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JOINT WRONGSContinued.

contribution, when parties may have as between themselves,
170-172.

between corporators and partners, 173.
wrongs suffered in wrong doing, 174–183.

in general no remedy for, 174–183.
in case of malicious prosecution, 217.

by trespassing animals, 409.
JOINT WRONG-DOERS,

in cases of fraud, 591, 592.

in cases of negligence, 824, 825.
JOINT CONTRACTORS,

only liable jointly, 154.
JUDGES OF ELECTION,

liability of to private suits, 482–486.
JUDGMENT,

in trover, change of property by, 537.

against wrong-doers, when a bar to further action, 157-162.
JUDICIAL LEGISLATION,

meaning of, 12, 18.
condemnation of by some writers, 17.

necessity for, 13, 18, 19.
JUDICIAL OFFICERS,
not liable to private suits, 472–497.
rule applies to those of all grades, 478.

to military and naval officers, 479,
to grand and petit jurors, 479.
to assessors, 479.
to commissioners for appraising damages, 479.
to highway officers, 479.
to boards of claims, 480.
to arbitrators, 480.

to collectors of customs, 480.
inferior, may be liable for malicious action, 480, 481.
having charge of elections, liability of, 482-486.
liable if they proceed without jurisdiction, 486-492
cannot act where interested, 492-493.

punishment of contempts by, 493–497.
JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS,

privileged publication of, 257.
JUDICIAL TRIBUNALS,

purpose in establishing, 1.

occasions for action, constantly increase, 1, 2.
JURISDICTION,

want of renders process void, 199.
obtained by abuse of process, 221, 222.
what it consists in, 487.
necessity for in case of judicial action, 486.
inferior courts must show, 488.
disproving, 488.

JURISDICTION-Continued.

proof of sometimes rests in parol, 489.
error of judge in respect to, 489, 490.
can be none where judge interested, 492.
to punish for contempt, 493-497.
of military authorities, 352-354.

of courts martial, 353.
JURORS,

not liable to private suits, 479.
JUSTICE OF THE PEACE,

may punish for contempt, 493-497.
not liable for judicial action, 472–497.
liable for neglect of ministerial duty, 445.

for refusal to issue summons, etc., 445.
JUSTIFICATION,

under process, rules of 537-553.

K.

KANSAS,

action for causing injury by sale of liquors in, 291.

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LABOR,

right to, 325–333.
LABORERS,

good faith and integrity required of, 777.
LAKES AND PONDS,

boundaries on, 377, 378.
LAND CONTRACT,

possession under, 384,
LANDLORD,

when liable for nuisance on leased grounds, 723-729.

when not entitled to fixtures, 501-506.
LANDLORD AND TENANT,

trespass by landlord, 384, 385.
waste by tenant,

SEE WASTE
LANDS,

right to exclusive possession of, 53.
entry on to obtain goods, 53-58.
entry on to re-possess, 379-383.

SEE NUISANCE; REAL PROPERTY; TRESPASS.
LATERAL SUPPORT,

removal of, 706.
LAW, QUESTION OF,

whether negligence is a, 800-806.

LAWFUL ACTS,

are never wrongs, 93, 830.
LEGAL ADVISERS,
obligations of when not licensed, 619.

See COUNSEL.
LEGISLATIVE DUTIES,

failure in will not support action, 443.
LEGISLATOR,

privilege of, 250.

publication of speeches of, 258.
LETTER CARRIER,

liability of to private suits, 227, 459.
LETTERS,

private, publication of, 420.
restraining publication, 420, 421.

property in as autographs, 423.
LIABILITY,

not often dependent on motive, 830-837,
LIBEL

definition of, 225.
publication, what is, 227.

innocent receipt and delivery of a letter is not, 227.
all are libelers who upite in making, 227.
by agent for principal, 227, 228.
by attorney for client, 228.

in newspaper, responsibility for, 228.
contrasted with slander, 239, 240.
what publications actionable per se, 240–243.
what are actionable on proof of damage, 242.
truth a defense in civil suits, 243.

what evidence sufficient to establish, 243-245.
construction of words, 244.
malice an ingredient in, 245.
what publications privileged, 246, 247.

See PRIVILEGE OF THE PRESS.
repeating, 259.
liability of corporation for, 138, 139.
of an author's works, 419.

instances of special injury from,
LIBERTY. See CIVIL LIBERTY, POLITICAL LIBERTY, RELIGIOUS LIBERTS
LICENSE,

to enter upon lands, 356.
when implied, 53, 356.
to enter, under what circumstances to be exercised, 54-56.
express, is not an interest in lands, 357.
may be given on condition, 357.
is personal between the parties, 357.
revocation of by sale, 357.

by neglect to act upon it, 357.
by express act, 358.

LICENSE-Continued.

payment of consideration does not prevent, 358.
coupled with an interest, what is, 359.

not subject to revocation, 359.
when writing required for, 360.
to erect buildings, how far revocable, 360–361.
to flow lands, whether revocable, 361-367.
may be by parol or in writing, 362.
given by the law to enter private grounds, 367.

to extinguish fire, 368.
when bighway is out of repair, 368.
to make surveys for railroads, 368.
to perform official duties, 368-369.
to serve process, 369.
to abate a nuisance, 371.

abuse of, makes one trespasser ab initis, 371, 372.
LICENSES,

right of State to require, 327.
LICENSOR,

assumes no duties to licensee, 358.
LIEN,

of innkeeper, 761.
LIFE,

how protected formerly, 24-26.
no common law action for taking, 27.

statutory action for taking, 14, 15, 28, 307-324.
LIGHT,

common law easement of, 832, 833.
LIQUORS,
nuisance of sale of, 717, 718.

See INTOXICATING DRINKS.
LITERARY PRODUCTIONS,

rights of authors in, 413-423.
LIVE STOCK,

responsibility of common carrier for, 765.
LOCALITY OF WRONGS.

rules of, 551-553.
LORD CAMPBELL'S ACT,

giving remedy for causing death, 307–324.
LUGGAGE,

responsibility of innkeeper for, 761.
lien of inokeeper upon, 761.

liability of common carrier for, 769, 770.
LUNATICS,

imprisonment of, 204–207.

M.
MACHINERY,

injuries from explosions of, 92.
communicatiog fires by, 702.
jar of, when a nuisance, 712.

liability of master for injuries from, 650–658.
MAGISTRATE,

liable for issuing void process, 547.

See JUDICIAL OFFICERS; JUSTICE OF THE PEACE.
MAINE

action for injury by sale of liquors in, 292.
MALICE,

in instituting criminal prosecutions, 214, 215.
in instituting civil suits, 217.
an ingredient in libel and slander, 245.
meaning of, 245, 835.
presumption of, 245, 260.

importance of in torts, 830_837.
MALICIOUS ABUSE OF PROCESS,

actions for, 220, 221.
MALICIOUS CIVIL SUITS,

are not in general the ground of an action, 217-220.
malicious institution of proceedings in bankruptcy is, 217.
malicious arrest may be, 219.
malicious attachments may be, 218, 219.

or malicious proceedings to have one adjudged insane, 219.

or malicious proceedings before land commissioner, 219.
MALICIOUS PROSECUTION,

nature of the wrong, 207.
right of every person to institute suits, 208.

conditions to this, 208.
probable cause, necessity for, 209.

what it is, 210.
mistakes in, not necessarily actionable, 210, 211.
must have existed when proceedings instituted, 211.
advice of counsel respecting, 211-213.
burden of proof respecting, 213.

what proves or disproves, 213, 214.
malice, plaintiff must show, 214.

inference of from want of probable cause, 214.

what it consists in, 215.
prosecution must end before suit for instituting it, 215-217.

what is end of, 215.
joint liability for, 217.
witness, when may be liable for, 817.
in civil cases, 217-220.

by husband and wife, 133.
MANURE,

when sale of is waste, 395.

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