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia, calling upon them by their loyal co-operation in the measures proposed above to contribute to the extent of their ability to the reestablishment of peaceful conditions in the area concerned.
140. GREEK FRONTIER INCIDENTS
Statement by the United States Deputy Representative, August 12, 19471
The Security Council now has attempted for many months to find a solution to the Greek question by the processes of pacific settlement. Many proposals have been presented to us, most of which have carefully avoided findings of guilt or blame on either of the parties to this dispute. All those solutions have failed, as the President and the other Members of the Council know. The Report of the Sub-Committee indicates clearly, as Mr. Lopez has told us, that there is no longer any hope of reaching compromise solutions.
The Security Council is faced with a complete deadlock which prevents it from taking the necessary measures to deal with the factual situation along the Greek border. Under the circumstances, the course left for the Security Council, in our opinion, is to register for the whole world the opinion of its Members as to the facts and what action they are prepared to take under the Charter.
We are no longer under the necessity of attempting to appease further a threatening veto. Let us now record our honest opinions. That is what I now propose to do on behalf of the United States delegation.
I may say in passing that the Australian resolution also imputes no blame, but it does take care of the situation of danger and, if passed, will give the Security Council some hold, some measures of control.
After I have expressed the views which my Government and my delegation hold on this situation, I shall put before the Council another draft resolution from the United States delegation. I shall not comment specifically on that draft resolution. I think that our views regarding that resolution will be clear from the general statement which I propose to make. I need hardly remind the Council that if the Australian resolution is passed by the Council, the United States resolution will be withdrawn.
It is the view of the United States Government that Greece is in grave peril. This peril results from the guerrilla warfare now being waged against the Greek Government by Communist-led bands. actively supported by Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and by the Communist Party of Greece. It is perfectly clear that the Governments of the three northern countries are working in close conjunction with the Greek Communists with a common objective-the establishment in Greece of a minority totalitarian government which would be subservient to the Communist-controlled countries.
1 Made on August 12, 1947, by Herschel V. Johnson. Excerpts from UN Doc. S/P.V./180, pp. 56–65.
The United States Government considers that the evidence obtained by the Security Council's investigating commission and the Subsidiary Group as set forth in a series of reports to the Security Council unquestionable proves that substantial assistance is being received by the Greek guerrillas from the northern countries, and further shows that this assistance is of such importance as to constitute a very serious threat to Greek independence and integrity.
It is because of the obvious seriousness of the situation that my Government has taken so active an interest in the Greek complaint to the Security Council. We believe that with the United States assistance now being made available to Greece and with the assistance which other nations and international organizations may be able to provide in the future, Greece can solve her domestic difficulties provided she is relieved of the constantly growing threat from the north.
We further believe that this threat can be checked if it is firmly faced by the United Nations. When the Report of the investigating commission was first submitted to the Security Council, the United States thought that the measures proposed in our resolution of 27 June would be adequate to re-establish order along the northern Greek frontier and that these measures were at the same time designed to offer maximum possibility of acceptance by the Council. They did, in fact, command the support of nine of the eleven Members of the Council, clearly showing that our views were shared by nearly all the Governments represented. The implementation of these proposals was, however, frustrated by the adverse vote of one of the permanent Members.
During the debate on the United States resolution, the situation along the Greek border grew worse rather than better. We believe that the evidence laid before the Council by the Commission and the Subsidiary Group, taken in conjunction with the renewed request of the Greek Government and the continued defiance of the Security Council by Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, now more than ever, obligates the Council to seek positive measures which would, if adopted, have a reasonable prospect of success. We believe that this course is required by the terms of the Charter, by common logic and by the necessity for preserving the position of this Council commensurate with its responsibility.
My Government is firmly convinced that the standing of the Security Council before the world can never be maintained by avoiding the issues or by attempting to take measures which are obviously inadequate.
It is my Government's conviction that each Member of the Council is under a moral duty in a case of this kind to act in accordance with the facts and in conformity with the high principles of the Charter. Each one of us must live up to the trust reposed in us by the United Nations whom we represent as a whole and not merely our own Governments.
The United States, in taking this stand, is convinced that it is taking a stand which is right in the interests of international peace and justice.
Even though the efforts of the majority of the Council in the future, as has been the case already, should be blocked by the exercise of the
veto, my Government does not consider that these efforts would thereby be fruitless. On the contrary, a firm stand by the majority on this issue would demonstrate to the world a determination of nine of the eleven Members of the Council to prevent aggression; whereas a failure by the Council to meet the issue squarely would be a signal to aggressors and potential aggressors in other places that they could act with impunity, secure in the belief that their actions would be tacitly condoned.
We most earnestly hope that the majority of the Council will join in seeking action under Chapter VII, not only for the fundamental reasons given above but also for the reason that a clear decision by the majority of the Council, even though frustrated by a veto, would provide a firm foundation for effective future action within the framework of the Charter.
It is our thought that should the Council, having done all in its power to cope with the situation, for the present at least, find itself unable to afford Greece the necessary protection, the problem must inevitably be carried to the General Assembly. If a substantial majority of the Council declares, by its words and its votes, that the three northern neighbours of Greece are guilty of acts of aggression against Greece and that there therefore exists in the Balkans a threat to the peace requiring action by the United Nations, this action by the majority will, in our opinion, provide a powerful impetus for formal action by the General Assembly.
My Government will not sit idly by while the territorial integrity and political independence of a Member of the United Nations are challenged. We do not consider that our obligations or the obligations of the United Nations in this regard are ended merely because we have seen our objectives frustrated by the veto of another permanent Member of the Council. It becomes all too clear that this veto has been used in defense of the aggressions of Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria. Greece's right to exist is involved in this case.
We wish to make it very clear that we shall not hesitate to exhaust every available means within the framework of the Charter of the United Nations to maintain international peace and to provide Greece with whatever protection she may need in the future.
The continued failure, so far, of the Security Council to take effective action in this case because of the Soviet Union veto cannot, in the opinion of the United States Government, preclude individual or collective action by States willing to act, so long as they act in accordance with the general purposes and principles of the United Nations. This is particularly true when such individual or collective action is in support of a policy or course of action which has the approval of a clear preponderance of the permanent and non-permanent Members of the Security Council.
In the case of the blocking of Security Council action by the veto, we are confident that the General Assembly will exercise its powers to the limit for the protection of Greece.
The United States, for its part would be prepared to comply with any General Assembly recommendations for the solution of this problem. It would also be prepared to co-operate with like-minded Members of the United Nations in taking any steps which might become necessary, within the terms of the Assembly recommendations