Page images

give rise to the present name (Port. Açor, a hawk). The Arabian somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the writers represent them as having been populous, and as having Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of contained cities of some magnitude; but they state that the Judah. In 711 B.c. it was captured by the Assyrians (Is. xx. 1), inhabitants had been greatly reduced by intestine warfare. The but soon regained its power, and was strong enough in the Azores are first found distinctly marked in a map of 1351, the next century to resist the assaults of Psammetichus, king of seothern group being named the Goat Islands (Cabreras); the Egypt, for twenty-nine years (Herod. ii. 157). Restored by the middle group, the Wind or Dove Islands (De Ventura sive de Roman Gabinius from the ruins to which it had been reduced Columbis); and the western, the Brazil Island (De Brazi)--the by the Jewish wars (1 Macc. v. 68, x. 77, xvi. 10), it was presented word Brazil at that time being employed for any red dye-stuff. by Augustus to Salome, the sister of Herod. The only New In a Catalan map of the year 1375 Corvo is found as Corvi Marini, Testament reference is in Acts viii. 40. Ashdod became the and Flores as Li Conigi; while St George is already designated seat of a bishop carly in the Christian era, but seems never to San Zore. It has been conjectured that the discoverers were have attained any importance as a town, The Mount Azotus Genoese, but of this there is not sufficient evidence. It is plain, 1 of 1 Macc. ix. 15, where Judas Maccabeus fell, is possibly the bowever, that the so-called Flemish discovery by van der Berg rising ground on which the village stands. A fine Saracenic is only worthy of the name in a very secondary sense. According khān is the principal relic of antiquity at 'Esdud. to the usual account, he was driven on the islands in 1432, and AZOV, or Asov (in Turkish, Asak), a town of Russia, in the the news excited considerable interest at the court of Lisbon government of the Don Cossacks, on the left bank of the southern The navigator, Gonzalo Velho Cabral--not to be confounded arm of the Don, about 20 m. from its mouth. The ancient with his greater namesake, Pedro Alvarez Cabral—was sent to Tanais lay some 10 m. to the north. In the 13th century the prosecute the discovery. Another version relates that Prince Genoese had a factory here which they called Tana. Azov was Henry the Navigator of Portugal had in his possession a map in long a place of great military and commercial importance. which the islands were laid down, and that he sent out Cabral Peter the Great obtained possession of it after a protracted through confidence in its accuracy. The map had been presented siege in 1696, but in 1711 restored it to the Turks; in 1739 it to him by his brother, Dom Pedro, who had travelled as far as was finally united to the Russian empire. Since then it has Babylon. Be this as it may, Cabral reached the island, which greatly declined, owing to the silting up of harbour and the he named Santa Maria, in 1432, and in 1444 took possession of competition of Taganrog. Its population, principally engaged St Michael's. The other islands were all discovered by 1457. in the fisheries, numbered 25,124 in 1900. Colonization had meanwhile been going on prosperously; and AZOV, SEA OF, an inland sea of southern Europe, communiin 1466 Fayal was presented by Alphonso V. to his aunt, Isabella, cating with the Black Sea by the Strait of Yenikale, or Kerch, the duchess of Burgundy. An influx of Flemish settlers followed, the ancient Bosporus Cimmerius. To the Romans it was known and the islands became known for a time as the Flemish Islands. as the Palus Maeolis, from the name of the neighbouring people, From 1580 to 1640 they were subject, like the rest of the who called it in their native language Temarenda, or Mother of Portuguese kingdom, to Spain. At that time the Azores were Waters. It was long supposed to possess direct communication the grand rendezvous for the flects on their voyage home from with the Northern Ocean. In prehistoric times a connexion with the Indies; and hence they became a theatre of that maritime the Caspian Sea existed; but since the earliest historical times Faríare which was carried on by the English under Queen no great change has taken place in regard to the character or Elizabeth against the Peninsular powers. One such expedition, relations of the Sea of Azov. It lies between 45° 20' and 47° 18' which took place in 1591, led to the famous sea-fight off Flores, N. lat., and between 35° and 39° E. long., its length from southbetween the English ship“ Revenge," commanded by Sir Richard west to north-east being 230 m., and its greatest breadth 110. Grenville, and a Spanish flcet of fifty-three vessels. Under the The area runs to 14,515 sq. m. It generally freezes from active administration of the marquis de Pombal (1699-1782), con- November to the middle of April. The Don is its largest and, siderable efforts were made for the improvement of the Azores, indeed, its only very important affluent. Near the mouth of bat the stupid and bigoted government which followed rather that river the depth of the sea varies from 3 to 10 ft., and the tended to destroy these benefits. Towards the beginning of the greatest depth does not exceed 45

ft. Of recent years, too, the 19th century, the possession of the islands, was contested by level has been constantly dropping, for the surface lies 41 ft. the claimants for the crown of Portugal. The adherents of the higher than the surface of the Black Sea. Fierce and continuous constitution, who supported against Miguel the rights of Maria winds from the east prevail during July and August, and in the (!I.) da Gloria, obtained possession of Terceira in 1829, where latter part of the year those from the north-east and south-east they succeeded in maintaining themselves, and after various are not unusual; a great variety of currents is thus produced. struggles, Queen Maria's authority was established over all the The water is for the most part comparatively fresh, but differs islands. She resided at Angra from 1830 to 1833.

considerably in this respect according to locality and current. For a general account of the islands, see The Azores, by W. F. Fish are so abundant that the Turks describe it as Baluk-deniz, Walker (London, 1886), and Madeira and the Canary Islands, with or Fish Sea. To the west, separated from the main basin by the the Azeres, by A. S. Brown (London, 1901);, On the launa and flora long narrow sand-spit of Arabat, lie the remarkable lagoons and o the islands, the following books by H. Drouet are useful:Eements de la faune acoréenne (Paris, 1861); Mollusques marins marshes known as the Sivash, or Putrid Sea; here the water ées Les Açores (1858), Lettres acoréennes (1862), and Catalogue de la is intensely salt. The Sea of Azov is of great importance fere des iles Açores, précédé de l'itinéraire d'une voyage dans cel to Russian commerce; along its shores stand the cities of archipe (1866). The progress of Azorian commerce is best shown Taganrog, Berdyansk, Mariupol and Yenikale. in the British and American consular reports. For history, see La Conquista de las Azores en 1583, by C. Fernandez Duro (Madrid,

AZOXIMES (furo (a.b.) diazoles), a class of organic compounds 1836. and Histoire de la découverte des iles Azores et de l'origine de which contain the ring system NECH>0. They may be leur dénomination d'iles flamandes, by J. Mees (Ghent, 1901).

AZOTH, the name given by the alchemists to mercury, and prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action by Paracelsus to his universal remedy.

of hydroxylamine, the amidoximes so formed being then acylated

by acid chlorides or anhydrides. From these acyl derivatives AZOTUS, the name given by Greek and Roman writers to Ashdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now represented by a few

the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating remains in the little village of 'Esdud, in the governmental panied by the formation of the azoxime ring. Thus

or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accomdistrict of Acre. It was situated about m. inland from the. Mediterranean, on the famous military route between Syria and


boil with Eopt, about equidistant (18 m.) from Joppa and Gaza. As CoH.CN- →C.H5.C


NH, one of the five chief cities of the Philistines and the seat of the

propionic anhydride worship of Dagon (1 Sam. v.; cf. 1 Macc. x. 83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though



Azoximes can also be produced from a-benzil dioxime by the became chief keeper of the archives and royal chronicler in “Beckmann " change. Most of the azoximes are very volatile succession to Fernão Lopes. In 1456 King Alphonso V. comsubstances, sublime readily, and are easily soluble in water, missioned him to write the history of Ceuta, “ the land-gate of alcohol and benzene.

the East," under the governorship of D. Pedro de Menezes, from For detailed descriptions, sce F. Tiemann. (Ber., 1885, 18, its capture in 1415 until 1437, and he had it ready in 1463. A (Ber.,1886,19, p. 1492); also Annual Reports of the Chemical Societys. year afterwards the king charged him with a history of the deeds

AZTECS (from the Nahuatl word azilan, place of the of D. Duarte de Menezes, captain of Alcacer, and, proceeding to Heron,” or “ Heron ” people), the native name of one of the Africa, he spent a twelvemonth in the town collecting materials tribes that occupied the tableland of Mexico on the arrival of and studying the scenes of the events he was to describe, and in the Spaniards in America. It has been very frequently employed 1468 he completed the chronicle. Alphonso corresponded with as equivalent to the collective national title of Nahuatlecas or

Azurara on terms of affectionate intimacy, and no less than three Mexicans. The Aztecs came, according to native tradition, commendas of the order of Christ rewarded his literary services. from a country to which they gave the name of Aztlan, usually He has little of the picturesque ingenuousness of Lopes, and supposed to lie towards the north-west, but the satisfactory loved to display his erudition by quotations and philosophical localization of it is one of the greatest difficulties in Mexican reflections, showing that he wrote under the influence of the first history. The date of the exodus from Aztlan is equally un- Renaissance. Nearly all the leading classical, early Christian determined, being fixed by various authorities in the 11th and

and medieval writers figure in his pages, and he was acquainted by others in the 12th century. One Mexican manuscript gives with the notable chronicles and romances of Europe and had a date equivalent to A.D. 1164. They gradually increased their studied the best Italian and Spanish authors. In addition, be influence among other tribes, until, by union with the Toltecs, had mastered the geographical system of the ancients and their who occupied the tableland before them, they extended their astrology. As an historian he is laborious, accurate and conempire to an area of from 18,000 to 20,000 square leagues. scientious, though his position did not allow him to tell the The researches of Humboldt gave the first clear insight into the

whole truth about his hero, Prince Henry. early periods of their history. See Mexico; NAHUATLAN STOCK.

His works include: (1) Chronica del Rei D. Joam 1. Terceira AZUAGA, a town of western Spain, in the province of Badajoz, | do Descobrimento e Conquista de Guiné (Paris, 1841; Eng. version

parle em que se contem a lomada de Ceula (Lisbon, 1644); (2) Ckronics on the Belmez-Fuente del Arco railway. Pop. (1900) 14,192. in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896-1899): Azuaga is the central market for the live-stock of the broad up- (3) Chronica do Conde D. Pedro de Menezes), printed in the Ireditos land pastures watered by the Matachel, a left-hand tributary D. Duarte de Menezes, printed in the Ineditos, vol. iii. (Lisbon, 1793). of the Guadiana, and by the Bembézar, a right-hand tributary | The preface to the English version of the Chronicle of Guinea contains of the Guadalquivir. Coarse woollen goods and pottery are a full account of the life and writings of Azurara and cites all the manufactured in the town.


(E. PR.) AZUAY (sometimes written Assuay), a province of Ecuador, AZURE (derived, through the Romance languages, from the bounded N. by the province of Cañar, E. by Oriente, S. by Loja, Arabic al-lazward, for the precious stone lapis lazuli, the initial and W. by El Oro. It was formerly called Cuenca, and formed I having dropped), the lapis lazuli; and so its colour, blue. part of the department of Azuay, which also included the province AZURITE, or CHESSYLITE, a mineral which is a basic copper of Loja. Azuay is an elevated mountainous district with a great carbonate, 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2. In its vivid blue colour it contrasts variety of climates and products; among the latter are silver, strikingly with the emerald-green malachite, also a basic copper quicksilver, wheat, Indian corn, barley, cattle, wool, cinchona carbonate, but containing rather more water and less carbon and straw hats. The capital is Cuenca.

dioxide. It was known to Pliny AZUNI, DOMENICO ALBERTO (1749–1827), Italian jurist, under the name caeruleum, and was born at Sassar, in Sardinia, in 1749. He studied law at the modern name azurite (given Sassari and Turin, and in 1782 was made judge of the consulate by F. S. Beudant in 1824) also at Nice. In 1786-1788 he published his Disionario Universale has reference to the azure-blue Ragionato della Giurisprudenza Mercantile. In 1795 appeared colour; the name chessylite, also his systematic work on the maritime law of Europe, Sistema in common use, is of later date Universale dei Principii del Dirillo Maritimo dell'Europa, which (1852), and is from the locality, he afterwards recast and translated into French. In 1806 he Chessy ncar Lyons, which has supplied the best crystallized was appointed one of the French commission engaged in drawing specimens of the mineral. Crystals of azurite belong to the up a general code of commercial law, and in the following year monoclinic system; they have a vitreous lustre and are transhe proceeded to Genoa as president of the court of appeal. After lucent. The streak is blue, but lighter than the colour of the the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Azuni lived for a time in retirement mineral in mass. Hardness 3-4; sp. gr. 3.8. at Genoa, till he was invited to Sardinia by Victor Emmanuel I., Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits and appointed judge of the consulate at Cagliari, and director of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide of the university library. He died at Cagliari in 1827. Azuni or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and also wrote numerous pamphlets and minor works, chiefly on oxygen. It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and maritime law, an important treatise on the origin and progress sometimes occuis in large masses, as in Arizona and in South of maritime law (Paris, 1810), and an historical, geographical Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of and political account of Sardinia (1799, enlarged 1802).

which element it contains 55%. Being less hydrated than AZURARA, GOMES EANNES DE (?-1474), the second malachite it is itself liable to alteration into this mineral, and notable Portuguese chronicler in order of date. He adopted the pseudomorphs of malachite after azurite are not uncommon. career of letters in middle life. He probably entered the royal Occasionally the massive material is cut and polished for decoralibrary as assistant to Fernão Lopes (7.v.) during the reign of tive purposes, though the application in this direction is far less King Duarte (1433–1438), and he had sole charge of it in 1452. extensive than that of malachite.

(L. J. S.) His Chronicle of the Siege and Capture of Ceuta, a supplement to AZYMITES (Gr. &-, without; suun, leaven), a name given the Chronicle of King John 1., by Lopes, dates from 1450, and by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, three years later he completed the first draft of the Chronicle of because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, our authority for the early a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed Portuguese voyages of discovery down the African coast and by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover in the ocean, more especially for those undertaken under the custom. The Orthodox Church strenuously maintains its auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator. It contains some point, arguing that the very name bread, the holiness of the account of the life work of that prince, and has a biographical as mystery, and the example of Jesus and the early church alike, well as a geographical interest. On the 6th of June 1454 Azurara ' testify against the use of unleavened bread in this connexion.


This letter corresponds to the second symbol in the England. There he became acquainted with the works of Jakob Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position Boehme, and with the ideas of Hume, Hartley and Godwin, in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like which were extremely distasteful to him. The mystical specula

the Russian, from medieval Greek, in which the pronun- tions of Meister Eckhart, Saint Martin, and above all those of ciation of this symbol had changed from 6 to v. A new form had Boehme, were more in harmony with his mode of thought. In therefore to be invented for the genuine b in Slavonic, to which | 1796 he returned from England, and in Hamburg became there was, at the period when the alphabet was adopted, no cor- acquainted with F. H. Jacobi, with whom he was for years on responding sound in Greek. The new symbol, which occupies the terms of friendship. He now learned something of Schelling, and second position, was made by removing the upper loop of B, the works he published during this period were manifestly thus producing a symbol somewhat resembling an ordinary lower- influenced by that philosopher. Yet Båader is no disciple of case b. The old B retained the numerical value of the Greek B Schelling, and probably gave out more than he received. Their as 2, and no numerical value was given to the new symbol. In friendship continued till about the year 1822, when Baader's the Phoenician alphabet the earliest forms are 9 9 or more

denunciation of modern philosophy in his letter to the emperor rounded 9. The rounded form appears also in the earliest Alexander I. of Russia entirely alienated Schelling. Aramaic (see ALPHABET). Like some other alphabetic symbols

All this time Baader continued to apply himself to his proit was not borrowed by Greek in its original form. In the very fession of engineer. He gained a prize of 12,000 gulden (about early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-000 B.c.), written from £1000) for his new method of employing Glauber's salts instead right to left, it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek of potash in the making of glass. From 1817 to 1820 he held the À, this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol post of superintendent of mines, and was raised to the rank of upside down. Its form in inscriptions of Melos, Selinus, Syracuse nobility for his services. He retired in 1820, and soon after and elsewhere in the 6th and 5th centuries suggests the influence published one of the best of his works, Fermenta Cognitionis, of Aramaic forms in which the head of the letter is opened, 6 parts, 1822–1825, in which he combats modern philosophy The Corinthian (U, 1 and 2 (also at Corcyra) and the r

and recommends the study of Boehme. In 1826, when the new of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol. university was opened at Munich, he was appointed professor The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and of philosophy and speculative theology. Some of the lectures other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain. delivered there he published under the title, Spekulative Dogmatik, Otherwise its only variation is between pointed and rounded 4 parts, 1827-1836. In 1838 he opposed the interference in civil loops (B and B). The sound which the symbol represents is matters of the Roman Catholic Church, to which he belonged, the voiced stop made by closing the lips and vibrating the vocal

and in consequence was, during the last three years of his life, chords (see Phonetics). It differs from p by the presence of interdicted from lecturing on the philosophy of religion. He died vibration of the vocal chords and from m because the nasal

on the 23rd of May 1841. passage as well as the lips is closed. When an audible emission

It is difficult to summarize Baader's philosophy, for he himself of breath attends its production the aspirate bh is formed. This generally gave expression to his deepest thoughts in obscure sound was frequent in the pro-ethnic period of the Indo-European aphorisms, or, mystical symbols and analogies (see Ed. Zeller's languages and survived into the Indo-Aryan languages. Accord

Ges. d. deut. Phil. 732, 736). Further, he has no systematic works;

his doctrines exist for the most part in short detached essays, in ing to the system of phonetic changes generally known as comments on the writings of Boehme and Saint Martin, or in his Grimm's law," an original b appears in English as p, an original extensive correspondence and journals. At the same time there tk as . An original medial p preceding the chief accent of the are salient points which mark the outline of his thought. Baader word also appears as b in English and the other members of the

starts from the position that human reason by itself can never reach

the end it aims at, and maintains that we cannot throw aside the same group. It is not certain that any English word is descended presuppositions of faith, church and tradition. His point of view from an original word beginning with b, though it has been may be described as Scholasticism; for, like the scholastic doctors, suggested that peg is of the same origin as the Latin baculum he believes that theology and philosophy are not opposed sciences, and the Greek Bártpor. When the lips are not tightly closed revelation. But in his attempt to draw still closer the realms of

but that reason has to make clear the truths given by authority and the sound produced is not a stop, but a spirant like the English faith and knowledge he approaches more nearly to the mysticism 2. In Late Latin there was a tendency to this spirant pro- of Eckhart, Paracelsus and Boehme. Our existence depends on the munciation which appears as early as the beginning of the 2nd fact that we are cognized by God (cogitor ergo cogito et sum). All century A.D.; by the 3rd century b and consonantal u are in- ledge is never mere scientia, it is invariably con-scientia—a knowing atricably confused. When this consonantal u (English was seen with consciousness of, or participation in God. Baader's philosophy in words borrowed very early from Latin like wall and wine) | is thus essentially a theosophy, God is not to be conceived as mere passed into the sound of English. (labio-dental) is not certain, abstract Being. (substantia), but as everlasting process, activity but Germanic words borrowed into Latin in the 5th century A.D.

(actus). Of this process, this self-generation of God, we may dis

tinguish two aspects—the immanent or esoteric, and the emanent have in their Latin representation gu- for Germanic w-, guisa or exoteric. God has reality only in so far as He is absolute spirit, corresponding to English wise and reborrowed indirectly as guise. and only in so far as the primitive will is conscious of itself can it The earliest form of the name of the symbol which we can

become spirit at all. But in this very cognition of self is involved the reach is the Hebrew beth, to which the Phoenician must have

distinction of knower and known, from which proceeds the power

to become spirit. This immanent process of self-consciousness, been closely akin, as is shown by the Greek Bîra, which is wherein indeed a trinity of persons is not given but only rendered borrowed from it with a vowel affixed.

(P. G1.) possible, is mirrored in, and takes place through, the eternal and BAADER, FRANZ XAVER VON (1765-1841), German impersonal idea or wisdom of God, which exists beside, though not philosopher and theologian, born on the 27th of March 1765 at is given to this divine Ternar, as Baader calls it, through nature, the

distinct from, the primitive will. Concrete reality or personality Munich, was the third son of F. P. Baader, court physician to the principle of self-hood, of individual being, which is eternally and elector of Bavaria. His brothers were both distinguished-the necessarily produced by God. Only in nature is the trinity of persons elder, Clemens, as an author; the second, Joseph (1763-1835), as

attained. These processes, it must be noticed, are not to be conceived an engineer. Franz studied medicine at Ingolstadt and Vienna, sub specie aeternitatis, as the necessary elements or moments in the

as successive, or as taking place in time; they are to be looked at and for a short time assisted his father in his practice. This life sell-evolution of the divine Being. Nor is nature to be confounded be soon found uncongenial, and decided on becoming a mining with created substance, or with matter as it exists in space and time; engineer. He studied under Abraham Gottlob Werner at it is pure non-being, the mere otherness (alterilas) of God-his shadow, Freiberg, travelled through several of the mining districts in Creation, itself a free and non-temporal act of God's love and will,

desire, want, or desiderium sui, as it is called by mystical writers. Dorth Germany, and for four years, 1792-1796, resided in 'cannot be speculatively deduced, but must be accepted as an historic fact. Created beings were originally of three orders-the intelligent (God) was regarded as equivalent to Baal; cf. also the name or angels: the non-intelligent natural existences; and man, who Be'aliah, “ Yahweh is bacl or lord,” which survives in 1 Chron. with freedom; it is possible, but not necessary, that they should xii. s. However, when the name Baal was exclusively approprifall. Hence the fact of the fall is not a speculative but an historicated to idolatrous worship (cf. Hos. ii. 16 seq.), abhorrence for truth. The angels sell through pride-through desire to raise them. the unholy word was marked by writing bösheth (shameful level of nature. Only after the fall of man begins the creation of thing) for baal in compound proper names, and thus we get the space, time and matter, or of the world as we now know it; and the

usual forms Ishbosheth, Mephibosheth. motive of this creation was the desire to afford man an opportunity The great difñculty which has been felt by investigators in for taking advantage of the scheme of redemption, for bringing forth determining the character and attributes of the god Baal mainly in purity the image of God according to which he has been fashioned.

arises from the original appellative sense of the word, and The physical philosophy and anthropology which Baader, in connexion with this, unfolds in various works, is but little instructive, many obscure points become clear if we remember that when a and coincides in the main with the utterances of Boehme. In nature title becomes a proper name it may be appropriated by different and in man he finds traces of the dire effects of sin, which has peoples to quite distinct deities. Baal being originally a title, corrupted both and has destroyed their natural harmony. As and not a proper name, the innumerable baals could be distinof morals. Not obedience to a moral law, but realization in ourselves guished by the addition of the name of a place or of some special of the divine life is the true ethical end. But man has lost the power attribute. Accordingly, the baals are not to be regarded to effect this by himself; he has alicnated himself from God, and necessarily as local variations of one and the same god, like the therefore no ethical theory which neglects the facts of sin and re. demption is satisfactory or even possible. The history of man and

many Virgins or Madonnas of Catholic lands, but as distinct of humanity is the history of the redeeming love of God. The means

numina. Each community could speak of its own baal, although whereby we put ourselves so in relation with Christ as to receive a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, of the church; mere works are never sufficient. Man in his social baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated. from Him his healing virtue are chiefly prayer and the sacraments and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual relations is under two great institutions. One is temporal, natural

The Baal, as the head of each worshipping group, is the source and limited--the state; the other is eternal, cosmopolitan and universal--the church. In the state two things are requisite: first, of all the gifts of nature (cf. Hos. ii. & seq., Ezek. xvi. 19); as common submission to the ruler, which can be secured or given only the god of fertility all the produce of the soil is his, and his when the state is Christian, for God alone is the true ruler of men; adherents bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He is the and, secondly, inequality of rank, without which there can be no organization. A despouism of mere power and liberalism, which patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the “uncontrolled naturally produces socialism, are equally objectionable. The ideal use of analogy characteristic of early thought,” the Baal is the state is a civil community ruled by a universal or Catholic church, god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating the principles of which are equally distinct from mere passive pietism, probably, in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains or faith which will know nothing, and from the Protestant doctrine, and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, baalism which is the very radicalism of reason.

Baader is, without doubt, among the greatest speculative theo. becomes identical with the grossest nature-worship. Joined with logians of modern Catholicism, and his influence has extended itself the baals there are naturally found corresponding female figures even beyond the precincts of his own church.. Among those whom known as Ashtāroth, embodiments of Ashtoreth (see ASTARTE; he influenced were R. Rothe, Julius Müller and Hans L. Markensen.

His works were collected and published by a number of his Ishtar). In accordance with primitive notions of analogy, adherents--F. Hoffman, J. Hamberger, E. v. Schaden, Lutterbeck, which assume that it is possible to control or aid the powers of von Osten-Sacken and Schlüter-Baader's sämmtliche Werke nature by the practice of “sympathetic magic" (see Magic), the (16 vols., 1851-1860). Valuable introductions by the editors are pre- cult of the baals and Ashtaroth was characterized by gross fixed to the several volumes. Vol. xv. contains a full biography: yol. xvi. an index, and an able sketch of the whole system by sensuality and licentiousness. The fragmentary allusions to Lutterbeck. See F. Hoffmann, Vorhalle zur spekulativen Lehre the cult of Baal Peor (Num. xxv., Hos. ix. 10, Ps. cvi. 28 seq.) Baader's (1836); Grundzüge der Societats-Philosophie Franz Baader's exemplify the typical species of Dionysiac orgies that prevailed.. (1837); Philosophische Schriften (3 vols., 1868-1872); Die Weltalter on the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the (1868): Biographie und Briefwechsel (Leipzig, 1887); J, Hamberger: givers of increase, and “under every green trce” was practised begriffe von F. B.'s Elhik, Politik, u. Religions-Philosophie (1858); the licentiousness which in.primitive thought was held to secure J. A. B. Lutterbeck, Philosophische Standpunkte Baaders (1854): | abundance of crops (see Frazer, Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. ii. pp. Baaders Lehre vom Weltgebäude (1866). "The most satisfactory -04 sqq.), Human sacrifice (Jer. xix. 5), the burning of incense Phil. iii. 2, pp. 583-636; J. Claassen, Franz von Baaders Leben und (Jer. vii. 9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of Theosophische Werke (Stuttgart, 1886-1887), and Franz von Baaders bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear Gedanken über Staat und Gesellschaft (Gütersloh, 1890); Otto among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and Pfleiderer, Philosophy of Religion (vol. ii., Eng; trans. 1887); R. show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characterFalckenberg, llistory of Philosophy, pp. 472-475 (trans. A. C. Armstrong, New York, 1893); Reichel

, Die Sozietätsphilosophie Franz istic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts v. Baaders (Tübingen, 1901): Kuno Fischer, Zur hundertjährigen of the Semitic world, although attached to other names. Geburtstagseier Beaders (Erlangen, 1865).

By an casy transition the local gods of the streams and springs BAAL, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with or inhabitant, and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of * Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g. looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, dic., are frequent; see G. B. Gray, Heb. to express the relation of a husband to his wife and of the deity Judg. ix. 4, 46) is usually interpreted to be the Baal or God of the to his worshipper. In the latter usage it indicated not that the

covenant, but whether of covenants in general or of a particular god was the lord of the worshipper, but rather the possessor of, covenant concluded at Shechem is disputed. The Baluapaws (near or ruler in, some place or district. In the Old Testament it is Beirut) apparently presided over dancing; another compound (in regularly written with the article, i.e. " the Baal”; and the baals Cyprus) seems to represent a Baal of healing. On the “ Baal of

flies " see BEELZEBUB. of different tribes or sanctuaries were not necessarily conceived

• The general analogy shows itsell further in the idea of the deity as identical, so that we find frequent mention of Baalim, or as the husband (ba'al) of his worshippers or of the land in which they rather the Baalim " in the plural. That the Israelites even dwell. The Astarte of Gabal (Byblus) was regularly known as the applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the ba clath (fem. of baal), her real name not being pronounced (perhaps

out of reverence). occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one

* See further Clermont-Ganneau, Pal. Explor. Fund Quarl. Stat.. of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, : Chron. xiv. 7). 1901, pp. 239, 369 sqq.; Büchler, Rev. ` d'études juives, 1901. The last name appears in 2 Sam. v. 16 as Eliada, showing that El PP: 125 seq.

The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into Cf. its use as a noun of relation, e.g. a ba'al of hair, "a hairy purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh. man (2 Kings i. 8), b. of wings," a winged creature," and in the The sacred cakes of Astarte and old holy wells associated with her plural, b. of arrows, archers” (Gen. xlix. 23), b. of oath, cult were later even transferred to the worship of the Virgin (Ency, spirators" (Neh. vi. 18).

Bib. col. 3993; Rouvier, in Bull. Aqchéol., 1900, p. 170).


the common source of all streams, and proceeding along this line | whose protection he still cherished when he named his sons it was possible for the numerous baals to be regarded eventually Ahaziah and Jehoram (“ Yah(weh) holds," “ Y. is high "). as rere forms of one absolute deity. Consequently, the Baal The antagonism of Elijah was not against Baalism in general, could be identified with some supreme power of nature, c.8. the but against the introduction of a rival deity. But by the time heavens, the sun, the weather or some planet. The particular of Hosca (ii. 16 seq.) a further advance was marked, and the use line of development would vary in different places, but the change of the term “Baal ” was felt to be dangerous to true religion. from an association of the Baal with earthly objects to heavenly Thus there gradually grew up a tendency to avoid the term, is characteristic of a higher type of belief and appears to be and in accordance with the idea of Ex. xxiii. 13, it was replaced relatively later. The idea which has long prevailed that Baal by the contemptuous bösheth, "shame” (see above). However, was properly a sky.god affords no explanation of the local the books of Deuteronomy and Jeremiah (cf. also Zeph. i. 4) character of the many baals; on the other hand, on the theory afford complete testimony for the prevalence of Baalism as late of a higher development where the gods become heavenly or as the exile, but prove that the clearest distinction was then astral beings, the fact that ruder conceptions of nature were drawn between the pure worship of Yahweh the god of Israel still retained (often in the unofficial but more popular forms of and the inveterate and debased cults of the gods of the land. cult) is more intelligible.

(See further HEBREW RELIGION; PROPHET.) A specific Baal of the heavens appears to have been known BIBLIOGRAPHY.-W. Robertson Smith, Relig. Semites, 2nd ed. pp. anong tlie Hittites in the time of Rameses II., and considerably 93-113 (against his theory of the introduction of Baal among the Arabs Later, at the beginning of the 7th century, it was the title of one

See M, 1: Lagrange, Études d. relig. sem. pp. 83-98). For the reading

in the Amarna tablets (Palestine, about 1400 B.C.) see of the gods of Phoenicia. In Babylonia, from a very early Knudtzon, Bei!r. 2. Assyriol. (1901), PP: 320 seq., 415: other cunei. period, Baal became a definite individual deity, and was identified form evidence in E. Schrader's Keilinsch. u. Alle Test. 3rd ed. p. 357 with the planet Jupiter. This development is a mark of superior (by H. Zimmern; see also his Index, sub voce). On Baal-Shamem culture and may have been spread through Babylonian influence. (B. of the heavens) M. Lidzbarski's monograph (Ephemeris, i. 243

260, ii. 120) is invaluable, and this work, with his Handbuch d. nord. Both Baal and Astarte were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and

semit. Epigraphik, contains sull account of the epigraphical material. Memphis in the XIXth Dynasty, and the former, through the See Bacthgen, Beitr. 2. semit. Religionsgesch. pp. 17-32; also the intuence of the Aramacans who borrowed the Babylonian articles on Baal by E. Meyer in Roscher's Lexikon, and G. F. Moore spelling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Bēlos who

in Ency. Bib. (On Beltane fires and other apparent points of con

nexion with Baal it may suffice to refer to Aug. Fick, Vergleich. vas identified with Zeus.

Wörterbuch, who derives the element bel from an old Celtic root of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart meaning shining, &c.)

(W. R. S.; S. A. C.) (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles. BAALBEK (anc. Heliopolis), a town of the Buka'a (Coelesyria), but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts altitude 3850 st., situated E. of the Litani and near the parting in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards. He had a magni. Scent temple in insular Tyre, founded by Hiram, to which gifts between its waters and those of the Asi. Pop. about 5000, streamed from all countries, especially at the great fcasts. The including 2000 Metawali and 1000 Christians (Maronite and solar character of this deity appears especially in the annual feast | Orthodox). Since 1902 Baalbek has been connected by railway of kis awakening shortly after the winter solstice (Joseph. C. Apion, with Rayak (Rejak) on the Beirut-Damascus line, and since 1907 i 18). At Tyre, as among the Hebrews, Baal had his symbolical with Aleppo. It is famous for its temple ruins of the Roman phantasy to the farthest west, are still familiar to us as the Pillars of period, before which we have no record of it, certain though it be Hercules The worship of the Tyrian Baal was carried to all the that Heliopolis is a translation of an earlier native name, in which Phoenician colonies. His name occurs as an element in Cartha; Baal was an element. It has been suggested, but without good ginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c.), and a tablet found at Marscilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the reason, that this name was the Baalgad of Josh. xi. 17. priests of the temple of Baal for offering sacrifices.

Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the in which Trajan consulted the oracle.

ist century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the present buildings, however, dates from Antoninus Pius, and their

The foundation of the prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local dedication from Septimius Severus, whose coins first show the nature god; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized before the reigns of Caracalla and Philip. In commemoration, no

two temples. The great courts of approach were not finished to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Later religious doubt, of the dedication of the new sanctuaries, Severus conferred practice was undoubtedly opposed to that of earlier times, and the jus Italicum on the city. The greater of the two temples was attempts were made to correct narratives containing views of Yahweh. The Old Testament depicts the history of the people lesser temple was built in honour of Bacchus (not the Sun, as which had come to be regarded as contrary to the true worship sacred to Jupiter (Baal), identified with the Sun, with whom

were associated Venus and Mercury as σύμβωμοι θεοί. . The as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent formerly believed). Jupiter-Baal was represented locally as a penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this beardless god in long scaly drapery, holding a whip in his right Eves effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise hand and lightning and ears of corn in his left. Two bulls character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine. This is still under dispute. There is

In this guise he passed into European worship

supported him. strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are Heliopolitan worship is often animadverted upon by early

in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. The extreme licence of the coatrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between

Christian writers, and Constantine, making an effort to curb the walive Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that

Venus cult, built a basilica. Theodosius erected another, with only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Dioses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh

western apse, in the main court of the Jupiter temple.

When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place after the worship existed from his day. The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage city and yielded a rich booty. It became a bone of contention

Moslem capture of Damascus (A.D. 635), it was still an opulent sith Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult

. In honour of his wife's god, the king, following between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of the example of Solomon, erected a temple to the Tyrian Baal

Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great (see above). This, however, did not prevent him from remaining slaughter, In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to a follower of Yahweh, whose prophets he still consulted, and Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus

and was captured by Saladin in 1175. The Crusaders raided its ' The sanctuary of Heracles at Daphne near Antioch was properly valley more than once, but never took the city. Three times that of the Semitic Baal, and at Amathus Jupiter Hospes takes the shaken by earthquake in the 12th century, it was dismantled by place of Heracles or Malika, in which the 'Tyrian Melkart is to be recognized (W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. 2nd ed. pp. 178, 376). See Hulagu in 1200. But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem further PHOENICIA.

mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the

« PreviousContinue »