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nakeshift. Moreover, unless the whole system of communication vith the coast is thus changed, the expenses of maintenance of Commissioner in Uganda with a sufficient staff and force must be but of all proportion to the work to be done by him. I do not for a moment imagine that under the general surveillance of a Commissioner appointed by Her Majesty's Government there is likely to be a recurrence of the regrettable incidents or of the unfortunate state of affairs which so increased the difficulties of the Company's position as eventually to lead to their withdrawal; but it must not be forgotten that so long as we rely on the present system of communication and transport, letters and reports from Uganda will seldom reach England in less than four months, and eight months must elapse before written instructions can be received in reply. This throws an unnecessarily heavy responsibility on the Commissioner; and, in the event of some complication arising, either by war or sickness, which might necessitate reinforcements of his staff or of his force, the difficulties at present in the way of communicating with the coast would be sufficient completely to unhinge the whole system which I have endeavoured to describe. Other arguments which may be adduced in favour of the construction of a railway are well known, and need not be repeated here.

I do not, however, consider it necessary that such a railway should be made at once the whole way to the lake; it would, I think, be sufficient for the present that it should be laid from the coast to Kikuyu. This, together with the small steam-boats on the lake, would shorten the time occupied by a caravan travelling from Mombasa to Uganda from eighty or ninety days, as at present, to thirty-two or thirty-four days, and would enable us to reduce the carriage of goods, now costing for transport about 81. per load of 65 lbs. by the English road, and 41. 108. by the German road, to such a price as would effectively secure all the commerce of these regions. If this scheme is entertained, Zanzibar could fairly be asked to bear a share in its expense, assuming that the Snltan's Government has re-entered into the possession of the coast-line leased to the Company.

The additional Estimates which I now have the honour to inclose (Inclosures No. 5 and No. 6) show that the execution of the whole of this scheme, including the railway, should not, even at first, cost Her Majesty's Government more than 50,0001. a-year, a suin which may be confidently expected to decrease ay each succeeding year augments the commerce of the country, the amount derived from customs duties and from other sources, and the traffic receipts of the railway.

If

, however, Her Majesty's Government consider the railway proposals, even tbus modified, to be impracticable, it will then become necessary, as I have already suggested, to make more complete provision for the safety and efficiency of the administration to be left in Uganda, and for preventing the diversion in other directions of the trade which is essential to the existence of that country. For this purpose I would recommend that not only should our control over the Victoria Nyanza be strengthened by the addition to the steam-launches already proposed of a larger steamer capable of patrolling the whole of the lake in all weathers, but that at least one similar steamer with one or two attendant steam-launches should at once be placed on Lake Albert. By this means alone, in the absence of any railway, could we be relieved from constant anxiety as to the position of affairs in Uganda.

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The Estimates would, in this case, be reduced by 20,0001. a-fear, being the estimated net loss incurred by the railway, but would, on the other hand, be increased by 2,8001. a-year for the up-keep of the steamers, and by an immediate ontlay of 9,0001. for the purchase of the vessels, and 37,5001. for their transport to the lakes. It is evident that, in this case, Zanzibar could hardly be asked to contribute anything to a scheme which would confer no appreciable benefit to her own commerce.

Briefly then, if the railway scheme is admitted, the cost to Her Majesty's Government would be 50,0001. a-year, plus an initial out!ay of 8,5001. for the purchase and transport of two small steamlaunches, while the alternative scheme would entail the expenditure of 32,8001. a-year plus the immediate outlay of some 55,0001. for the purchase and conveyance of two steam-boats and three or four steam-launches. I annex a short Memorandum (Inclosure No. 7) which shows the calculations by which I have arrived at this rough estimate.

I venture to submit to your Lordship that the scheme of which I have endeavoured to trace the outline above, or one similar to it, is the only solution of the whole question which can be looked upon as final, and that its moderate cost to Her Majesty's Government is more than outweighed by the advantages which it will confer upon British commerce, upon the British Protectorate of Zanzibar, and upon all the countries situated within the British sphere of influence in East Africa.

I have, &c.,

G. H. PORTAL

(Inclosure 1.)-Bishop Tucker to Sir G. Portal.

Namirembe, Buganda, DEAR SIR GERALD PORTAL,

March 30, 1893. SHOULD Her Majesty's Government decline to undertake the expense and responsibility involved in the administration of this

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antry, it is my firm conviction that the consequences that must evitably ensue would be most disastrous. In my opinion, nothing der such circumstances) could possibly be looked for but imediate disorder, anarchy, and bloodshed.

1. There are, as you know, three latent conflicting forces at the resent time in Buganda—the English, French, and Mahommedan arties. The moment the present controlling power is withdrawn, bese forces will start into life and come into immediate collision. The result will be that the lives of the missionaries will be endanered, if not actually sacrificed (it is utterly impossible for us to vithdraw), and the work of the Mission wrecked.

2. The English (or so-called Protestant) party will stand strictly on the defensive, but it will, in all probability, have to meet the attacks of both the French (or so-called Roman Catholic) and Mabommedan parties.

3. Should the latter party ally itself with Kabarega of Bunyoro and the Nubians of Toro-a not at all unlikely contingency under the circumstances—they would sweep everything before them, and the whole population, whether Protestant, Roman Catholic, or heathen, would be dominated by a Power wbich would mean the practical enslavement of the people, and the effacement of all the civilizing influences at present at work in the country.

I remain, &c.,

ALFRED, Bishop, E. Eq. Africa.

(Inclosure 2.)— Mgr. Ilirth to Sir G. Portal.

M. LE CONSUL-GÉNÉRAL, Mission de Rubaga, le 27 Avril, 1893.

En réponse à votre honorée du 24, où vous me demandez ce que serait l'effet dans ce pays d'une évacuation complète des troupes et des officiers Anglais, je n'hésite pas à affirmer que cette évacuation me paraît préjudiciable aux vrais intérêts de ces régions.

Des circonstances qu'il ne m'appartient pas ici d'apprécier ont réuni dans ces pays depuis quelques années tant d'animosités et d'éléments de guerre, que le départ des Européens me paraîtrait le signal aussitôt de nouveaux conflits, bien plus graves que ceux du passé.

Les lois de liberté que vous venez de proclamer, M. le ConsulGénéral, resteraient évidemment lettre morte, si on laissait les Dègres libres de s'exterminer avec les armes qui leur arrivent de tous les côtés.

C'est l'anarchie qui a régné jusqu'ici parmi les Noirs qui a été cause de leur profonde dégradation morale, bien plus que l'infériorité de leur nature.

Pour les relever, il faut donc faire cesser leurs (1892-93. xuv.]

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divisions : nul doute qu'une Puissance Européenne, également respectueuse des droits de chacun, puisse seule nous procurer ce bienfait.

C'est là mon humble sentiment, heureux si je puis contribuer pour une faible part au moins au progrès de ces pays.

Veuillez, &c.,
+ J. HIRTH, des Missions d'Alger,

Év. de Théreste, Vic. Ap. du Nyanza.

[Inclosures 3 to 7: Estimates, General Abstracts, c.]

CONVENTION between Her Majesty the Queen Regent of

Spain and His Majesty the King of Denmark, for the Regelation of the Commercial and Maritime Relations between Spain and Denmark.---Signed at Madrid, July 4, 1893.

[Ratifications exchauged at Copenhagen, August 10, 1894.]

(Translation.)

HER Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her august son His Majesty Don Alfonso XIII, and His Majesty the King of Denmark, equally animated by the ties of friendship which unite both States, and desiring to facilitate and extend the commercial and maritime relations between both countries have resolved to celebrate a Convention to this effect and have appointed their Plenipotentiaries:

Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her august son His Majesty Don Alfonso XIII, Don Segismundo Moret y Prendergast, Deputy to the Cortes, Grand Cross of Charles III, of the Dannebrog of Denmark, of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Italy, of the Legion of Honour of France, of the Osmanié of Turkey, of the Red Eagle of Germany, Professor of the University of Madrid, &c., Minister of State ;

His Majesty the King of Denmark, M. Johan Henrik de Hegermann Lindencrone, Chamberlain, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Commander of the First Class of the Order of Dannebrog, decorated with the Cross of Honour of the said Order, Grand Cross of the Polar Star of Sweden, of the Crown of Italy, of Christ of Portugal, &c.;

Who, having exchanged their full powers in due and valid form, have agreed on the following Articles :

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ART. I. There shall be reciprocal liberty of commerce between ain and Denmark.* The subjects of each High Contracting rty will have the right to free exercise of their religion in the rritory of the other according to the laws of the respective untries.

II. The subjects of the High Contracting Parties will be able to ispose at pleasure, by donation, sale, exchange, will, or in any other anner, of all property they may possess in the respective territories, od to entirely withdraw their capital from the country. In like anner the subjects of one of the two States capable of inheriting roperty situated in the other will be able to take possession of the roperty that may fall to them, either by will or ab intestato, on omplying with the formalities prescribed by law, and the said heirs vill not be liable to pay other or higher succession dues than those which would be imposed in similar cases on the subjects of the ountry itself.

III. The subjects of the High Contracting Parties will not be subject respectively to any embargo, or to be retained with their ships, crews, carriages, or merchandize of any description, for any military expedition nor for any public service without there be granted to those interested an indemnity previously agreed upon.

They will, however, be liable to be requisitioned for carriages; but in such cases they will have a right to official indemnity equal to that fixed by the competent authority in each province or locality for their own subjects.

IV.* The objects of Danish origin and manufacture, enumerated in Table A annexed to the present Convention, will not be subject, on entering Spain, when imported direct by land or by sea, to pay other or higher customs dues than those to which similar products coming from or manufactured in any other country are liable.

V.* Articles of Spanish origin and manufacture, specified in Table B attached to the present Agreement, will not be subject, on entering Denmark when imported direct by sea or land, to pay other or higher duties than those paid on similar products coming from or manufactured in any other country. The Regulations respecting arms and munitions of war are subject to the laws and ordinances of the respective States.

VI. Spain and Denmark mutually guarantee that no other country shall enjoy more advantageous treatment in anything relating to articles of consumption, deposit, or re-exportation, transit, transhipment of merchandize and commerce in general.

It is likewise agreed that codfish imported direct from a Danish port into Spain will not be liable to the obligation of being accompanied by a certificate of origin.

* See Final Protocol, page 871.

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